"The temple, built by Ramses II on the steep face of a cliff overlooking the Nile, has a facade containing four enthroned colossi of the Pharaoh. These gigantic statues, each about 65 feet high, are cut out of the solid rock. The interior chambers of the temple reach a depth of nearly 200 feet."—Webster, 1913

Rock Temple at Abu-Simbel

"The temple, built by Ramses II on the steep face of a cliff overlooking the Nile, has a facade containing…

Built by Seti I and completed by his son Ramses II. The pillars in this temple contain carvings of very fine quality.

The Temple of Abydos

Built by Seti I and completed by his son Ramses II. The pillars in this temple contain carvings of very…

The coin of the ancient city Acanthus in Egypt.

Coin of Acanthus

The coin of the ancient city Acanthus in Egypt.

An example of Egyptian agriculture.  1, the reapers; 2, reaper drinking from cup; 3, 4, Gleaners - the first of which ask the reapers for a drink; 5, carrying the ears in a rope basket - showing the ears have been cut off; 8, winnowing; 9-11, the tritura, answering to our thrashing; 12, drinking from a water-skin suspended from a tree; 14, scribe who notes the number of bushels in heap; 16, checking the account by noting those taken away to the granary.

Agriculture

An example of Egyptian agriculture. 1, the reapers; 2, reaper drinking from cup; 3, 4, Gleaners - the…

Akhnaton was a Pharaoh of Egypt in the eighteenth dynasty.

Egyptian Pharaoh Akhnaton

Akhnaton was a Pharaoh of Egypt in the eighteenth dynasty.

Alexandria, Pharos Island Lighthouse

Pharos Island Lighthouse

Alexandria, Pharos Island Lighthouse

Sometimes known as Amenhotep III. Ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Egyptian dynasty.

Amenophis III

Sometimes known as Amenhotep III. Ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Egyptian dynasty.

Also known as Akhenaten. Ruled as pharaoh of the Eighteenth Egyptian dynasty for 17 years.

Statue of Amenophis IV

Also known as Akhenaten. Ruled as pharaoh of the Eighteenth Egyptian dynasty for 17 years.

The scaraboeus or beetle appears isolated on mummy-cases and elsewhere, as a symbol of creation and life, and was the commonest of amulets.

Amulet

The scaraboeus or beetle appears isolated on mummy-cases and elsewhere, as a symbol of creation and…

Anubis, the Guide of the Dead.

Anubis

Anubis, the Guide of the Dead.

"An Egyptian deity, styled Anepu on hieroglyphic monuments, was, according to mythology, the son of Osiris and Nephthys. By the Greeks, he was frequently styled Hermes or Hermanubis, combining the Egyptian with the Grecian name. He is represented on monuments as having the head of a jackal, with pointed ears and snout, which the Greeks frequently changed to those of a dog." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Anubus

"An Egyptian deity, styled Anepu on hieroglyphic monuments, was, according to mythology, the son of…

"The bull worshipped by the ancient Egyptians, who regarded it as a symbol of Osiris, the god of the Nile, the husband of Isis, and the great divinity of Egypt. A sacred court or yard was set apart for the residence of Apis in the temple of Ptah at Memphis, where a numerous retinue of priests waited upon him, and sacrifices of red oxen were offered to him." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Apis

"The bull worshipped by the ancient Egyptians, who regarded it as a symbol of Osiris, the god of the…

Also known as Hapis. In mythology, Apis was a commonly worshipped bull-deity in the Memphis region.

The Bull Apis

Also known as Hapis. In mythology, Apis was a commonly worshipped bull-deity in the Memphis region.

"Arabic Architecture.-Tombs of the Califs, Cairo."-Whitney, 1902

Arabic Architecture

"Arabic Architecture.-Tombs of the Califs, Cairo."-Whitney, 1902

An Egyptian ark.

Ark

An Egyptian ark.

An Egyptian sacred ark.

Sacred ark

An Egyptian sacred ark.

An illustration of the Asiatics visiting Egypt.

Asiatics Visiting Egypt

An illustration of the Asiatics visiting Egypt.

"A venomous serpent, the name of which has come down from ancient times; the vague descriptions of ancient authors, however, causing uncertainty as to the species. It is very generally supposed to be the Naja Haje, the El Haje or Haje Nasher of the Arabs, which is very common in Egypt and Cyprus, and often appears in hieroglyphic and other sculptures as one of the sacred animals of ancient Egypt." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Asp

"A venomous serpent, the name of which has come down from ancient times; the vague descriptions of ancient…

"Some of the Egyptian female sports were rather of a hoydenish character, as the game of ball, in one picture of which we are instructed that the loser was obliged to suffer another to ride on her back." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian ball game

"Some of the Egyptian female sports were rather of a hoydenish character, as the game of ball, in one…

"Some of the Egyptian female sports were rather of a hoydenish character, as the game of ball, in one picture of which we are instructed that the loser was obliged to suffer another to ride on her back." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian ball game

"Some of the Egyptian female sports were rather of a hoydenish character, as the game of ball, in one…

"Some of the Egyptian female sports were rather of a hoydenish character, as the game of ball, in one picture of which we are instructed that the loser was obliged to suffer another to ride on her back. Some of these identical balls have been found in the tombs at Thebes." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian ball

"Some of the Egyptian female sports were rather of a hoydenish character, as the game of ball, in one…

"That the Egyptians paid great attention to the study of music and had arrived at a very accurate knowledge of the art, is evident from the instruments which they used." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian band

"That the Egyptians paid great attention to the study of music and had arrived at a very accurate knowledge…

A flat bottomed boat used for transporting goods.

Baris

A flat bottomed boat used for transporting goods.

"Egyptian bas-relief. Ramses III, between Thoth and Horus." —D'Anvers, 1895

Egyptian bas-relief

"Egyptian bas-relief. Ramses III, between Thoth and Horus." —D'Anvers, 1895

"Sign of the king of Lower Egypt; from the coffin of Mykerinos, 1633 B.C." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Bee Heiroglyph

"Sign of the king of Lower Egypt; from the coffin of Mykerinos, 1633 B.C." — The Encyclopedia…

"Many of the dung beetles, among which the Sacred Beetle of the Egyptians, <em>Scarabus Aegyptiorum</em>, holds a prominent place, are remarkable for inclosing their eggs in a small pellet of dung, which they then roll along with their hind-legs, until they drop it into a hole which they have dug for its reception." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Sacred Beetle

"Many of the dung beetles, among which the Sacred Beetle of the Egyptians, Scarabus Aegyptiorum,…

"The Sacred Beetle of Egypt, Ateuchus sacer, somewhat resembles the Dor in form and habits. After depositing her egg on a piece of dung the female rolls the mass about in the sunshine with her forelegs until it forms a rounded ball. The process of hatching is thus accelerated, and a thin hardened crust is formed around the softer material inclosing the egg. A hole is then dug in the earth by means of its powerful forelegs, into which the ball is rolled and then covered over with earth, where it remains until fully developed. Those beetles show great perseverance in conveying the egg-laden pellets to their destination, frequently carrying them over rough ground on the broad flat surface of their heads, and seeking, when unable singly to complete the work, the assistance of their fellows." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Sacred Beetle

"The Sacred Beetle of Egypt, Ateuchus sacer, somewhat resembles the Dor in form and habits. After depositing…

"Among the remarkable inventions of a remote era, may be mentioned bellows and siphons. The former were used as early as the reign of Thothmes the Third, and contemporary of Moses, being represented in a tomb bearing the name of that Pharaoh. They consisted of a leather bag, sewed and fitted into a frame, from which a long pipe extended for carrying the wind to the fire. They were worked by the feet, the operator standing in front of them, with one under each foot, and pressing them alternately, while he pulled up each exhausted skin by a string." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian bellows

"Among the remarkable inventions of a remote era, may be mentioned bellows and siphons. The former were…

"Among the figures painted in the very ancient tomb at Beni Hassan, in Egypt, occurs a group of figures from which the annexed woodcut has been drawn, conjectured to represent the arrival of Joseph's brethren when they went to purchase corn in the land of the Pharaohs." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Beni Hassan

"Among the figures painted in the very ancient tomb at Beni Hassan, in Egypt, occurs a group of figures…

Brawl among Egyptian boatmen. Carving from the tomb of Ptah-hetep during the Pyramid age.

Egyptian Boatmen Fighting

Brawl among Egyptian boatmen. Carving from the tomb of Ptah-hetep during the Pyramid age.

"Two boats moored to the bank of the river by ropes and stakes. In the cabin of one, a man inflicts the bastinado on a boatman. He appears to be one of the stewards of an estate, and is accompanied by his dog. In the other boat is a cow, and a net containing hay or chopped straw." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian boats

"Two boats moored to the bank of the river by ropes and stakes. In the cabin of one, a man inflicts…

Ancient Egyptian building

Building

Ancient Egyptian building

The capital city of Egypt. It is located on the banks and islands of the Nile River in the north of Egypt.

Cairo

The capital city of Egypt. It is located on the banks and islands of the Nile River in the north of…

Figures a and b show the bell-shaped (campaniform) capital. Figure c is a palmiform capital.

Capital Types

Figures a and b show the bell-shaped (campaniform) capital. Figure c is a palmiform capital.

A bell capital with papyrus decoration.

Bell Capital with Papyrus

A bell capital with papyrus decoration.

The Egyptian capital is the upper termination of the column with opened papyrus flowers. It is found in Kom-Ombo an agricultural town in Egypt.

Egyptian Capital

The Egyptian capital is the upper termination of the column with opened papyrus flowers. It is found…

The Egyptian capital is the upper termination of the column with opened papyrus flowers. It is found in Philae an island on the Nile river in Egypt.

Egyptian Capital

The Egyptian capital is the upper termination of the column with opened papyrus flowers. It is found…

This Egyptian capital is the upper termination of the column with cinctured bundles of papyrus stems.

Egyptian Capital

This Egyptian capital is the upper termination of the column with cinctured bundles of papyrus stems.

This Egyptian capital is the upper termination of the column with cinctured bundles of papyrus stems. It is found in Luxor, Egypt.

Egyptian Capital

This Egyptian capital is the upper termination of the column with cinctured bundles of papyrus stems.…

Ptolemaic floral capital from Philae.

Floral Capital

Ptolemaic floral capital from Philae.

Lobed lotus capital from the Theban Oasis.

Lobed Lotus Capital

Lobed lotus capital from the Theban Oasis.

Palm capital from the Temple of Edfu.

Palm Capital

Palm capital from the Temple of Edfu.

An illustration of an Egyptian ivory carving.

Ivory Carving

An illustration of an Egyptian ivory carving.

"The Egyptian chairs of which we have a great variety of representations, were not inferior in elegance to any thing of the kind at the present day." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian chair

"The Egyptian chairs of which we have a great variety of representations, were not inferior in elegance…

"Workman drilling a hole in the seat of a chair." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian chairmaker

"Workman drilling a hole in the seat of a chair." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian War-chariot

Chariot

Egyptian War-chariot

Chephren was an Egyptian pharaoh. His capital was at Memphis.

Egyptian Pharaoh Chephren

Chephren was an Egyptian pharaoh. His capital was at Memphis.

"The game of chess, or draughts."

Egyptian chess

"The game of chess, or draughts."

The Arabian Bas-relief circular panel is a 14th century design found on a door in Cairo, Egypt.

Arabian Bas-Relief Circular Panel

The Arabian Bas-relief circular panel is a 14th century design found on a door in Cairo, Egypt.

Gateway of the Citadel, Cairo

Citadel, Cairo

Gateway of the Citadel, Cairo

(69 B.C.- 30 B.C.) Cleopatra was Queen of Egypt. She had a history with Caesar and went through two dramatic wars.

Cleopatra

(69 B.C.- 30 B.C.) Cleopatra was Queen of Egypt. She had a history with Caesar and went through two…

A coffin or tomb of stone; a kind of stone chest, generally more or less ornamented for receiving a dead body. The oldest known sarcophagi are Egyptian, and have been found in certain pyramids.

Egyptian Sarcophagus

A coffin or tomb of stone; a kind of stone chest, generally more or less ornamented for receiving a…

Campaniform column.

Egyptian Column

Campaniform column.

Lotus-bundle column from the Temple of Thomthmes III, Karnak.

Egyptian Column

Lotus-bundle column from the Temple of Thomthmes III, Karnak.

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Column

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers,…

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Column

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers,…

Egyptian columns had shafts of three types: a) circular or cylindrical, b) clustered, c) polygonal or proto-doric. The first two tapered upward and sometimes had a slight swelling at the base (d).

Column Types

Egyptian columns had shafts of three types: a) circular or cylindrical, b) clustered, c) polygonal or…

"Many columns have capitals representing palm leaves." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Capital of a column

"Many columns have capitals representing palm leaves." —D'Anvers, 1895

Columns

Columns

Columns

"The Egyptian couches were executed in great taste. They were of wood, with one end raised, and receding in a graceful curve; the feet, like those of many of the chairs were fashioned to resemble those of animals." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian couch

"The Egyptian couches were executed in great taste. They were of wood, with one end raised, and receding…