The spindle at either end of an axletree.

Shaft Axle

The spindle at either end of an axletree.

This Roman base is a design found in the Capitalone museum of Rome, Italy. It is a design of leaves encircling the bottom the shaft.

Roman Base

This Roman base is a design found in the Capitalone museum of Rome, Italy. It is a design of leaves…

This Roman base is found in the Temple of Concord in Rome, Italy. It is a natural method of decoration, where a row of artificial leaves encircle the shaft.

Roman Base

This Roman base is found in the Temple of Concord in Rome, Italy. It is a natural method of decoration,…

This Roman base is found in the Baptistery of Constantinople, Rome, Italy. It is a natural method of decoration, where a row of artificial leaves encircle the shaft.

Roman Base

This Roman base is found in the Baptistery of Constantinople, Rome, Italy. It is a natural method of…

The Antique Candelabrum shaft has a richer profile that swells with leaves and then diminishes.

Antique Candelabrum Shaft

The Antique Candelabrum shaft has a richer profile that swells with leaves and then diminishes.

The Italian Renaissance candelabrum shaft is richly decorated with foliage and figures.

Italian Renaissance Candelabrum Shaft

The Italian Renaissance candelabrum shaft is richly decorated with foliage and figures.

The mast-socket candelabrum shaft is a design made out of bronze that ascends with varied trophies, festoons and figures. It is an Italian Renaissance design that is found in the Piazza of St. Mark in Venice, Italy.

Mast-Socket Candelabrum Shaft

The mast-socket candelabrum shaft is a design made out of bronze that ascends with varied trophies,…

The Roman candelabrum shaft is a design made out of marble. It is richly decorated with foliage and human figures.

Roman Candelabrum Shaft

The Roman candelabrum shaft is a design made out of marble. It is richly decorated with foliage and…

The Roman candelabrum shaft is a design made out of marble. It is richly decorated with foliage and human figures.

Roman Candelabrum Shaft

The Roman candelabrum shaft is a design made out of marble. It is richly decorated with foliage and…

The Holy water-stoup candelabrum-like shaft is an Italian Renaissance design that is found in the Pisa Cathedral.

Holy Water-Stoup Candelabrum-like Shaft

The Holy water-stoup candelabrum-like shaft is an Italian Renaissance design that is found in the Pisa…

The byzantine capital is found in the St. Sophia in Turkey. This design is called a Trapeziform, a byzantine design that has a cylindrical shaft continued to the square abacus.

Byzantine Capital

The byzantine capital is found in the St. Sophia in Turkey. This design is called a Trapeziform, a byzantine…

The Roman decorated shaft is a marble design of naturalistic plant-forms.

Roman Decorated Shaft

The Roman decorated shaft is a marble design of naturalistic plant-forms.

The decorated shaft column is designed with intarsia a form of wood inlaying. It is a German Renaissance design.

Column Decorated Shaft

The decorated shaft column is designed with intarsia a form of wood inlaying. It is a German Renaissance…

The Italian Renaissance decorated shaft is designed on a tomb in St. Maria del Popolo in Rome, Italy. It is a design of foliage and festoons.

Italian Renaissance Decorated Shaft

The Italian Renaissance decorated shaft is designed on a tomb in St. Maria del Popolo in Rome, Italy.…

The Romanesque decorated shaft is a design of geometrical networks.

Romanesque Decorated Shaft

The Romanesque decorated shaft is a design of geometrical networks.

"A shaft runs through the machine from end to end, carrying a pulley, P, at one end, a commutator, c, at the other end, and a wheel armature, R, at the middle. The armature carries eight or more helices of insulated wire, H H, connected in pairs. As the shaft is turned by the action of the belt upon the pulley, the armature and the commutator are turned with it." — Avery, 1895

Brush dynamo

"A shaft runs through the machine from end to end, carrying a pulley, P, at one end, a commutator, c,…

A light fixture or luminaire is an electrical device used to create artificial light.

Lighting Fixture

A light fixture or luminaire is an electrical device used to create artificial light.

The finial foliated shaft is a Greek design of the choragic monument of Lysikrates in Athens.

Finial Foliated Shaft

The finial foliated shaft is a Greek design of the choragic monument of Lysikrates in Athens.

The Graeco-Italic foliated shaft is a lamp-stand made out of bronze. It is a design that is inspired by nature which includes branches, leaves, a bird and it's nest.

Graeco-Italic Foliated Shaft

The Graeco-Italic foliated shaft is a lamp-stand made out of bronze. It is a design that is inspired…

The foliated shaft support comes from a mural painting found in Pompeii.

Foliated Shaft Support

The foliated shaft support comes from a mural painting found in Pompeii.

The foliated shaft support comes from a mural painting found in Pompeii.

Foliated Shaft Support

The foliated shaft support comes from a mural painting found in Pompeii.

The part of shaft foliated is a Roman state-candelabrum that is made out of marble. It is found at the Vatican museum in Rome, Italy.

Part of Shaft Foliated

The part of shaft foliated is a Roman state-candelabrum that is made out of marble. It is found at the…

Gray & Davis starting motor with reduction gearing for open flywheel. 1-Motor Pinion; 2-Intermediate Gear; 5-Intermediate Shaft; 6-Sliding Pinion; 7-Shifter Fork; 8-Shifter Rod; 10-Clevis; 12-Switch Rod; 23, 24, and 25-Oilers; 26-Oil Plug.

Gray and Davis Motor

Gray & Davis starting motor with reduction gearing for open flywheel. 1-Motor Pinion; 2-Intermediate…

The opening of the shaft beneath Hell Gate, New York.

Hell Gate

The opening of the shaft beneath Hell Gate, New York.

An illustration of horizontal and vertical mine shaft placement.

Mine Shaft Placement

An illustration of horizontal and vertical mine shaft placement.

An illustration of a man sitting in a coal mine shaft with a shovel in hand.

Miner

An illustration of a man sitting in a coal mine shaft with a shovel in hand.

"Corinthian Order. From the Monument of Lysicrates, at Athens." —D'Anvers, 1895

Corinthian order

"Corinthian Order. From the Monument of Lysicrates, at Athens." —D'Anvers, 1895

"Doric Order. From the Temple at Selinus." —D'Anvers, 1895

Doric Order

"Doric Order. From the Temple at Selinus." —D'Anvers, 1895

"Ionic order. From the Temple of Athene (Minerva) at Priene." —D'Anvers, 1895

Ionic order

"Ionic order. From the Temple of Athene (Minerva) at Priene." —D'Anvers, 1895

The candelabrum-like column profiled shaft is a French Renaissance design.

Candelabrum-Like Column Profiled Shaft

The candelabrum-like column profiled shaft is a French Renaissance design.

The column profiled shaft is a modern design that is more three dimensional with flat ornamentation used on the top.

Column Profiled Shaft

The column profiled shaft is a modern design that is more three dimensional with flat ornamentation…

The column profiled shaft is a modern design that is more three dimensional with flat ornamentation used on the top.

Column Profiled Shaft

The column profiled shaft is a modern design that is more three dimensional with flat ornamentation…

The lower part of column profiled shaft is a design found in the Mayence Cathedral in Germany.

Lower Part of Column Profiled Shaft

The lower part of column profiled shaft is a design found in the Mayence Cathedral in Germany.

The lower part of column profiled shaft is a design found in the Palais du Commerce in Lyons, France.

Lower Part of Column Profiled Shaft

The lower part of column profiled shaft is a design found in the Palais du Commerce in Lyons, France.

"The principle of proving a mineral field by boring is illustrated in [the illustration], which represents a line direct from the dip to the rise of the field, the inclination of the strata being one in eight." -Britannica, 1910

Proving Mineral Field

"The principle of proving a mineral field by boring is illustrated in [the illustration], which represents…

A pulley, also called a sheave or a drum, is a mechanism composed of a wheel on an axle or shaft that may have a groove between two flanges around its circumference. A rope, cable, belt, or chain usually runs over the wheel and inside the groove, if present. Pulleys are used to change the direction of an applied force, transmit rotational motion, or realize a mechanical advantage in either a linear or rotational system of motion. Two or more pulleys together are called a block and tackle.

Pulley

A pulley, also called a sheave or a drum, is a mechanism composed of a wheel on an axle or shaft that…

This railing is made out of wrought iron. It has a spike like design that is similar to flower buds at the top and center of each shaft.

Railing

This railing is made out of wrought iron. It has a spike like design that is similar to flower buds…

This illustrates how to determine the force required to turn a connecting rod of a steam engine.

Connecting Rod of a Steam Engine

This illustrates how to determine the force required to turn a connecting rod of a steam engine.

"a, scroll-wheel, intermeshing with the pinion b, which, sliding by a feather on the shaft, c, imparts a gradually decreasing velocity to the latter as b is moved toward the center of a." -Whitney, 1911

Scroll Wheel

"a, scroll-wheel, intermeshing with the pinion b, which, sliding by a feather on the shaft, c, imparts…

Shaft carrying switch-contact and gear-shifting.

Shaft

Shaft carrying switch-contact and gear-shifting.

"Until hard rock is reached the sides of the excavation are supported temporarily by a lining"—Finley, 1917

Shaft lining

"Until hard rock is reached the sides of the excavation are supported temporarily by a lining"—Finley,…

"Until hard rock is reached the sides of the excavation are supported temporarily by a lining"—Finley, 1917

Shaft lining

"Until hard rock is reached the sides of the excavation are supported temporarily by a lining"—Finley,…

Shaft wall from mining.

Shaft wall

Shaft wall from mining.

The part of an engine which translates reciprocating linear piston motion into rotation.

Crank Shaft

The part of an engine which translates reciprocating linear piston motion into rotation.

The decorated shaft is found in a church in Tournus, France. It is a design of geometrical networks.

Decorated Shaft

The decorated shaft is found in a church in Tournus, France. It is a design of geometrical networks.

A shaft in a building which serves as an air passage in a building.

Ventilation Shaft

A shaft in a building which serves as an air passage in a building.

A trepan used for boring large shafts.

Large trepan

A trepan used for boring large shafts.

A trepan used for boring small shafts.

Small trepan

A trepan used for boring small shafts.