Farmers and soldiers having a foraging party during the Civil War.

Foraging Party

Farmers and soldiers having a foraging party during the Civil War.

Group of people leaving a rural area.

Fugitives Before the Approach of a Hostile Army

Group of people leaving a rural area.

Mill, with a man standing and a man on horseback in the foreground.

Scene of the Battle of Gaines' Mill

Mill, with a man standing and a man on horseback in the foreground.

A disc-harrow.

Disc harrow

A disc-harrow.

A smoothing harrow, which is a good tool for killing weeds and fitting land

Smoothing harrow

A smoothing harrow, which is a good tool for killing weeds and fitting land

A spring-tooth harrow, particularly useful on stony land.

Spring-tooth harrow

A spring-tooth harrow, particularly useful on stony land.

Farm machine that gathers a food crop from the fields

Tea Harvester

Farm machine that gathers a food crop from the fields

Grass cut and dried for fodder.

Hay

Grass cut and dried for fodder.

An illustration of a wagon covered with hay.

Hay Wagon

An illustration of a wagon covered with hay.

An illustration of two hens walking through a field.

Two Hens

An illustration of two hens walking through a field.

A typical single-wheel hoe and cultivator, 1919.

Hoe and Cultivator

A typical single-wheel hoe and cultivator, 1919.

A typical double-wheel hoe and cultivator for straddling the rows, 1919.

Hoe and Cultivator

A typical double-wheel hoe and cultivator for straddling the rows, 1919.

An illustration of a hog.

Hog

An illustration of a hog.

"Hold On. From the drawing by Horace Vernet." -Rees, 1894

Hold On

"Hold On. From the drawing by Horace Vernet." -Rees, 1894

A Clydesdale horse, used for pulling heavy loads.

Draft Horse

A Clydesdale horse, used for pulling heavy loads.

A simple hotbed.

Hotbed

A simple hotbed.

An illustration of a farm house.

House

An illustration of a farm house.

This is the Cock that crowed in the morn, that waked the Priest all shaven and shorn, that married the Man all tattered and torn, that kissed the Maiden all forlorn, that milked the Cow with the crumpled horn, that tossed the Dog, that worried the Cat, that killed the Rat, that ate the malt, that lay in the house that Jack built.

House that Jack Built—Cock

This is the Cock that crowed in the morn, that waked the Priest all shaven and shorn, that married the…

This is the Farmer that sowed the corn, that kept the Cock that crowed in the morn, that waked the Priest all shaven and shorn, that married the Man all tattered and torn, that kissed the Maiden all forlorn, that milked the Cow with the crumpled horn, that tossed the Dog, that worried the Cat, that killed the Rat, that ate the malt, that lay in the house that Jack built.

House that Jack Built—Farmer

This is the Farmer that sowed the corn, that kept the Cock that crowed in the morn, that waked the Priest…

A city house in the country.  A low house would be better suited to sitting alone on a hill.

City house

A city house in the country. A low house would be better suited to sitting alone on a hill.

Jute, also known as Calcutta Hemp, is a fiber obtained from several species of the genus Corchorus of the order Tiliaceæ, and employed in the manufacture of the coarser textiles. The great bulk of the world's supply is derived from two species, C. capsularis and C. olitorius (Jew's Mallow), both of which are indigenous to Bengal, India, where from remote times they have been cultivate for economic purposes. The two species are similar in appearance, but may be distinguished by the form of the seed pods, which are nearly spherical in C. capsularis, and long and narrow in C. olitorius. Both plants are herbaceous annuals with straight, slender stalks from 5 to 15 feet in height, branched at the top, and bearing small yellow flowers. The fiber, which is derived from the inner bark, is of a creamy yellow or light buff color and of a silky luster. It spins well, but is not as strong as flax or hemp, and deteriorates rapidly. The young shoots are used as pot herbs.
Jute is grown chiefly in Bengal, though it is raised to a limited extent in China, Formosa, and Southern Japan. It can be grown successfully in the South Atlantic and Gulf States of the United States, but lack of mechanical methods for preparing the fiber has prevented its cultivation on an industrial scale. Attempts to naturalize it elsewhere have generally failed.
For its most successful cultivation, jute requires a soft, deep soil and a hot, moist atmosphere, alluvial lands being especially adapted to its production.
This illustration shows Corchorus capsularis.

Jute

Jute, also known as Calcutta Hemp, is a fiber obtained from several species of the genus Corchorus of…

A lister, used for planting corn in semi-arid regions.

Lister

A lister, used for planting corn in semi-arid regions.

A machine for cutting down standing grain, usually worked by a pair of horses, the cutting machinery being driven by being connected with the wheels on which the machine is drawn over the field.

Reaping Machine

A machine for cutting down standing grain, usually worked by a pair of horses, the cutting machinery…

A man drinking water from a well.

Man drinking from well

A man drinking water from a well.

An adult male leaning on the bottom of a Dutch door standing at the entrance of a barn.

Man in Barn

An adult male leaning on the bottom of a Dutch door standing at the entrance of a barn.

An illustration of man on a farm with two young boys. He is pointing at a building with a weather vane on top of it.

Man Pointing

An illustration of man on a farm with two young boys. He is pointing at a building with a weather vane…

An illustration of a man tying a calf to a wall.

Man Tying Calf to Wall

An illustration of a man tying a calf to a wall.

A man using a cultivator in a field.

Man using a cultivator

A man using a cultivator in a field.

A manure spreader in operation. The manure was pitched from the stable to the spreader, handled only once.

Manure Spreader

A manure spreader in operation. The manure was pitched from the stable to the spreader, handled only…

A farmer spreading manure by throwing it in piles and spreading it around.

Spreading manure

A farmer spreading manure by throwing it in piles and spreading it around.

F farmer spreading manure with a shovel in a field.

Spreading manure

F farmer spreading manure with a shovel in a field.

A farmer spreading manure firectly from atop a wagon.

Spreading manure from a wagon

A farmer spreading manure firectly from atop a wagon.

A machine used to separate immature seeds from wheat, oats, rye, barley, and other grains. This diagram shows the process of how the machine works.

Diagram of a Fanning Mill

A machine used to separate immature seeds from wheat, oats, rye, barley, and other grains. This diagram…

"The Nativity. By Albrecht Dürer. From the engraving on copper." -Heath, 1901

The Nativity

"The Nativity. By Albrecht Dürer. From the engraving on copper." -Heath, 1901

A tier of nests with a broody coop on top.

Tier of Nests

A tier of nests with a broody coop on top.

White pines coming into a pasture. On this land trees pay better than the poor pasture.

Pasture with trees

White pines coming into a pasture. On this land trees pay better than the poor pasture.

Trees in a pasture.

Trees in a pasture

Trees in a pasture.

"Petits! Petits! Petits! Foraging in an Enemy's Country. From the drawing by Horace Vernet." -Rees, 1894

Petits! Petits! Petits! Foraging in an Enemy's Country

"Petits! Petits! Petits! Foraging in an Enemy's Country. From the drawing by Horace Vernet." -Rees,…

A plain with animals on it.

Plain

A plain with animals on it.

A planker, used for crushing clods of soil.

Planker

A planker, used for crushing clods of soil.

This design features an adjustable plough allowing for the wing to pivot.

Landscaping Plough

This design features an adjustable plough allowing for the wing to pivot.

A good plow.

Plow

A good plow.

An old Roman plow.

Roman plow

An old Roman plow.

Farmer plowing with two horses.

Plowing

Farmer plowing with two horses.

Men using a donkey to plow their farm.

Plowing

Men using a donkey to plow their farm.

A scene from the Middle Ages, in which two people are plowing their land. One drives the oxen with a whip, while the other guides the plow. The original image is from a 14th century manuscript.

Plowing in the Middle Ages

A scene from the Middle Ages, in which two people are plowing their land. One drives the oxen with a…

Rake leaning against fence.

Rake

Rake leaning against fence.

Raking hay and loading it onto a wagon.

Raking hay

Raking hay and loading it onto a wagon.

A landscape of a ranch with cows.

Ranch

A landscape of a ranch with cows.

A group of birds of the order <em>Rasores</em>, settled around a farmyard scene.

Rasores

A group of birds of the order Rasores, settled around a farmyard scene.

Reynard the Fox, dressed as a monk, telling the rooster, Chanticleer, that he does not eat animals anymore, right before his hunt on one of the hens.

Reynard the Fox: Tricking Chanticleer

Reynard the Fox, dressed as a monk, telling the rooster, Chanticleer, that he does not eat animals anymore,…

African slaves unloading rice barges at a South Carolinian rice plantation.

Unloading Rice barges

African slaves unloading rice barges at a South Carolinian rice plantation.

A roller. Crushes clods and packs the surface so as to keep the seed moist at the expense of increased evaporation.

Roller

A roller. Crushes clods and packs the surface so as to keep the seed moist at the expense of increased…

Rustic Children, a painting by Thomas Gainsborough.

Rustic Children

Rustic Children, a painting by Thomas Gainsborough.

"And she went, and came and gleaned in the field after the reapers: and her hap was to light on the portion of the field belonging unto Boaz, who was of the family of Elimelech. And, behold, Boaz came from Bethlehem, and said unto the reapers, Jehovah be with you. And they answered him, Jehovah bless thee. Then said Boaz unto his servant that was set over the reapers, Whose damsel is this? And the servant that was set over the reapers answered and said, It is the Moabitish damsel that came back with Naomi out of the country of Moab:" Ruth 2:3-6 ASV
<p>Illustration of Ruth gleaning grain in the fields of Boaz. She is on her knees at the feet of Boaz, who walks with a staff and a dog behind him. His servant tells him about Ruth. Four men and women, also gleaning, watch in the background. A small town and some trees are pictured in the background.

Ruth Meets Boaz While Gleaning in the Fields

"And she went, and came and gleaned in the field after the reapers: and her hap was to light on the…

A normal rye plant.

Rye

A normal rye plant.

"An apparatus drawn by oxen or horses, and used for scraping the earth in making or repairing roads, digging cellars, canals, etc. and generally for raising and removing loosened soil, etc. In use the scraper is held with the handles slightly elevated till it scoops up its charge of earth, which is held by the sides and back." &mdash;Whitney, 1889

Scraper, Meant to be Drawn by Oxen or Horses

"An apparatus drawn by oxen or horses, and used for scraping the earth in making or repairing roads,…

Seal, with a shovel and hoe on it.

True-temper seal

Seal, with a shovel and hoe on it.

A feeding shed used for beef cattle.

Feeding Shed

A feeding shed used for beef cattle.

A sheep, the head of the herd.

Sheep

A sheep, the head of the herd.