br: the branchiae, or gill-openingsc: the heartf: the livervn: swimming bladdersci: intestinal canalo: the ovariesu: urethraa: anuso': oviduct

Anatomy of the Carp

br: the branchiae, or gill-openings c: the heart f: the liver vn: swimming bladders ci: intestinal canal o:…

"Diagram of the principal vessels in the circulation of a Fish, lateral view. a, aorta; au., auricle; br.a., afferent branchial arteries; br.e., efferent branchial arteries; bu., bulbus (or conus) arteriosus; c, carotid; c.a., caudal artery; c.v.r., right cardinal vein; c.v.l., left cardinal vein; d.a., dorsal artery; d.c., ductus Cuvieri; g, gills; h.v., hepatic vein; h.p., hepatic portal vein; i, intestine; j, jugular vein; k, kidney; l, liver; r.p., renal portal vein; s.v., sinus venosus; v, ventricle." -Galloway, 1915

Fish Circulation Vessels

"Diagram of the principal vessels in the circulation of a Fish, lateral view. a, aorta; au., auricle;…

"Salmo fario, the entire skull, from the left side. art, articular; branchiost, branchiostegal rays; dent, dentary; epiot, epiotic; eth, supra-ethnoid; fr, frontal; hyom, hyomandibular; intop, inter-opercular; pal, palantine; par, parietal; pmx, pre-maxilla; praop, pre-opercular; pt, pterygoid; pter, pterotic; Quad, quadrate; socc, supra-occipital; sphot, sphenotic; subop, sub-opercular; sympl, symplectic; Zunge, basi-hyal." -Parker, 1900

Fish Skull

"Salmo fario, the entire skull, from the left side. art, articular; branchiost, branchiostegal rays;…

"Gill of Fish. A, first branchial arch of left side of black-bass: 1, gill-rakers; 2, branchial lamellae. C, same, in cross-section: 7, branchial lamellae; 8, a gill-raker. B, same arch of striped-bass, with appendages removed: 3, 4, 5, and 6, pharyngobranchial, epibranchial, ceratobranchial, and hypobranchial segments." -Whitney, 1911

Parts of Fish Gills

"Gill of Fish. A, first branchial arch of left side of black-bass: 1, gill-rakers; 2, branchial lamellae.…

"Diagram of the heart and branchial arches in Protopterus (one of the Dipno). pre.c., precaval vein, made up of right and left jugulairs, subclavians, etc.; post.c., postcaval, made up the cardinals, right and left...a, aorta; au., auricle; c, carotid; c.v., cardinal veins (right and left); d.a., dorsal arteries; j, jugular veins; d.c., ductus Cuvieri; s.v., sinus venosus; v, ventricle." -Galloway, 1915

African Lungfish Heart

"Diagram of the heart and branchial arches in Protopterus (one of the Dipno). pre.c., precaval vein,…

"Diagram of heart and branchial arches in Ceratodus (one of the Dipnoi). a.b., air bladder (lung); p.a., pulmonary artery; p.c., post caval vein (right); p.v., pulmonary vein...a, aorta; au., auricle; c, carotid; c.v., cardinal veins (right and left); d.a., dorsal arteries; j, jugular veins; d.c., ductus Cuvieri; s.v., sinus venosus; v, ventricle." -Galloway, 1915

Queensland Lungfish Heart

"Diagram of heart and branchial arches in Ceratodus (one of the Dipnoi). a.b., air bladder (lung); p.a.,…

"Skeleton of Fish (Perch). a, intermaxillaries; b, nasal region; c, dentary bone of mandible; d, orbit of eye; e, supraoccipital crest; f, preoperculum; g, g', vertebral column; h, pectoral fin; i, ventral fin; k, first dorsal fin; l, second dorsal fin; m, anal fin; n, n, caudal fin, making a homocercal tail." -Whitney, 1911

Skeleton of Perch

"Skeleton of Fish (Perch). a, intermaxillaries; b, nasal region; c, dentary bone of mandible; d, orbit…

"Cartilaginous Cranium of the Pike (Esox lucius), with its intrinsic ossifications. A, top view; 3, small ossifications in the rostrum; N, N, nasal fossae; I Or, interorbital septum; Eth, ethmoid; Prf, Ptf, prefrontal and postfrontal; EpO, epiotic; OpO, opisthotic; Pt, pteriotic; EO, exoccipital." -Whitney, 1911

Pike Cranium

"Cartilaginous Cranium of the Pike (Esox lucius), with its intrinsic ossifications. A, top view; 3,…

"Cartilaginous Cranium of the Pike (Esox lucius), with its intrinsic ossifications. B, side view: V, VII, exits of trigeminal and of pneumogastric nerves; 3, small ossifications in the rostrum; I Or, interorbital septum; Eth, ethmoid; Prf, Ptf, prefrontal and postfrontal; PrO, proötic; EpO, epiotic; OpO, opisthotic; Pt, pteriotic; EO, exoccipital; BO, basioccipital; BS, basisphenoid; AS, alisphenoid." -Whitney, 1911

Pike Cranium

"Cartilaginous Cranium of the Pike (Esox lucius), with its intrinsic ossifications. B, side view: V,…

"Pectoral arch and fore limb of the pike (Esox lucius), an osseous fish, showing scapulocoracoid, composed of Scp, scapula or hypercoracoid; c, posterior end of the outer margin of the scapulocoracoid; b, b, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, five fin-rays or radialia; a, actinosts or basalia." -Whitney, 1911

Pike Scapulocoracoid

"Pectoral arch and fore limb of the pike (Esox lucius), an osseous fish, showing scapulocoracoid, composed…

"Brain of Skate (Raia batis), an elasmobranchiate fish. B, from below, in part enlarged: ch, optic chiasm; h, pituitary body; n and v, vessels connected with h; k, saccus vasculosus; ß, pyrimids of medulla oblongata; a, I, II, V, same as in A." -Whitney, 1911

Skate Brain

"Brain of Skate (Raia batis), an elasmobranchiate fish. B, from below, in part enlarged: ch, optic chiasm;…

"Brain of Skate (Raia batis), an elasmobranchiate fish. A, from above; s, olfactory bulbs; a, cerebral hemispheres, united in the middle line; b, thalamencephalon; c, mesencephalon; d, cerebellum; aa, plaited bands formed by the restiform bodies; I, II, IV, V, first (olfactory), second (optic), fourth, and fifth pairs of cerebral nerves; f, medulla oblongata; w, a blood-vessel. " -Whitney, 1911

Skate Brain

"Brain of Skate (Raia batis), an elasmobranchiate fish. A, from above; s, olfactory bulbs; a, cerebral…

"Heterocercal Caudal Fin of a Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostris), showing the series of fulcrums, Fl, along the dorsal border." -Whitney, 1911

Shortnose Sturgeon Tail

"Heterocercal Caudal Fin of a Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostris), showing the series of fulcrums, Fl,…

"Diagram of the heart, the branchial arches, and the principal veins in the Teleosts. Ventral view. The heart is represented without the sigmoid flexure; that is, with the auricle posterior. a, aorta; au., auricle; br.a., branchial arches of the aorta (1-4, numbering from the front); c, carotid; c.v., cardinal veins (right and left); d.a., dorsal arteries; j, jugular veins; d.c., ductus Cuvieri; s.v., sinus venosus; v, ventricle. Only four arterial arches are shown." -Galloway, 1915

Teleost Heart

"Diagram of the heart, the branchial arches, and the principal veins in the Teleosts. Ventral view.…