A diagram of the digestive system.

Digestive System

A diagram of the digestive system.

The passage to the esophagus and windpipe. Labels: c, the tongue; d, the soft palate ending in g, the uvula; h, the epiglottis; i, the glottis; I, the esophagus; f, the pharynx.

Passage to the Esophagus and Windpipe

The passage to the esophagus and windpipe. Labels: c, the tongue; d, the soft palate ending in g, the…

Vertical middle section of head and neck showing the opening through the Eustachian tube, and its relations with the pharynx.

Head and Neck, Section of

Vertical middle section of head and neck showing the opening through the Eustachian tube, and its relations…

A vertical section of the head and neck through the mesial line, in order to show the opening of the Eustachian tube and its relation to the pharynx.

A Vertical Section of the Head and Neck

A vertical section of the head and neck through the mesial line, in order to show the opening of the…

"a, head, antennae, &c; b, pharynx; c, crop; d, gizzard; e, chyle-forming stomach; f, biliary vessels; g, small intestine; h, secreting organs" — Goodrich, 1859

Digestive Apparatus of an Insect

"a, head, antennae, &c; b, pharynx; c, crop; d, gizzard; e, chyle-forming stomach; f, biliary vessels;…

The larynx viewed from its pharyngeal opening. The back wall of the pharynx has been divided and its edges (11) turned aside. Labels: 1, body of hyoid; 2, its small, and 3, its great, horns; 4, upper and lower horns of thyroid cartilage; 5, mucous membrane of front of pharynx, covering the back of the cricoid cartilage; 6, upper end of gullet; 7, windpipe, lying in front of the gullet; 8, eminence caused by cartilage of Santorini; 9, eminence caused by cartilage of Wrisberg -- both lie in, 10, the aryteno-epiglottidean fold of mucous membrane, surrounding the opening (aditus laryngis) from pharynx to larynx; a, projecting tip of epiglottis; c, the glottis -- the lines leading from the letter point to the free vibrating edges of the vocal cords; b' the ventricles of the larynx -- their upper edges, marking them off from the eminences b, are the false vocal cords.

Larynx

The larynx viewed from its pharyngeal opening. The back wall of the pharynx has been divided and its…

The larynx viewed from its pharyngeal opening. The back wall of the pharynx has been divided and its edges (11) turned aside. Labels 1, body of hyoid; 2, its small, and 3, its great, horns; 4, upper and lower horns of thyroid cartilages; 5, mucous membrane of front of pharynx, covering the back of the cricoid cartilage; 6, upper end of gullet; 7, windpipe, lying in front of the gullet; 8, eminence caused by cartilage of Santorini; 9, eminence caused by cartilage of Wrisberg; both lie in, 10, the artytenoepiglottic fold of mucous membrane, surrounding the opening (aditus laryngis) from pharynx to larynx; a, projecting tip of epiglottis; c, the glottis, the lines leading from the latter point to the free vibratory edges of the vocal cords; b', the ventricles of the larynx; their upper edges, marking them off from the eminences b, are the false vocal cords.

Larynx

The larynx viewed from its pharyngeal opening. The back wall of the pharynx has been divided and its…

View of the upper part of the larynx as seen by means of the laryngoscope during the utterance of a grave note. Labels: c, epiglottis; s, tubercles of the cartilages of Santorini; a, arytenoid cartilages; z, base of the tongue; ph, the posterior wall of the pharynx.

Upper Part of the Larynx

View of the upper part of the larynx as seen by means of the laryngoscope during the utterance of a…

"Diagram of a lateral view of a longitudinal section of Limulus. Suc, Suctorial pharynx. al, Alimentary canal. Ph, Pharynx. M, Mouth. Est, Entosternum. VS, Ventral venous sinus. chi, Chilaria. go, Genital operculum. br1 to br5, Branchial appendages. met, Unsegmented metasoma. Entap4, Fourth dorsal entapophysis of left side. tsm, Tergo-sternal muscles, six pairs as in Scorpio. VPM1 to VPM8, The eight pairs of veno-pericardiac muscles." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Limulus

"Diagram of a lateral view of a longitudinal section of Limulus. Suc, Suctorial pharynx. al, Alimentary…

"The mouth, nose and pharynx, with the commencement of the gullet and larynx, as exposed by a section, a little to the left of the median plane of the head. a, vertebral column; b, gullet; c, wind-pipe; d, larynx; e, epiglottis; f, soft palate; g, opning of eustachian tube; k, tongue; l, hard palate; m, the sphenoid bone on the base of the skull; n, the fore part of the cranial cavity; o, p, q, the turbinate bones of the outer side of the left nostril-chamber." —Martin, 1917

Mouth

"The mouth, nose and pharynx, with the commencement of the gullet and larynx, as exposed by a section,…

Horizontal section through mouth and pharynx at the level of the tonsils.

Horizontal Section Through Mouth and Pharynx

Horizontal section through mouth and pharynx at the level of the tonsils.

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the commencement of gullet (esophagus) and larynx, as exposed by a section a little to the left of the median plane of the head. Labels: a, vertebrae; b, gullet; c, trachea; d, larynx; e, epiglottis; f, soft palate; g, opening of Eustachian tube; k, tongue; l, hard palate; o, p, q, inferior turbinate bones of left nasal chamber.

The Mouth, Nose, and Pharynx

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the commencement of gullet (esophagus) and larynx, as exposed by…

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the larynx and commencement of gullet (esophagus), seen in section. Labels: a, vertebral column; b, gullet (esophagus); c, trachea; d, larynx; e, epiglottis; f, soft palate, between f and e is the opening at back of cavity or faces; g, opening of Eustachian tube; h, nasal cavity; k, tongue; l, hard palate; m, sphenoid bone at base of skull; n, roof of nasal cavity; o, p, q, placed in nasal cavity.

The Mouth, Nose, and Pharynx

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the larynx and commencement of gullet (esophagus), seen in section.…

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the commencement of the gullet (esophagus) and larynx, as exposed by a section, a little to the left of the median plane of the head. Labels: a, vertebral column; b, gullet; c, windpipe; d, larynx; e, epiglottis; f, soft palate; g, opening of Esutachian tube; k, tongue; l, hard palate; m; the sphenoid bone on the base of the skull; n, the fore part of the cranial cavity; o,p,q, the turbinate bones of the outer side of the left nostril chamber.

The Mouth, Nose, and Pharynx

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the commencement of the gullet (esophagus) and larynx, as exposed…

Interior of the mouth. Labels: 1, soft palate; 2, its median ridge; 3, uvula; 4, anterior, 5, posterior pillar of fauces; 6, tonsil; 7, posterior wall of pharynx; 8, tongue.

The Mouth

Interior of the mouth. Labels: 1, soft palate; 2, its median ridge; 3, uvula; 4, anterior, 5, posterior…

View of the nervous system in man, showing the nervous centers (the brain and the spinal near row) where the other nerves begin which provide the whole body.

Nervous System

View of the nervous system in man, showing the nervous centers (the brain and the spinal near row) where…

This illustration shows the arrangement of the nervous material in the anterior end of an Oligochete Worm, seen in profile. That part of the body wall nearest the observer is supposed to be removed. a, anterior; b.w., body wall; g, dorsal ganglia (brain); g', ventral chain of ganglia; n, nerve ring around the pharynx; o, mouth; p, pharynx.

Oligochete Worm

This illustration shows the arrangement of the nervous material in the anterior end of an Oligochete…

The anterior surface of the pharynx.

Pharynx

The anterior surface of the pharynx.

The anterior all of the pharynx with its orifices, seen from behind.

Pharynx Wall

The anterior all of the pharynx with its orifices, seen from behind.

Posterior view of the pharynx and constrictor muscles.

Constrictor Muscles of the Pharynx

Posterior view of the pharynx and constrictor muscles.

External view of the muscles of the pharynx.

Muscles of the Pharynx

External view of the muscles of the pharynx.

The muscles of the pharynx. On the right side most of the inferior constrictor has been removed, on the left side the Digastric and Stylohyoid have been removed.

Muscles of the Pharynx

The muscles of the pharynx. On the right side most of the inferior constrictor has been removed, on…

The structure of the pharynx, a conical, musculo-membranous tube that forms the alimentary canal which lies behind the mouth, being incomplete in front where it opens into the cavity. It is composed of 3 coats, a mucous, a muscular, and a fibrous (the pharyngeal aponeurosis).

The Pharynx

The structure of the pharynx, a conical, musculo-membranous tube that forms the alimentary canal which…

Lateral view of the wall of the pharynx.

Wall of the Pharynx

Lateral view of the wall of the pharynx.

"Showing its distribution by its branches and ganglia to the larynx, pharynx, heart, lungs, and other parts." — Blaisedell, 1904

Trunk of the pneumogastric nerve

"Showing its distribution by its branches and ganglia to the larynx, pharynx, heart, lungs, and other…

"The circular muscle of the mouth (1) and the buccinator or trumpeter's muscle (2) help the tongue to push the food back to the upper margin of the gullet, where it is seized upon by the three constrictor muscles (3, 4 and 5) of the pharynx, and pushed down the gullet or esophagus, which is represented as being cut off at 6." — Richardson, 1906

Swallowing Muscles

"The circular muscle of the mouth (1) and the buccinator or trumpeter's muscle (2) help the tongue to…

This is a diagram of a Turbellarian, showing the general arrangement of the nervous structures and one of the modes of occurrence of the excretory tubules, which in this case open seperately into the pharynx, on the ventral side of the animal. b., brain; e, eye-spots; ex, excretory canals consisting of a transverse portion passing from the mouth toward the dorsal side, and longitudinal tubes which branch into the capillary vessels terminating in f, the flame cells; lc., lateral nerve cords; m, mouth.

Turbellarian

This is a diagram of a Turbellarian, showing the general arrangement of the nervous structures and one…

This is a diagram of transverse section of a Turbellarian through the region of the mouth. d.m., dermo-muscular wall containing longitudinal fibres; ex, excretory system; f, flame cells; g, gut; l.c., lateral nerve cord; m, mouth; m.f., muscle fibres; ph., pharynx; t, testis; u, uterus; y, yolk glands.

Turbellarian

This is a diagram of transverse section of a Turbellarian through the region of the mouth. d.m., dermo-muscular…

Three laryngoscopic view of the superior aperture of the larynx and surrounding parts. Labels: A, the glottis during the emission of a high note in singing; B, in easy and quite inhalation of air; C, in the state of widest possible dilation, as in inhaling a very deep breath. The diagrams A', B', and C', show in horizontal sections of the glottis in position of the vocal ligaments and arytenoid cartilages in the three several states represented in the other figures. In all the figures, so far as marked, the letters indicate the parts as follows, viz. : l, the base of the tongue; e, the upper free part of the epiglottis; e', the tubercle or cushion of the epiglottis; p h, part of the anterior all of the pharynx behind the larynx; in the margin of the aryteno-epiglottisdean fold w, the swelling of the membrane caused by the cartilages of Wrisberg; s. that of the cartilages of Santorini: a, the tip or summit of the arytenoid cartilages; c v, the true vocal cords r lips of the rima glottidis; c v s, the superior or false vocal cords; between them the ventricle of the larynx; in C, tr, is placed on the anterior wall of the receding trachea, and b indicated the commencement of the two bronchi beyond the bifurcation which may be brought into view in this state of extreme dilation.

Movement of the Vocal Cords

Three laryngoscopic view of the superior aperture of the larynx and surrounding parts. Labels: A, the…