"Adjutant-bird; Indian Stork."-Whitney, 1902

Adjutant-bird

"Adjutant-bird; Indian Stork."-Whitney, 1902

"Agni, the god of fire." —Bulfinch, 1897

Agni

"Agni, the god of fire." —Bulfinch, 1897

"The most formidible enemy whom the British encountered in India was Hyder Ali Khan, a soldier of fortune, who rose by his talents to sovereign power. He was born at Dinavelly, in the province of Mysore; and, after some military service under his father, who was a petty chief of the country, he joined his brother in an alliance with the French, and introduced European discipline among his troops." — Goodrich, 1844

Hyder Ali

"The most formidible enemy whom the British encountered in India was Hyder Ali Khan, a soldier of fortune,…

Group of animals gathered at a water trough.

Animals

Group of animals gathered at a water trough.

"This sovereign was the last of the Mogul emperors of India who displayed the talent and energy of a warrior. He was the grandson of Jehangire, and was born on the 22nd of October, 1618." — Goodrich, 1844

Aurungzrbr

"This sovereign was the last of the Mogul emperors of India who displayed the talent and energy of a…

Birman Temples and war-boats.

Birman Temples

Birman Temples and war-boats.

Found in India, this species of bokadam is nonvenemous.

Karoo bokadam

Found in India, this species of bokadam is nonvenemous.

Statue of Brahma.

Brahma

Statue of Brahma.

"A Sanskrit word the Universal Power or ground of all existence, and also (in its masculine form with long final syllable) a particular deity, the first person in the Triad (Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva) of the Hindus. The personal god Brahma is represented as a red or golden-colored figure with four heads and as many arms, and he is often accompanied by the swan or goose. He is the god of the fates, master of life and death, yet he is himself created, and is merely the agent of Brahma, the Universal Power." — Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Brahma

"A Sanskrit word the Universal Power or ground of all existence, and also (in its masculine form with…

Statue of Buddha

Buddha

Statue of Buddha

Most famous of the Buddhist caves is a chaitya hall (chandrashala) or 'Vishwakarma cave', popularly known as the 'Carpent Indiaer's Cave'. Beyond its multi-storeyed entry is a cathedral-like stupa hall also known as chaitya, whose ceiling has been carved to give the impression of wooden beams. At the heart of this cave is a 15 foot statue of Buddha seated in a preaching pose.

Buddhist Cave Temple at Ellora, Interior

Most famous of the Buddhist caves is a chaitya hall (chandrashala) or 'Vishwakarma cave', popularly…

Found in India, the black-billed bustard can measure up to four and a half feet in length.

Black-Billed Bustard

Found in India, the black-billed bustard can measure up to four and a half feet in length.

Calcutta - Bazaar on the Chitpore Road.

Calcutta

Calcutta - Bazaar on the Chitpore Road.

The balsam flower is native to India. Camellia-flowered balsam blooms at the end of July.

Camellia-Flowered Balsam

The balsam flower is native to India. Camellia-flowered balsam blooms at the end of July.

The Caoutchouc plant.

Caoutchouc

The Caoutchouc plant.

The Brahmin cave-temples are, as a rule, open in front, and are sometimes connected with an independent structure hewn out of the solid rock.A, Entrance; B, Rock-Temple; C, Small shrine.

Cave-Temple of Dumas-Syna at Ellora

The Brahmin cave-temples are, as a rule, open in front, and are sometimes connected with an independent…

Climbing perch, a type of bony fish found around India.

Climbing Perch

Climbing perch, a type of bony fish found around India.

Lord Clive was a British officer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company.

Robert Clive

Lord Clive was a British officer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India…

The coca plant is the source of the coca leaf used in medicine and in the production of cocaine

Coca

The coca plant is the source of the coca leaf used in medicine and in the production of cocaine

A small passerine bird.

Indian Creeper

A small passerine bird.

The dipsas cyanodon is a harmless tree snake, found in India.

Dipsas cyanodon

The dipsas cyanodon is a harmless tree snake, found in India.

"Dagoba from Ceylon." —D'Anvers, 1895

Dagoba

"Dagoba from Ceylon." —D'Anvers, 1895

The temples of Ellora is an archeological site that was found in Aurangabad, India. It was built by the Rashtrakuta Dynasty that ruled parts of India during the 6th and 10th century. The temples consist of caves that were carved out of the Charanandri Hills.

Temples of Ellora

The temples of Ellora is an archeological site that was found in Aurangabad, India. It was built by…

The obverse and reverse sides of the fanam, a small silver coin used in Madras, India.

Obverse and Reverse Sides of Fanam of Madras

The obverse and reverse sides of the fanam, a small silver coin used in Madras, India.

The gadwall (or gray duck) is nineteen inches long, and is found throughout Europe and America, as well as India.

Gadwall

The gadwall (or gray duck) is nineteen inches long, and is found throughout Europe and America, as well…

Also known as the summer teal, the garganey is sixteen inches long and found in Southern Europe and India.

Garganey

Also known as the summer teal, the garganey is sixteen inches long and found in Southern Europe and…

Native to India, the gavial has an very narrow snout, used for hunting fish and frogs.

Gavial

Native to India, the gavial has an very narrow snout, used for hunting fish and frogs.

"In India, a path of descent, landing-place, or stairway to a river, generally having at the summit a temple, pagoda, or place of rest and recreation. Ghats about especially along the Ganges, the most important being at Benares." -Whitney, 1911

Ghoosla Ghat in Benares

"In India, a path of descent, landing-place, or stairway to a river, generally having at the summit…

"The ghats, or landing places that line the banks of the rivers of Northern India, are often of great architectural merit." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Ghat, Goosla

"The ghats, or landing places that line the banks of the rivers of Northern India, are often of great…

The Grand Mosque in the city of Delhi.

Grand Mosque

The Grand Mosque in the city of Delhi.

Guava (<i>Psidium guayava</i>) is a low-growing West Indian tree belonging to the family Myrtaceæ. It bears white flowers, followed by fragrant, yellow, fleshy fruits, extensively employed in the making of preserves and jellies. The guava also grows in the East Indies; and there is a Chinese variety, <i>P. cattleianum</i>, the strawberry guava.

Guava

Guava (Psidium guayava) is a low-growing West Indian tree belonging to the family Myrtaceæ. It bears…

The Himalayas, the loftiest mountains in the world, rise abruptly form the plains of Northern Hindustan.

Himalaya Mountains

The Himalayas, the loftiest mountains in the world, rise abruptly form the plains of Northern Hindustan.

"This Order was instituted by Her Majesty the Queen, in the year 1861, for bestowing honor upon the people of her Indian Empire. The Order consists of the Sovereign, a Grand Master, always to be Governor-General of India, and twenty-five Knights, with such Honorary Knights as the Crown may appoint. The Knights are to include both Naval, Military, and Civil officers, and natives of India."&mdash;Aveling, 1891

Insignia of the Order of the Star of India

"This Order was instituted by Her Majesty the Queen, in the year 1861, for bestowing honor upon the…

A native of India.

Indian

A native of India.

Jain caves reveal specific dimensions of Jain philosophy and tradition. They reflect a strict sense of asceticism &ndash; they are not relatively large as compared to others, but they present exceptionally detailed art works. The most remarkable Jain shrines are the <em>Chhota Kailash</em> (cave 30), the <em>Indra Sabha</em> (cave 32) and the <em>Jagannath Sabha</em> (cave 33). The <em>Indra Sabha</em> is a two storeyed shrine with a very fine carving of the lotus flower on the ceiling. In another cave, an imposing image of Ambika, the Yakshi (dedicated attendant deity) of Neminatha is found seated on her lion under a mango tree, laden with fruits. All other Jain caves are also characterized by intricate detailing. Many of the structures had rich paintings in the ceilings - fragments of which are still visible.

Interior of Indra Sabha at Ellora

Jain caves reveal specific dimensions of Jain philosophy and tradition. They reflect a strict sense…

"Jehangire kept his court at Delhi, one of the most splendid cities of the East, where he called the Shere Afkun to his preference. He received him graciously, and conferred new honors upon him." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Jehangire

"Jehangire kept his court at Delhi, one of the most splendid cities of the East, where he called the…

Kailash Temple, also Kailasanatha Temple or Kylas Temple, is one of the 34 monasteries and temples, extending over more than 2 km, that were dug side by side in the wall of a high basalt cliff in the complex located at Ellora, Maharashtra, India, and represents the epitome of Indian rock-cut architecture. It was carved out of one single rock. The Kailash Temple is notable for its vertical excavation — carvers started at the top of the original rock, and excavated downward, exhuming the temple out of the existing rock. The traditional methods were rigidly followed by the master architect which could not have been achieved by excavating from the front.

Kailash Temple

Kailash Temple, also Kailasanatha Temple or Kylas Temple, is one of the 34 monasteries and temples,…

(1865- ) Writer

Rudyard Kipling

(1865- ) Writer

(1850- ) English soldier

Horatio H. Kitchener

(1850- ) English soldier

Kutab-Minar near Delhi

Kutab-Minar

Kutab-Minar near Delhi

"One of the finest fruits from India. The tree grows from 40 to 50 feet high. The fruit is shaped somewhat like a kidney, is as big as a hen's egg or sometimes a goose's egg, and yellow or reddish, speckled with black. The kernel of the fruit stone is also eaten. Mangoes are eaten raw, made into jellies and preserves, and pickled. The fruit is now grown in Jamaica and other warm countries." &mdash; Beach, 1900

Mango

"One of the finest fruits from India. The tree grows from 40 to 50 feet high. The fruit is shaped somewhat…

An illustration of a market place in Bombay, India.

Market

An illustration of a market place in Bombay, India.

Squares that have many more summations than just rows, columns, and diagonals. Frost extended this idea to cubes, where various sections have the same singular properties.

Nasik Cube

Squares that have many more summations than just rows, columns, and diagonals. Frost extended this idea…

"Observatory at Delhi."

Ancient Indian observatory

"Observatory at Delhi."

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs and terminate above in the from of a cupola. Rows of small cupolas stand out from the roofs of the stages. The walls of these stages are covered in a bewildering way with pilasters and niches, with intricately cut cornices, with varied intersecting mouldings, and with manifold and fantastic embellishments and carvings.

Pagoda

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs…

Nothing reliable can by adduced concerning the age of the existing structural temples of India, which are called pagodas, from the word bhagarati, <em>i.e.</em> sacred house. They belong to both antiquity and modern times. Some of these pagodas are wonderfully large and magnificent. The consist of one or more quadrangular courts with towers at the corners, surrounded by a wall (a). Large pyramids (b) rising in stages cover the entrance, behind which extend colonnades.

Ground Plan of the Pagoda at Chillimbaram

Nothing reliable can by adduced concerning the age of the existing structural temples of India, which…

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs and terminate above in the from of a cupola. The pillars, which are round or octagonal, resemble the columnar structure of the rock temples, and are richly ornamented in every part. The inner spaces are low and dark, but the cupolas are high and narrow.

Pagoda Column

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs…

Nothing reliable can by adduced concerning the age of the existing structural temples of India, which are called pagodas, from the word bhagarati, <em>i.e.</em> sacred house. They belong to both antiquity and modern times. Some of these pagodas are wonderfully large and magnificent. The consist of one or more quadrangular courts with towers at the corners, surrounded by a wall. Large pyramids rising in stages cover the entrance (shown here), behind which extend colonnades.

Entrance to a Pagoda

Nothing reliable can by adduced concerning the age of the existing structural temples of India, which…

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs and terminate above in the from of a cupola. Rows of small cupolas stand out from the roofs of the stages. The walls of these stages are covered in a bewildering way with pilasters and niches, with intricately cut cornices, with varied intersecting mouldings, and with manifold and fantastic embellishments and carvings.

Pagoda Moulding

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs…

A Parsi, sometimes spelled Parsee, is a member of a Zoroastrian community based primarily in the Indian subcontinent. All Parsis outside of India identify either India or Pakistan as their home country or country of ancestral origin. Parsis are descended from Persian Zoroastrians who emigrated to the Indian subcontinent over 1,000 years ago.

A Parsi of Bombay

A Parsi, sometimes spelled Parsee, is a member of a Zoroastrian community based primarily in the Indian…

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs and terminate above in the from of a cupola. Rows of small cupolas stand out from the roofs of the stages. The walls of these stages are covered in a bewildering way with pilasters and niches, with intricately cut cornices, with varied intersecting mouldings, and with manifold and fantastic embellishments and carvings.

Pilaster, Temple of Chillimbaram

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs…

"Pillar in Hindu temple." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Pillar

"Pillar in Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

Jain caves reveal specific dimensions of Jain philosophy and tradition. They reflect a strict sense of asceticism &ndash; they are not relatively large as compared to others, but they present exceptionally detailed art works. The most remarkable Jain shrines are the <em>Chhota Kailash</em> (cave 30), the <em>Indra Sabha</em> (cave 32) and the <em>Jagannath Sabha</em> (cave 33). The <em>Indra Sabha</em> is a two storeyed shrine with a very fine carving of the lotus flower on the ceiling. In another cave, an imposing image of Ambika, the Yakshi (dedicated attendant deity) of Neminatha is found seated on her lion under a mango tree, laden with fruits. All other Jain caves are also characterized by intricate detailing. Many of the structures had rich paintings in the ceilings - fragments of which are still visible.

Indian Pillar at Ellora

Jain caves reveal specific dimensions of Jain philosophy and tradition. They reflect a strict sense…

Jain caves reveal specific dimensions of Jain philosophy and tradition. They reflect a strict sense of asceticism &ndash; they are not relatively large as compared to others, but they present exceptionally detailed art works. The most remarkable Jain shrines are the <em>Chhota Kailash</em> (cave 30), the <em>Indra Sabha</em> (cave 32) and the <em>Jagannath Sabha</em> (cave 33). The <em>Indra Sabha</em> is a two storeyed shrine with a very fine carving of the lotus flower on the ceiling. In another cave, an imposing image of Ambika, the Yakshi (dedicated attendant deity) of Neminatha is found seated on her lion under a mango tree, laden with fruits. All other Jain caves are also characterized by intricate detailing. Many of the structures had rich paintings in the ceilings - fragments of which are still visible.

Indian Pillar from the Rock Temple of Parasona Rama at Ellora

Jain caves reveal specific dimensions of Jain philosophy and tradition. They reflect a strict sense…

"Gopura, or gate pyramid to a Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

Gate pyramid

"Gopura, or gate pyramid to a Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

"Sarinda. A Hindu viol, which has a body made of a single wooden block, elliptical in general contour, flat in front and arched at the back, which is hollowed out to a shell." -Whitney, 1911

Sarinda

"Sarinda. A Hindu viol, which has a body made of a single wooden block, elliptical in general contour,…

"The pagoda forms a very prominent feature in the architecture of Further India. A specimen of the Burmese style of temples is presented in the Shoemadoo." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Pagoda, Shoemadoo

"The pagoda forms a very prominent feature in the architecture of Further India. A specimen of the Burmese…

A statue of Siva.

Siva

A statue of Siva.

"Siva." &mdash;Bulfinch, 1897

Siva

"Siva." —Bulfinch, 1897

The Sumaree Temple in Benares, India is an example of Sanskrit architecture.

Sumaree Temple

The Sumaree Temple in Benares, India is an example of Sanskrit architecture.