An apparatus showing how to capture pure samples of gases.

Apparatus

An apparatus showing how to capture pure samples of gases.

"When one volume of hydrogen actually unites with one volume of chlorine, two volumes and not one volume of hydrogen chloride result. the volume of the acid is twice that of the hydrogen. Each of these two volumes must, according to Avagadro's hypothesis, contain four particles of the acid, or eight in all, so that in the eight particles of the acid there must be eight particles of hydrogen and eight particles of chlorine." -Brownlee 1907

Combinational Volume

"When one volume of hydrogen actually unites with one volume of chlorine, two volumes and not one volume…

"If the two wires from a battery be placed in pure water, it will be foud tat practically no current passes...If a small quantity of sulphuric acid is added to the water, the solution is a good conductor. During the passage of current, bubbles form at the ends of the wires: at the positive electrode (anode)...oxygen appear[s]; at the negative electrode (cathode) there is a rapid evolution of hydrogen." -Brownlee 1907

Electrolysis

"If the two wires from a battery be placed in pure water, it will be foud tat practically no current…

This illustration shows the first stage in the manufacturing of glue. The material used for making the glue (either animal bone or hide) is soaked in a milk of lime (or in some cases, Hydrochloric or Sulfurous acid) to purify and loosen particles.

First Stage in Glue Manufacturing

This illustration shows the first stage in the manufacturing of glue. The material used for making the…

"If it be required to separate the helium which is often found in the gases given off by a thermal spring, they are subjected to the action of charcoal cooled with liquid air. The result is the absoption of the less volatile constituents, i.e., all except hydrogen and helium. The gaseous residue, with the additon of oxygen is then sparked, and the water thus formed is removed together with the excess oxygen to leave only helium." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Apparatus Used to Seperate Volatile Gases

"If it be required to separate the helium which is often found in the gases given off by a thermal spring,…

This illustration shows the gills (breathing apparatus) of a perch, as well as the specific veins and arteries running along the branchial arch.

Gills (Branchial Arch of Perch)

This illustration shows the gills (breathing apparatus) of a perch, as well as the specific veins and…

This illustration shows the thorax of a crayfish with a portion of the carapace removed to show the gills.

Gills (Crayfish)

This illustration shows the thorax of a crayfish with a portion of the carapace removed to show the…

This illustration shows a test to show the proportions of weight between hydrogen and oxygen.

Hydrogen Weight

This illustration shows a test to show the proportions of weight between hydrogen and oxygen.

This illustration shows the proportions of volume in which hydrogen and oxygen combine by introducing the two gases into a tube, filled with mercury and inverted within a cylinder of mercury.

Mercury Tube

This illustration shows the proportions of volume in which hydrogen and oxygen combine by introducing…

"A small cylinder of lime is heated to intense luminosity in the flame of a spirit lamp through which a jet of oxygen plays." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Oxy-calcium Lamp

"A small cylinder of lime is heated to intense luminosity in the flame of a spirit lamp through which…

This illustration shows oxygen escaping leaves when they are placed in water and then in sunlight.

Oxygen Release

This illustration shows oxygen escaping leaves when they are placed in water and then in sunlight.

This illustration shows the transition from potassium chlorate to potassium chloride and oxygen.

Potassium Chlorate

This illustration shows the transition from potassium chlorate to potassium chloride and oxygen.

Apparatus used for collecting the oxygen relased when potassium chlorate is heated in the test tube.

Preparation of Oxygen

Apparatus used for collecting the oxygen relased when potassium chlorate is heated in the test tube.

Discoverer of oxygen gas.

Joseph Priestley

Discoverer of oxygen gas.

"Configuration used to wash out a radiometer using oxygen. A, bulb containing perchlorate of potash; B, charcol; C, radiometer; D, outlet; E, used for examing the gas given off." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Washing Out a Radiometer

"Configuration used to wash out a radiometer using oxygen. A, bulb containing perchlorate of potash;…

Furnace used in smelting ore; its' doors can be closed to control the air flow/oxygen.

Reverbatory Furnace

Furnace used in smelting ore; its' doors can be closed to control the air flow/oxygen.