"An instrument illustrating the expansive force of steam generated in a closed vessel, and escaping through a narrow aperture, said to have been invented by Hero of Alexandria in the second century B.C. "-Whitney, 1902

Aeolipile

"An instrument illustrating the expansive force of steam generated in a closed vessel, and escaping…

"A motor employing the elastic force of air expanded by heat, or air compressed by means of another and separate motor, which is generally a steam engine."-Whitney, 1902

Air-engine

"A motor employing the elastic force of air expanded by heat, or air compressed by means of another…

"A form of air-engine which was invented in 1816 by the Rev. R. Stirling is of special interest as embodying the earliest application of what is known as the "regenerative" principle, the principle namely that heat may be deposited by a substance at one stage of its action and taken up again at another stage but with little loss, and with a great resulting change in the substance's temperature at each of the two stages in the operation." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Stirling's Air Engine

"A form of air-engine which was invented in 1816 by the Rev. R. Stirling is of special interest as embodying…

One of the earliest models of the automobile, which was steam-powered.

A Precursor of the Automobile

One of the earliest models of the automobile, which was steam-powered.

"Sectional view of diving bell and barge, employed on the River Clyde. All the appliances are worked by steam, rendering manual labour unnecessary. A is the Bell, which is raised and lowered by means of the Chain and Steam Winch B. c c are Seats within the Bell; d d, Footboards. E, Air-pipe entering the Bell at f, the air being supplied by Air-pump G driven by the Engine H. J is a Steam Crane for raising or lowering material. K K, Steam Winches for working moorings and shifting position of the barge." -Hill, 1921

Barge with Diving Bell

"Sectional view of diving bell and barge, employed on the River Clyde. All the appliances are worked…

A German passenger steam ship.

Steam Boat

A German passenger steam ship.

A steam ship that aids in daily transportation.

Steam Boat

A steam ship that aids in daily transportation.

Apparatus used to boil water into steam.

Steam Boiler

Apparatus used to boil water into steam.

"In 1629 Giovanni Branca, an Italian, contrived a machine which was employed for the various purposes of raising water, of sawing timber and pounding materials. His machine consisted of a wheel furnished with flat vanes around its circumference, like the boards of a paddle-wheel. Upon these vanes, steam was propelled from a close vessel, called an eolipile. A rotary motion was produced, and communicated to appropriate machinery. The results, however, of these and other discoveries made about this period, have never been rendered applicable to the purposes for which the modern steam engine is adapted." —Comstock, 1850

Brancas Engine

"In 1629 Giovanni Branca, an Italian, contrived a machine which was employed for the various purposes…

An illustration of a locomotive broiler.

Locomotive Broiler

An illustration of a locomotive broiler.

A cartoon of a man holding an envelope in one hand and a steaming tea kettle in the other hand. A cat sits at his feet.

Cartoon of Man, Cat, and Tea Kettle

A cartoon of a man holding an envelope in one hand and a steaming tea kettle in the other hand. A cat…

"For many purposes compressed air is preferable to steam or other gas for use as a motive power. In such cases air compressors are used to compress air. These are made in many forms, but the most common one is to place a cylinder, called the air cylinder, in front of the crosshead of a steam engine, so that the piston of the air cylinder can be driven by attaching its piston rod to the crosshead in a manner similar to a steam pump." —Hallock 1905

Air Compressor

"For many purposes compressed air is preferable to steam or other gas for use as a motive power. In…

"The simplest idea of a crank is that of a handle to a wheel; its action is familiarly illustrated in the process of drawing water from a well: the bent handle attached to the wheel is first pushed out, then pulled in the opposite direction, and thus a continued rotatory motion is produced upon an axle. The application of this principle to the steam engine, and the variations of pressure on the crank of a steam enginre, may be conveniently illustrated by curves." —Comstock, 1850

Crank

"The simplest idea of a crank is that of a handle to a wheel; its action is familiarly illustrated in…

This centrifugal creamer is a machine used to separate cream through a steam power source which helps the cream stay warm.

Centrifugal Creamer

This centrifugal creamer is a machine used to separate cream through a steam power source which helps…

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its double action, it is necessary to provide, at each end of the cylinder, a means of admission of steam from the boiler, and of escape for the steam to the condenser. Hence the double action, which means that the piston is both raised and depressed by the force of steam. For this purpose, a steam box is fixed to each end of the cylinder, communicating, in the one case with the upper, in the other with the lower, surface of the piston. B is the upper, and and B' the lower, steam box. Each of these boxes is furnished with two valves." —Comstock, 1850

Double-acting Cylinder

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its…

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its double action, it is necessary to provide, at each end of the cylinder, a means of admission of steam from the boiler, and of escape for the steam to the condenser. Hence the double action, which means that the piston is both raised and depressed by the force of steam. For this purpose, a steam box is fixed to each end of the cylinder, communicating, in the one case with the upper, in the other with the lower, surface of the piston. B is the upper, and and B' the lower, steam box. Each of these boxes is furnished with two valves." —Comstock, 1850

Double-acting Cylinder

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its…

"A transverse section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley, 1917

Transverse section of a double-column hammer

"A transverse section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley,…

"A vertical section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley, 1917

Vertical section of a double-hammer column

"A vertical section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley,…

"Longitudinal section of hopper dredger, employed on the River Clyde. The vessel steams to place of working and is moored by the Steam Winches A A at bow and stern to buoys, the Bucket Ladder B is then lowered by steam power, and thereafter Buckets set in motion by gearing C C. The depth of water at which the Bucket Ladder dredges is regulated by the Hoisting Shears and Chain Barrel D D, driven by shafting E E from the Engines. The Buckets discharge the material by the shoot F into the Hopper G. The dredged material is discharged by the doors of the Hopper being opened by the Lifting Chains H H. These doors are hinged on to the side of Vessel, and suspended at centre by the Lifting Chains, which are connected to geared Crab Winches I I." -Hill, 1921

Hopper Dredger

"Longitudinal section of hopper dredger, employed on the River Clyde. The vessel steams to place of…

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water out of C. G is closed and cold water enters through I causing a vacuum drawing water up through F." —Quackenbos 1859

Savery's Engine

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water…

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive force of steam as a motive power. It is a real heat-engine, transforming heat into mechanical energy." — Avery, 1895

Steam engine

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive…

This design with natural induction used for marine purposes was the popular “Scotch” marine boiler, a scheme for a multi-tube one-pass horizontal boiler made up of two units: a firebox surrounded by water spaces and a boiler barrel consisting of two telescopic rings inside which were mounted 25 copper tubes; the tube bundle occupied much of the water space in the barrel and vastly improved heat transfer.

Steam Boiler Engine

This design with natural induction used for marine purposes was the popular “Scotch” marine boiler,…

"Used a boiler to produce steam, chambers to condense it, and drive the pistons of the engine." —Quackenbos 1859

Watt's Double-Acting Condensing Steam-Engine

"Used a boiler to produce steam, chambers to condense it, and drive the pistons of the engine." —Quackenbos…

"In this mode of evaporating a variety of plans and arrangements for connivence are employed. The pans are made in the form of a shallow box, with a common sheet-iron, galvanized iron, or copper bottom, frequently with flaring sides or shores, on which the scum collects and remains until removed at the convenience of the operator. These pans are frequently made with partitions, which divide them into two or more compartments, into which the juice, as it becomes defecated and partly concentrated in one, is successively transferred to the next." -Commissioner, 1865

Intermittent evaporation process

"In this mode of evaporating a variety of plans and arrangements for connivence are employed. The pans…

This painting by J. William Turner is a prime example of the style and technique that he often used. The piece was exhibited in 1839 and can now be found in the National Gallery in Washington D.C.

Fighting Temeraire

This painting by J. William Turner is a prime example of the style and technique that he often used.…

An early fire engine.

Fire Engine

An early fire engine.

"A Fire Engine is a machine employed for throwing a jet of water for the purpose of extinguishing fires. The more recently constructed fire engines include contrivances for preventing the entrance of mud and gravel. They are usually drawn by two horses, though smaller engines are made to be drawn by hand or by one horse, while steam-propelled engines are in use in some cities."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Steam Fire Engine

"A Fire Engine is a machine employed for throwing a jet of water for the purpose of extinguishing fires.…

"The force-pump differs from others in having its piston solid, or without a valve, and also in having a side pipe with a valve opening outwards, through which the water is forced to any height required, or against any pressure that may oppose it." -Marshall

Steam-engine Force Pump

"The force-pump differs from others in having its piston solid, or without a valve, and also in having…

"A massive square framework of wood, mounted on six sarp disc wheels, each about two feet in diameter, which cut deep into the ground, and on the lightest land they can hold as effectually to resist the pull of the rope which is passed around the sheave beneath." — Chambers, 1881

Fowler's Anchor

"A massive square framework of wood, mounted on six sarp disc wheels, each about two feet in diameter,…

"Forler's Anchor, Engine, and Plough at work." — Chambers, 1881

Fowler's Inventions

"Forler's Anchor, Engine, and Plough at work." — Chambers, 1881

"A framework of iron, balanced upon two large wheels. To each side of this framework there are attached four plough-bodies and coulters, so that four furrows are cut at one 'bout,' and the headland on which the anchor is stationed being reached, the end of the beam that was out of the ground is depressed, and the four plough-bodies that were out of the ground, and which point in the opposite direction, are inserted in the soil, and turn up the furrows on the way back to the engine." — Chambers, 1881

Fowler's Plough

"A framework of iron, balanced upon two large wheels. To each side of this framework there are attached…

"In 1854, Mr. Fowler exhibited his patent steam-draining apparatus at the Lincoln meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society of England; and from this time may be dated the practical history of cultivation of the land byy steam; for the idea that such an apparatus could be wrought advantageously in other field-operations entered the mind of a practical farmer, Mr. Smith of Woolston, near Bletchley; and under the direction of Mr. Fowler, he got construced an apparatus with modifications." — Chambers, 1881

Fowler's Steam-engine

"In 1854, Mr. Fowler exhibited his patent steam-draining apparatus at the Lincoln meeting of the Royal…

"Fowlers Steam-Plough as at work." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Fowler's Steam-Plough

"Fowlers Steam-Plough as at work." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Governor, used for regulating output of steam engines.

Governor

Governor, used for regulating output of steam engines.

"Porter's governor, a modification of Watt's original model."—Finley, 1917

Porter's governor

"Porter's governor, a modification of Watt's original model."—Finley, 1917

"Watt's method of regulation, which consists in varying the pressure of the steam supplied to the engine by opening or closing more or less a valve in the supply pipe."—Finley, 1917

Watt's governor

"Watt's method of regulation, which consists in varying the pressure of the steam supplied to the engine…

A vacuum steam heating system from the late 19th century.

Heating System

A vacuum steam heating system from the late 19th century.

"Hero's Machine. The generation of steam from water by the application of heat, and the mechanical force produced by this means, appear to have been understood at a very remote period; but their application to machinery devoted to the purposes of locomotion, is a discovery of recent date. The ingenious contrivances of early discoverers were devoted to objects of minor importance, as those of raising water and propelling smoke upwards." —Comstock, 1850

Hero's Machine

"Hero's Machine. The generation of steam from water by the application of heat, and the mechanical force…

"Hotbeds may be heated by means of either steam or hot water. They can be piped from the heater in a dwelling-house or greenhouse." — Baily, 1898

Pipe-heated hotbed

"Hotbeds may be heated by means of either steam or hot water. They can be piped from the heater in a…

A kettle on the stove.

Kettle

A kettle on the stove.

Man with boiling kettle.

Man

Man with boiling kettle.

"This coffee apparatus consists of a glass globe a, an infusing jar b, of glass or porcelain and a bent tube c of block tin or German silver fitted by a cork stopper into the neck of the globe and passing to the bottom of the jar, where it ends in a finely perforated disc. The apparatus also requires a spirit lamp d or other means of communicating a certain amount of heat to the globe. The coffee is infused with boiling water in the jar, and a small quantity of boiling water is also placed in the globe. The tube is then fitted in, and the spirit lamp is lighted under the globe. The steam generated expels the air from the globe, and it bubbles up through the jar. When the bubbles of air cease to appear almost the whole of the air will have been ejected, and on withdrawing the lamp the steam in the globe condenses, creating a vacuum, to fill up which the infused coffee rushes up through the metal tube, being at the same time filtered by the accumulated coffee grounds around the perforated disc." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Napier's Coffee Apparatus

"This coffee apparatus consists of a glass globe a, an infusing jar b, of glass or porcelain and a bent…

"The simple outline of the atmospheric engine. Its mode of operation is as follows. Steam is admitted from the boiler into the cylinder, through the tube l, by means of a regulating cock, e, which is worked by a handle outside the boiler; the pressure of the atmosphere above the piston being thus balanced by the force of the steam beneath it, the extremity of the lever beam to whch the piston is attached is elevated by proportionate weights, w, attached to the pump-rod, and the piston is drawn to the top of the cylinder, the other extremity of the beam being depressed." —Comstock, 1850

Newcomens Engine

"The simple outline of the atmospheric engine. Its mode of operation is as follows. Steam is admitted…

Opposite side of steam spraying apparatus constructed by the Shade and Fruit Tree Protective Association of New York.

Opposite Side of Steam Spray Apparatus

Opposite side of steam spraying apparatus constructed by the Shade and Fruit Tree Protective Association…

An illustration of the pilot house on the Great Republic, a steam power river boat.

Pilot House

An illustration of the pilot house on the Great Republic, a steam power river boat.

A Steam-Driven Gang Plow.

Gang Plow

A Steam-Driven Gang Plow.

A portable, external, combustion heat engine that converts steam in to mechanical work.

Portable Steam-Engine

A portable, external, combustion heat engine that converts steam in to mechanical work.

Griffith's Propeller, a common form of screw-propeller.

Griffith's Propeller

Griffith's Propeller, a common form of screw-propeller.

Thornycroft's propeller, a common form of screw propeller.

Thornycroft's propeller

Thornycroft's propeller, a common form of screw propeller.

"An instrument of the pump kind for raising water, especially when that liquid is mixed with solid matter. It acts by the condensation of waste steam sent into a reservoir, the water rushing up into the vacuum formed by the condensation." -Marshall

Water Pulsometer

"An instrument of the pump kind for raising water, especially when that liquid is mixed with solid matter.…

"Steam pumps are force pumps operated by steam acting on the piston of a steam engine directly connected to the pump, and in many cases cast with the pump. A section of a double-acting steam pump, showing the steam and water cylinders, with other details, is illustrated [here]." —Hallock 1905

Steam Pump

"Steam pumps are force pumps operated by steam acting on the piston of a steam engine directly connected…

"A peculiar-shaped vessel called a retort is half filled with a volatile liquid and heated; the steam, as it forms, passes through the neck of the retort into a glass receiver contained in a vessel filled with cold water, and is then condensed." —Wells, 1857

Retort

"A peculiar-shaped vessel called a retort is half filled with a volatile liquid and heated; the steam,…

An illustration of the Great Republic, a steam power river boat.

Riverboat

An illustration of the Great Republic, a steam power river boat.

The first steamship in the world to cross the Atlantic Ocean.

The Savannah

The first steamship in the world to cross the Atlantic Ocean.

"Savery's Steam Engine. The adjoining figure illustrates the apparatus employed by Savory. It consists of a furnace and a boiler B; from the latter, two pipes, furnished with stop-cocks C, proceed to two steam vessels S, only one of which is shown in the figure, the other being immediately behind it. Into the bottom of each of these steam vessels is inserted a branching pipe, connected with a descending main pipe D, and an ascending main pipe A; each branching pipe is furnished with valves a, b, which open upwards, and prevent, by their action, the return of any water which may have been forced up through them." —Comstock, 1850

Savery Engine

"Savery's Steam Engine. The adjoining figure illustrates the apparatus employed by Savory. It consists…

A steam boat of the Austrian Lloyd shipping company.

Austrian Lloyd Ship

A steam boat of the Austrian Lloyd shipping company.

Geared automatic sprayer used by J. S. Lupton, Winchester, VA.

Lupton's Automatic Sprayer

Geared automatic sprayer used by J. S. Lupton, Winchester, VA.

This illustration shows a standard Lowe water gas apparatus.

Standard Lowe Water Gas Apparatus

This illustration shows a standard Lowe water gas apparatus.

Side view of a steam apparatus constructed by Stephen Hoyt's Sons, New Canaan, Conn.

Steam Apparatus

Side view of a steam apparatus constructed by Stephen Hoyt's Sons, New Canaan, Conn.

Steam apparatus owned by the Farmington Forestry Club, Farmington, Conn.

Steam Apparatus

Steam apparatus owned by the Farmington Forestry Club, Farmington, Conn.