"In architecture the slab or plinth which forms the upper member of the capital of a column or pillar, and upon which rests, in classic styles, the lower surface of the achitrave."—Wright, 1902

Abacus

"In architecture the slab or plinth which forms the upper member of the capital of a column or pillar,…

Also known as Absalom's Pillar. It is traditionally ascribed to Absalom, the unruly son of King David.

Absalom's Tomb

Also known as Absalom's Pillar. It is traditionally ascribed to Absalom, the unruly son of King David.

"a pilaster, especially a pilaster in certain positions, as one of a pair on either side of a doorway, or one standing opposite of a pillar."-Whitney, 1902

Anta

"a pilaster, especially a pilaster in certain positions, as one of a pair on either side of a doorway,…

"In street architecture a covered way or passage, either open at the side with a range of pillars, or completely covered over. The finest arcades of this description are to be found in Paris." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Arcade

"In street architecture a covered way or passage, either open at the side with a range of pillars, or…

An arcade is a passage or walkway covered over by a succession of arches or vaults supported by columns. An engaged column is a column embedded in a wall and partly projecting from the surface of the wall, sometimes defined as semi or three-quarter detached. In Roman architecture they exist in profusion, most commonly embedded in the cella walls of pseudoperipteral buildings. Engaged columns are distinct from pilasters, which by definition are ornamental and not structural.

Roman Arcade with Engaged Columns

An arcade is a passage or walkway covered over by a succession of arches or vaults supported by columns.…

"Atwood's Machine. This difficulty has however been overcome by a curious piece of machinery invented by Mr. Atwood. This consists of an upright pillar, with a wheel on the top. The weights A and B are of the same size and are made to balance each other, exactly, being connected by a thread passing over the wheel. The ring R admits the weight A, to fall through it in its passage to the stage S, on which it rests. The right and stage slide up and down, and are fastened by a thumb screw. The pillar is a graduated scale, and M is a small bent wire, weighing a quarter of an ounce, and longer than the diameter of the ring." —Comstock, 1850

Atwood's Machine

"Atwood's Machine. This difficulty has however been overcome by a curious piece of machinery invented…

"A projecting gallery in front of a window or of several windows, with a balustrade or parapet before it, and supported by consoles, or brackets fixed in the wall, or by pillars resting on the ground below." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Balcony

"A projecting gallery in front of a window or of several windows, with a balustrade or parapet before…

This decorative border was designed by German Artist Albrecht Dürer in 1513. It is comprised of a pillar on each side of the border, scrolling ribbon at the top, and two angels holding a shield of a tree on the bottom.

Decorative Border

This decorative border was designed by German Artist Albrecht Dürer in 1513. It is comprised of…

This decorative border was designed by German Artist Albrecht Dürer in 1513. It is comprised of a pillar on each side of the border, scrolling ribbon at the top, and two angels holding a shield of a tree on the bottom.

Decorative Border

This decorative border was designed by German Artist Albrecht Dürer in 1513. It is comprised of…

"The top of a column or pillar." — Williams, 1889

Capital

"The top of a column or pillar." — Williams, 1889

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling the sheath from which the stalk of a plant springs (here). The same ornament often occurs at the base of the shaft, and seems to a certain extent borrowed from the shape of the lower portion of the papyrus plant. Other capitals imitate an unopened bud or seed-pod.

Capital Ornament in the Temple at Edfu

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling…

"The Doric Order is, in architecture, the second of the five orders, being that between the Tuscan and Ionic."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Grecian Doric Capital

"The Doric Order is, in architecture, the second of the five orders, being that between the Tuscan and…

"The Doric Order is, in architecture, the second of the five orders, being that between the Tuscan and Ionic."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Grecian Doric Capital

"The Doric Order is, in architecture, the second of the five orders, being that between the Tuscan and…

"The Doric Order is, in architecture, the second of the five orders, being that between the Tuscan and Ionic."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Grecian Doric Capital

"The Doric Order is, in architecture, the second of the five orders, being that between the Tuscan and…

Caryatides are a blending of architecture and sculpture, but they are not of frequent occurrence. These Caryatides are human figures which serve as supports instead of a column, and a similar purpose is answered by male figures, which are technically called Atlantes.

Caryatis from the Erechtheum at Athens

Caryatides are a blending of architecture and sculpture, but they are not of frequent occurrence. These…

Caryatides are a blending of architecture and sculpture, but they are not of frequent occurrence. These Caryatides are human figures which serve as supports instead of a column, and a similar purpose is answered by male figures, which are technically called Atlantes.

Profile of the Caryatis with Pedestal and Entablature

Caryatides are a blending of architecture and sculpture, but they are not of frequent occurrence. These…

"Column with spiral ornament from Persepolis." —D'Anvers, 1895

Column

"Column with spiral ornament from Persepolis." —D'Anvers, 1895

The good effect of the Ionic capital is really only produced by the front-view. It seems calculated to be introduced between pillars and antæ, and not in a disconnected peristyle with with angle columns. In angle columns, however, the volutes are sometimes constructed in such a way that they meet at both sides diagonally.

Ionic Angle Column from the Temple of Minerva Polias at Athens, Front

The good effect of the Ionic capital is really only produced by the front-view. It seems calculated…

The good effect of the Ionic capital is really only produced by the front-view. It seems calculated to be introduced between pillars and antæ, and not in a disconnected peristyle with with angle columns. In angle columns, however, the volutes are sometimes constructed in such a way that they meet at both sides diagonally.

Ionic Angle Column from the Temple of Minerva Polias at Athens, Side

The good effect of the Ionic capital is really only produced by the front-view. It seems calculated…

The Doric columns, which are short, powerful, and closely ranged together, in order to support the weight of the massive entablature, consist of the shaft and the capital, and rest immediately without base on the upper step, which serves as the ground-floor, or stereobate of the temple.

Doric Column from the Temple of Neptune at Paestum

The Doric columns, which are short, powerful, and closely ranged together, in order to support the weight…

"Many columns have capitals representing palm leaves." —D'Anvers, 1895

Capital of a column

"Many columns have capitals representing palm leaves." —D'Anvers, 1895

"A pillar or column. The use of the trunks of trees placed upright for supporting buildings, unquestionably led to the adoption of similar supports wrought in stone. As the tree required to be based upon a flat square stone, and to have a stone or tile of similar form fixed on its summit to preserve it from decay, so the column was made with a square base, and was covered with an abacus. Hence the principal parts of which every column consists are three, the base, the shaft, and the capital. In the Doric, which is the oldest style of Greek architecture, we must consider all the columns in the same row as having one common base, whereas in the Ionian and Corinthian each column has a seperate base, called spira. The capitals of these two latter orders show, on comparison with the Doric, a much richer style of ornament; and the character of lightness and elegence is further obtained in them by their more slender shaft, its height being much greater in proportion to its thickness. Of all these circumstances some idea may be formed by the inspection of the three accompanying specimens of pillars. The first on the left hand is Doric, the second Ionic, and the third Corinthian." — Smith, 1873

Columna

"A pillar or column. The use of the trunks of trees placed upright for supporting buildings, unquestionably…

Columna Rostrata and Column Trojana.

Columna

Columna Rostrata and Column Trojana.

a, campaniform; b, clustered lotus column; c, simple lotus column; d, palm column; e, Hathor-headed column.

Types of Columns

a, campaniform; b, clustered lotus column; c, simple lotus column; d, palm column; e, Hathor-headed…

The Corinthian order is one of the Classical orders of Greek and Roman architecture, characterized by a slender fluted column and an ornate capital decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls. Although of Greek origin, the Corinthian order was seldom used in Greek architecture.

Greek Corinthian Order

The Corinthian order is one of the Classical orders of Greek and Roman architecture, characterized by…

"Upon a tripod provided with levelling screws stands the pillar P, to which is fixed the graduated azimuthal circle CC. The compass box B, with the vernier V, attached to it, moves on the azimuthal circle by means of a pivot at the pillar P. Two uprights, U, U, are fixed to the side of the compass-box, on the tops of which rests the axis of the telescope T. A graduated are A, is fixed to the bottom of one of the uprights, and the angle of elevation of the telescope is marked by the vernier on the arm E, attached to the axis of the telescope. A level, L, is also hung on the axis of the telescope, for adjusting the instrument. Inside the compass-box is another graduated circle, F, the line joining the zero-points of which is parallel to the axis of the telescope. All the fittings are in brass or copper, iron, of course, being unsuitable." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Declinometer

"Upon a tripod provided with levelling screws stands the pillar P, to which is fixed the graduated azimuthal…

The Ionic column has a less diminished shaft and a smaller parabolic curve than the Doric. It is, like the Doric, channeled; the flutings, which are 24 in number, are separated by annulets, and are therefore narrower, but at the same time deeper, than the Doric, and are terminated at the top and bottom by the final curvature.

Fluting Plan of the Ionic and Corinthian Column

The Ionic column has a less diminished shaft and a smaller parabolic curve than the Doric. It is, like…

"Each is as big around as a hogshead, and about fifteen feet high; it is covered with printed manner, and has a clock near the top." —Carpenter, 1902

German street corner

"Each is as big around as a hogshead, and about fifteen feet high; it is covered with printed manner,…

"Glacier Tables," ice-pillars protected by slabs of rock.

Glacier Tables

"Glacier Tables," ice-pillars protected by slabs of rock.

"Griffe from Vézelay. GRIFFE. In medieval architecture, from the eleventh to the fifteenth century, an ornament on the bases of pillars, connecting the torus with each angle of the plinth." -Whitney, 1911

Griffe

"Griffe from Vézelay. GRIFFE. In medieval architecture, from the eleventh to the fifteenth century,…

"Griffe from Poissy; end of 12th century. GRIFFE. In medieval architecture, from the eleventh to the fifteenth century, an ornament on the bases of pillars, connecting the torus with each angle of the plinth." -Whitney, 1911

Griffe

"Griffe from Poissy; end of 12th century. GRIFFE. In medieval architecture, from the eleventh to the…

A 68-foot stone pillar located at Al-Matariyyah part of Heliopolis. It is considered to be the earlier obelisk built that is still in its original position.

Obelisk of Heliopolis

A 68-foot stone pillar located at Al-Matariyyah part of Heliopolis. It is considered to be the earlier…

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC. The first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570 BC–560 BC by the architect Rhoikos. It stood for only a decade before it was leveled by an earthquake. It was in the great sanctuary of the goddess: it could scarcely have been in a more prominent location for its brief lifetime. A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Greek Ionic Order

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being…

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC. The first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570 BC–560 BC by the architect Rhoikos. It stood for only a decade before it was leveled by an earthquake. It was in the great sanctuary of the goddess: it could scarcely have been in a more prominent location for its brief lifetime. A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Greek Ionic Order (Side View)

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being…

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC. The first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570 BC-560 BC by the architect Rhoikos. It stood for only a decade before it was leveled by an earthquake. It was in the great sanctuary of the goddess: it could scarcely have been in a more prominent location for its brief lifetime. A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Roman Ionic Order

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being…

"Kew Instruments arranged in the relative positions recommended by Lloyd so as magnetically to interfere with one another as little as possible. We are supposed to be viewing the whole from the south. No. 1 to the right is the declination instrument, No. 2 that for the horizontal force, and No. 3 in the distance behind the central pillar (No. 4) the vertical force magnetometer." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Kew Instruments

"Kew Instruments arranged in the relative positions recommended by Lloyd so as magnetically to interfere…

The main entrance through the circuit wall was made grand by the best known feature of Mycenae, the Lion Gate, through which passed a stepped ramp leading past circle A and up to the palace. The Lion Gate was built in the form of a 'Relieving Triangle' to support the weight of the stones. Two lionesses flank the central column that represents a god or goddess.

Lion Gate at Mycenæ

The main entrance through the circuit wall was made grand by the best known feature of Mycenae, the…

"Lycian Tomb of Telmessus." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lycian Tomb

"Lycian Tomb of Telmessus." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

A, crepidoma or stylobate; B, column; C, architrave; D, tænia; E, frieze; F, horizontal cornice; G, raking cornice; H, tympanum of pediment; K, metope.In this and other cuts of this order, only the upper and lower parts of the shaft are shown, the intervening and greater part of the shaft being omitted, to save space.

Greek Doric Order

A, crepidoma or stylobate; B, column; C, architrave; D, tænia; E, frieze; F, horizontal cornice;…

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs and terminate above in the from of a cupola. The pillars, which are round or octagonal, resemble the columnar structure of the rock temples, and are richly ornamented in every part. The inner spaces are low and dark, but the cupolas are high and narrow.

Pagoda Column

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs…

Persepolitan architecture is noted for its use of wooden columns. Architects resorted to stone only when the largest cedars of Lebanon or teak trees of India did not fulfill the required sizes. Column bases and capitals were made of stone, even on wooden shafts, but the existence of wooden capitals is probable.

Column from Persepolis

Persepolitan architecture is noted for its use of wooden columns. Architects resorted to stone only…

"Pillar in Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

Pillar

"Pillar in Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

A decorative Egyptian pillar. A pillar is similar to a column which is a vertical support structure in architecture, but the base section is any shape but circular.

Pillar

A decorative Egyptian pillar. A pillar is similar to a column which is a vertical support structure…

An illustration of a pillar.

Pillar

An illustration of a pillar.

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers, 1895

Pillar and beam

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers,…

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling the sheath from which the stalk of a plant springs. The same ornament often occurs at the base of the shaft, and seems to a certain extent borrowed from the shape of the lower portion of the papyrus plant. Other capitals imitate an unopened bud or seed-pod (here).

Pillar at the Palace at Luxor

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling…

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling the sheath from which the stalk of a plant springs. The same ornament often occurs at the base of the shaft, and seems to a certain extent borrowed from the shape of the lower portion of the papyrus plant (here). Other capitals imitate an unopened bud or seed-pod.

Pillar at the Temple at Edfu

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling…

Jain caves reveal specific dimensions of Jain philosophy and tradition. They reflect a strict sense of asceticism &ndash; they are not relatively large as compared to others, but they present exceptionally detailed art works. The most remarkable Jain shrines are the <em>Chhota Kailash</em> (cave 30), the <em>Indra Sabha</em> (cave 32) and the <em>Jagannath Sabha</em> (cave 33). The <em>Indra Sabha</em> is a two storeyed shrine with a very fine carving of the lotus flower on the ceiling. In another cave, an imposing image of Ambika, the Yakshi (dedicated attendant deity) of Neminatha is found seated on her lion under a mango tree, laden with fruits. All other Jain caves are also characterized by intricate detailing. Many of the structures had rich paintings in the ceilings - fragments of which are still visible.

Indian Pillar from the Rock Temple of Parasona Rama at Ellora

Jain caves reveal specific dimensions of Jain philosophy and tradition. They reflect a strict sense…

"Clustered pillar from the nave of Wells Cathedral." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Clustered pillar

"Clustered pillar from the nave of Wells Cathedral." —D'Anvers, 1895

The Indians (Native Americans) decorating Jean Ribault's Pillar.

Ribault's Pillar

The Indians (Native Americans) decorating Jean Ribault's Pillar.

"And Solomon stood before the altar of the LORD in the presence of all the congregation of Israel, and spread forth his hands toward heaven:" 1 Kings 8:22 KJV

Solomon Dedicates the Temple

"And Solomon stood before the altar of the LORD in the presence of all the congregation of Israel, and…

Peculiar vaulted buildings often existed in connection with the palaces for the preservation of valuables; the base of these treasure-houses is circular, and their covering of a dome shape; it does not, however, form an arch, but courses of stones are laid horizontally over one another in such a way that each course projects beyond the one blow it. till the space at the highest course becomes so narrow that a single stone covers it. Ornamental fragments, which belonged to these buildings, lead to the conjecture that Mesopotamian art had some influence on the earliest Grecian buildings.

Pillar Fragment from the Treasury of Atreus

Peculiar vaulted buildings often existed in connection with the palaces for the preservation of valuables;…

"Applied to one of the 5 orders of arch, which allows no ornaments or flinting." &mdash; Williams, 1889

Tuscan order

"Applied to one of the 5 orders of arch, which allows no ornaments or flinting." — Williams, 1889