"In <em>optics</em>, a deviation in the rays of light when unequally refracted by a lens or reflected by a mirror, so that they do not converge and meet in a point or focus, but separate, forming an indistinct image of the object, or an indistinct image with prismatically colored edges."-Wright, 1902

Aberration

"In optics, a deviation in the rays of light when unequally refracted by a lens or reflected…

A cut of a gemstone. A brilliant cut stone has fifty-eight facets.

Brilliant Cut

A cut of a gemstone. A brilliant cut stone has fifty-eight facets.

"The refraction of water is beautifully proved by the following simple experiment. Place an empty cup, with a shilling on the bottom, in such a position that the side of the cup will just hide the piece of money from the eye. Then let another person fill the cup with water, keeping the eye in the same position as before. As the water is poured in, the shilling will be come visible, appearing to rise with the water. The effect of the water is to bend the ray of light coming from the shilling, so as to make it meet the eye below the point where it otherwise would. Thus the eye could not see the shilling in the direction of c, since the line, of vision is towards a, and c is hidden by the side of the cup. But the refraction of the water bends the way downwards, producing the same effect as though the object had been raised upwards, and hence it becomes visible." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Cup and Shilling

"The refraction of water is beautifully proved by the following simple experiment. Place an empty cup,…

"...let LN represent a glass biconvex lens, with centres of curvature at C and C', and AB, the incident ray." -Avery 1895

Refraction of Light through Bi Convex Lens

"...let LN represent a glass biconvex lens, with centres of curvature at C and C', and AB, the incident…

"When the object is at a long distance from the lens, the image formed is smaller than the object, and inverted." -Foster, 1921

Convex Lens

"When the object is at a long distance from the lens, the image formed is smaller than the object, and…

"The following simple experiment illustrates the effect of refraction:&mdash;Place a silver coin, m, at the bottom of the basin. The rays, i i, proceeding to the eye from the silver surface, render the coin visible. The point a, the eye, is then moved farther bck, so that the edge of the basin obstructs the direct rays, and of course the coin is no longer seen. If an attendant carefully pours water into the basin, so that the object is not moved, it will presently, as the water rises in the basin, become again visible. This arises from the refraction of the rays by the water, the image, indeed, appearing at n instead of at m." &mdash;Wells, 1857

Refraction

"The following simple experiment illustrates the effect of refraction:—Place a silver coin, m,…

"Fill with carbon dioxide a large rubber toy balloon or other double-convex lens having easily flexible walls. Suspend a watch, and place yourself so that you can just hear its ticking. Have the gas-filled lens moved back and forth in the line between watch and and ear until the ticking is much more plainly heard. Use a glass funnel as an ear-trumpet." -Avery 1895

Sound Refraction

"Fill with carbon dioxide a large rubber toy balloon or other double-convex lens having easily flexible…

"Illustrating refraction of light from a source through glass, and the appropriate angles of refraction." &mdash;Croft 1917

Refraction of Light through Glass

"Illustrating refraction of light from a source through glass, and the appropriate angles of refraction."…

"Since air is a rarer medium and water is denser, as ray A passes into the water, it is refracted to C. Also note that as ray B leaves the water, it is refracted to D as it enters the air." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Refraction Between Mediums

"Since air is a rarer medium and water is denser, as ray A passes into the water, it is refracted to…

"Although a ray of light will pass in a straight line, when not interrupted, yet when it passes obliquely from one transparent body into another, of a different density, it leaves its linear direction, and is bent, or refracted more or less, out of its former course." -Comstock 1850

Refraction of Light

"Although a ray of light will pass in a straight line, when not interrupted, yet when it passes obliquely…

"Let a represent a, b water, and c a piece of glass. The ray d, striking each medium in a perpendicular direction." -Comstock 1850

Refraction, air, water, glass

"Let a represent a, b water, and c a piece of glass. The ray d, striking each medium in a perpendicular…

"Showing how an object is refracted through a biconvex lens." -Avery 1895

Object Refracted through Biconvex Lens

"Showing how an object is refracted through a biconvex lens." -Avery 1895

"When radiant energy passes through a medium bounded by parallel planes, the refractions at the two surfaces are equal and contrary in direction. The direction after passing through the plate is parallel to the direction before entereing the plate; the rays merely suffer lateral aberration." -Avery 1895

Refraction by Plates

"When radiant energy passes through a medium bounded by parallel planes, the refractions at the two…

"The prism will deflect the red and orange, and form a reddish colored image at n. The violet, indigo, blue, green and yellow light, not caught by the prism, will unite at f to form a greenish image. When the prism is removed, the reddish light that fell at n, and the greenish light that fell at f, unite to form white light." -Avery 1895

Refraction of Complimentary Colors

"The prism will deflect the red and orange, and form a reddish colored image at n. The violet, indigo,…

"Thus, when erher waves that constitute light are transmitted through glass, they are hindered by the molecules of the glass, and impart some of their motion to those molecules' i.e., a part of the light is absorbed. When a beam of light, as represented by ABC moves forward in the air, the wave-front, MN, continues parallel to itself and moves forward in a straight line. As the wave front advances, A strikes the glass first, and is retarted, the retardation of B and C later change the direction of the rays." -Avery 1895

Explanation of Refraction

"Thus, when erher waves that constitute light are transmitted through glass, they are hindered by the…

"Illustration depicting the refraction by the eye." -Comstock 1850

Refraction by the Eye

"Illustration depicting the refraction by the eye." -Comstock 1850

"Let the medium b be glass, and the medium c, water. The ray a, as it falls upon the medium b, is refracted towards the perpendicular line e d; but when it enters the water, whose refractive power is less than that of glass, it is not bent so near the perpendicular as before, and hence it is refracted from, instead of towards the perpendicular line, and approaches the originial direction of the ray a g, when passing through the air." -Comstock 1850

Refraction, glass and water

"Let the medium b be glass, and the medium c, water. The ray a, as it falls upon the medium b, is refracted…

"LA represents a ray of light propagated in air, falling obliquely upon the surface of the water at A, and deviated by the water from AE to AK." -Avery 1895

Refraction of Light Between Air and Water

"LA represents a ray of light propagated in air, falling obliquely upon the surface of the water at…

"If the ray passes in the opposite direction, i.e., from water into air, the process is the reverse of that just indicated. Let KA represent the incident ray." -Avery 1895

Refraction of Light Between Water and Air

"If the ray passes in the opposite direction, i.e., from water into air, the process is the reverse…

"If the coin were to be observed in an empty pan and then watched as the pan was filled with water, the image of the coin would be refracted to position N." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Refraction as seen by the Human Eye

"If the coin were to be observed in an empty pan and then watched as the pan was filled with water,…

"Suppose the rod a, to be set with one half of its length below the surface of the water and the other half above it. The eye being placed in an oblique direction will see the lower end apparently at the point o, while the real termination of the rod would be at n; the refraction will therefore make the rod appear shorter by the distance from o to n, or one-fourth shorter than the part below the water really is." -Comstock 1850

Refraction, water

"Suppose the rod a, to be set with one half of its length below the surface of the water and the other…

"Condensing Straight Prisms.&mdash;These, either by reflexion or refraction or both, cause a ray fr proceeding in any compass bearing from a fixed light apparatus AA to emerge in the direction, e.g., parallel to the corresponding ray fb, which proceeds in the same compass bearing from another part of the apparatus and so of any other ray fc which is bent parallel to the ray fa." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Straight Prisms

"Condensing Straight Prisms.—These, either by reflexion or refraction or both, cause a ray fr…