"Abutilon macropodum. 1. an unexpanded flower; 2. the stamens and styles; 3. a ripe fruit, consisting of many carpels, whose upper extremities are free and radiant." -Lindley, 1853

Abutilon

"Abutilon macropodum. 1. an unexpanded flower; 2. the stamens and styles; 3. a ripe fruit, consisting…

One of five stamen-clusters of the flower of American Linden, with accompanying scale.

American Linden

One of five stamen-clusters of the flower of American Linden, with accompanying scale.

Section of the ovary of Anemone, showing its suspended ovule.

Ovary of Anemone

Section of the ovary of Anemone, showing its suspended ovule.

"Asparagus. a, a young shoot; b, flowers; c, the upper end of a stem, showing branches, leaves, and fruit (all reduced.)" — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Asparagus

"Asparagus. a, a young shoot; b, flowers; c, the upper end of a stem, showing branches, leaves, and…

"A genus of Palms, of which about sixeen species are known, natives of tropical America, remarkable for the abundance of acute and formidable spines, in some cases, a foot long, with which almost every part- stem, leaves, spathe, and fruit-stalk-is armed." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Astrocaryum

"A genus of Palms, of which about sixeen species are known, natives of tropical America, remarkable…

"Axillary.--Placed in the axilla (arm-pit). A term by which the angle formed by the union of the leaf and the stem is designated." -Newman, 1850

Axillary

"Axillary.--Placed in the axilla (arm-pit). A term by which the angle formed by the union of the leaf…

"Lophira alata. a an anther; b a perpendicular section of an ovary; e a fruit; d a perpendicular section of a fruit." -Lindley, 1853

Azobe

"Lophira alata. a an anther; b a perpendicular section of an ovary; e a fruit; d a perpendicular section…

"Balsam (Impatiens Noli-me-tangere). a, top of stem with leaves and flowers; b, ripe fruit unopened; c, ripe fruit, elastically opening." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Balsam

"Balsam (Impatiens Noli-me-tangere). a, top of stem with leaves and flowers; b, ripe fruit unopened;…

"Bamboo. a.- upper portion of the stem with foliage. b.- root stem. c.- section of stem. Bamboo, the common name of the arborescent grasses belonging to the genus Bambusa." -Vaughan, 1906

Bamboo

"Bamboo. a.- upper portion of the stem with foliage. b.- root stem. c.- section of stem. Bamboo, the…

"Berberis vulgaris. 1. stamen; 2. perpendicular section of a pistil with one stamen and one petal adhering; 3. cross section of the fruit; 4. 5. perpendicular section of the seed of B. bulgaris and B. Aquifolium." -Lindley, 1853

European Barberry

"Berberis vulgaris. 1. stamen; 2. perpendicular section of a pistil with one stamen and one petal adhering;…

"A perennial plant with long creeping stems, heart-shaped leaves on long stalks, and variously lobed, large purple flowers much resembling those of the best known species of Convolvulus, and very large oblong acuminated tubers." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Batatas

"A perennial plant with long creeping stems, heart-shaped leaves on long stalks, and variously lobed,…

"Successive stages in the life history of the bean seedling. AA, the surface of the ground; r, primary root; r', secondary root; c, hypocotyl; a, arch of hypocotyl; co, cotyledons." -Bergen, 1896

Bean Seed Stages

"Successive stages in the life history of the bean seedling. AA, the surface of the ground; r, primary…

"Young seedling of windsor bean. c, cotyledon; r, root; s, stem." -Bergen, 1896

Windsor Bean Seedling

"Young seedling of windsor bean. c, cotyledon; r, root; s, stem." -Bergen, 1896

A bean plant showing roots, stem, leaves, and beans.

Bean Sprout

A bean plant showing roots, stem, leaves, and beans.

"Callicarpa longifolia. 1. flower opened longitudinally; 2. part of fruit of C. americana; 3. its seed." -Lindley, 1853

Beautyberry

"Callicarpa longifolia. 1. flower opened longitudinally; 2. part of fruit of C. americana; 3. its seed."…

"Pistacia atlantica. 1. male flowers; 2. an ovary; 3. the same cut open to show the ovule; 4. a ripe fruit opened to show the seed; 5. a cross section of the embryo; 6. female flowers." -Lindley, 1853

Betoum

"Pistacia atlantica. 1. male flowers; 2. an ovary; 3. the same cut open to show the ovule; 4. a ripe…

"Blackberry knot gall common on the stems of the blackberry." —Davison, 1906

Blackberry Knot

"Blackberry knot gall common on the stems of the blackberry." —Davison, 1906

"Branch of Common Bramble. a.-- Flower; b.-- Fruit. Bramble, the name commonly applied to the bush with trailing prickly stems which bears the well-known berries usually called in Scotland brambles, and in England blackberries." -Vaughan, 1906

Common Bramble

"Branch of Common Bramble. a.-- Flower; b.-- Fruit. Bramble, the name commonly applied to the bush with…

British Golden-rod is a member of the large composite genus Solidago, which is chiefly North American. The golden-rods are erect plants, little branched, and often somewhat woody at the base. The foliage is various, usually somewhat lanceolate in shape, and sometimes conspicuously veined. The tiny heads have one series of white or yellow ray-flowers, and are gathered into various forms of inflorescence, often of a massive character; they appear in late summer and early autumn. Although of no commercial value (except as forage for sheep) the golden-rods are conspicuous for their bright color, especially as they are apt to grow in huge colonies in fields and along roadsides.

British Golden-rod

British Golden-rod is a member of the large composite genus Solidago, which is chiefly North American.…

Section of the ovary of Buckwheat, showing the erect ovule.

Ovary of Buckwheat

Section of the ovary of Buckwheat, showing the erect ovule.

"a.-- Truncated bulb of onion; b.-- onion leaf dissected off; c.-- bulb of lily. Bulb, a modified leaf-bud, formed on a plant upon or beneath the surface of the ground, emitting roots from its base, and producing a stem from its center." -Vaughan, 1906

Various Bulbs

"a.-- Truncated bulb of onion; b.-- onion leaf dissected off; c.-- bulb of lily. Bulb, a modified leaf-bud,…

"1. Flowering plant of Bulrush (Scirpus lacustris). 2. The inflorescence. a, a flower; b, the fruit." -Whitney, 1911

Bulrush

"1. Flowering plant of Bulrush (Scirpus lacustris). 2. The inflorescence. a, a flower; b, the fruit."…

Section of the ovary of a Buttercup, lengthwise, showing its ascending ovule.

Ovary of a Buttercup

Section of the ovary of a Buttercup, lengthwise, showing its ascending ovule.

The Heron Candelabrum has a design of heron birds that support the stem.

Heron Candelabrum

The Heron Candelabrum has a design of heron birds that support the stem.

A diagram showing six different parts of a grape vine. These parts include the shoot, cane, arm, branch, spur, and stem (trunk).

Ideal Vine for Cane Renewal

A diagram showing six different parts of a grape vine. These parts include the shoot, cane, arm, branch,…

"Capsicum, a genus of annual, sub-shrubby plants, with a wheel-shaped corolla, projecting and converging stamens, and a many-seeded berry." -Vaughan, 1906

Capsicum

"Capsicum, a genus of annual, sub-shrubby plants, with a wheel-shaped corolla, projecting and converging…

"Casearia grandiflora. 1. part of a calyx split open; 2. the pistil half grown; 3. section across the ovary; 4. section of seed; 5. seed; 6. aril, removed from the seed." -Lindley, 1853

Casearia

"Casearia grandiflora. 1. part of a calyx split open; 2. the pistil half grown; 3. section across the…

An illustration of a bunch of cherries on the stem.

Cherries

An illustration of a bunch of cherries on the stem.

Circaea with angles bearing little lobes.

Circaea

Circaea with angles bearing little lobes.

"Cissampelos tropaeolifolia. 1. a female flower; 2. a portion of a fruit, with the seed laid bare; 3. a perpendicular section of a fruit." -Lindley, 1853

Cissampelos

"Cissampelos tropaeolifolia. 1. a female flower; 2. a portion of a fruit, with the seed laid bare; 3.…

"Cistus Berthelotianus. 1. a vertical section of ovary and calyx; 2. a seed cut through; the pointed end being the true apex." -Lindley, 1853

Cistus

"Cistus Berthelotianus. 1. a vertical section of ovary and calyx; 2. a seed cut through; the pointed…

Flower of a Cleome of the section Gynandropsis, showing broadened receptacles to bear petals, lengthened stripe below stamens, and another between these and pistil.

Flower of a Cleome

Flower of a Cleome of the section Gynandropsis, showing broadened receptacles to bear petals, lengthened…

1, convolvulus (twining stem).

Climbing Plants

1, convolvulus (twining stem).

"Symphytum officinale; 2. a diagram of its flower; 3. its pistil; 4. the calyx opened, with two of the nuts remaining; 5. a vertical section of a nut." -Lindley, 1853

Comfrey

"Symphytum officinale; 2. a diagram of its flower; 3. its pistil; 4. the calyx opened, with two of the…

"Convolvulus: a, part of stem with leaves and flower; b, a flower-stalk and flower, the corolla and stamens removed." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Convolvulus

"Convolvulus: a, part of stem with leaves and flower; b, a flower-stalk and flower, the corolla and…

Five syngenesious stamens of a Coreopsis.

Coreopsis

Five syngenesious stamens of a Coreopsis.

"Corn Fly (Chlorops taeniopus): a, a portion of a culm or stem of wheat with swollen joint, caused by larva of corn fly; b, larva; c, pupa; d, fly, natural size; c, fly, magnified." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Corn Fly

"Corn Fly (Chlorops taeniopus): a, a portion of a culm or stem of wheat with swollen joint, caused by…

"Cranberry (Vaccinium palustris): a, part of stem and branches, with roots, leaves, and flowers; b, a berry; c, transverse section of a berry." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Cranberry

"Cranberry (Vaccinium palustris): a, part of stem and branches, with roots, leaves, and flowers; b,…

Leafy shoot and berry (cut across) of the larger Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon.

Cranberry

Leafy shoot and berry (cut across) of the larger Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon.

Cranberry-blossom in section; parts epigynous.

Cranberry-Blossom

Cranberry-blossom in section; parts epigynous.

"Erucastrum Canariense. 1. a flower. 2. the stamens; 3. the siliqua, with the valve separating from the replum; 4. a transverse section of a seed; 5. a perfect seed." -Lindley, 1853

Crucifer

"Erucastrum Canariense. 1. a flower. 2. the stamens; 3. the siliqua, with the valve separating from…

The Squirting or Exploding Cucumber (Ecballium elaterium) is a cucumber plant named for squirting a stream of liquid containing its seeds.

Squirting Cucumber

The Squirting or Exploding Cucumber (Ecballium elaterium) is a cucumber plant named for squirting a…

"Cyme is produced when a single flower at the top of the stem has two branches, one on each side, which in turn subdivides in the same way."—Darby, 1855

Cyme

"Cyme is produced when a single flower at the top of the stem has two branches, one on each side, which…

"Morphology of a typical dicotyledonous plant. A, leaf, pinnately-netted veined; B, portion of stem, showing concentric layers of wood; C, ground-plan of flower (the parts in 5's); D, perspective of flower; E, longitudinal section of seed, showing dicotyledonous embryo." -Gager, 1916

Dicotyledonous Morphology

"Morphology of a typical dicotyledonous plant. A, leaf, pinnately-netted veined; B, portion of stem,…

Diplusodon arboreus is a flowering plant of the Lythraceae family.

Diplusodon

Diplusodon arboreus is a flowering plant of the Lythraceae family.

"Polygonaceae is mainly a north temperate order. A few genera are tropical which has 125 species restricted to tropical and sub—tropical America. Polygonum has a very wide distribution to the mountains of tropical Africa and South Africa, through the highlands of tropical Asia to Australia, and in America as far south as Chile. Most of the genera have a limited distribution. Of the three which are native in the British Isles." —Encyclopaedia Britannica Company, 1910

Flowers and Leaves of Common Dock

"Polygonaceae is mainly a north temperate order. A few genera are tropical which has 125 species restricted…

Two elaters and some spores from the same.

Elaters of Jungermannia

Two elaters and some spores from the same.

The Elecampane (Inula helenium) is a flowering plant in the Asteraceae family of daisies.

elecampane

The Elecampane (Inula helenium) is a flowering plant in the Asteraceae family of daisies.

This dessert fork has a stem and prongs made of silver in an imitation of twisted branches. The handle is made out of agate (rock crystal).

Dessert Fork

This dessert fork has a stem and prongs made of silver in an imitation of twisted branches. The handle…

Cross section of the ovary of Frost-Weed (Helianthemum), with three parietal placenta, bearing ovules.

Ovary of Frost Weed

Cross section of the ovary of Frost-Weed (Helianthemum), with three parietal placenta, bearing ovules.

A fruiting portion, showing the structure; a sporocarp, and an antheidium.

Fruiting

A fruiting portion, showing the structure; a sporocarp, and an antheidium.

Rusts are fungi in the Uredinales order that are plant parasites and resemble rust."Ravenelia. a, stem of Cassia nictitans with teleutospores on the stem and uredospores on the leaves; b, stem and teleutospores enlarged; c, section showing the teleutospores."

Rust Fungus

Rusts are fungi in the Uredinales order that are plant parasites and resemble rust. "Ravenelia. a, stem…

Forming fruit (capsule) of Gaultheria, with calyx thickening around its base.

Gaultheria

Forming fruit (capsule) of Gaultheria, with calyx thickening around its base.

Section of mature fruit of Gaultheria, the berry-like calyx nearly enclosing the capsule.

Fruit of Gaultheria

Section of mature fruit of Gaultheria, the berry-like calyx nearly enclosing the capsule.

"Seeds Germinating. The central figure shows a plant which has newly appeared above ground." -Whitney, 1911

Germination

"Seeds Germinating. The central figure shows a plant which has newly appeared above ground." -Whitney,…

"Of all the contrivances for regulating the motion of machinery, this is said to be the most effectual. It will be readily understood by the following description. It consists of two heavy iron balls b, attached to the extremities of the two rods, b, e. These rods play on a joint at e, passing through a mortice in the vertical stem d, d. At f, these pieces are united, by joints to two short rods, f, h, which, at their upper ends, are again connected by joints at h, to a ring which slides upon the vertical stem d d." —Comstock, 1850

Governor

"Of all the contrivances for regulating the motion of machinery, this is said to be the most effectual.…

Magnified pollen of Hibiscus and other Mallow plants, beset with prickly projections.

Hibiscus pollen

Magnified pollen of Hibiscus and other Mallow plants, beset with prickly projections.

Cross-section of an ovary of Hypericum graveolens, the three large placenta meeting in the centre, so as to form a three-celled ovary.

Hypericum graveolens

Cross-section of an ovary of Hypericum graveolens, the three large placenta meeting in the centre, so…

Stamen of Isopyrum, with innate anther.

Isopyrum

Stamen of Isopyrum, with innate anther.

The common ivy is a wellknown native of Britian and most parts of Europe and some parts of America. It has long, creeping, branched stems, climbing on trees and walls to a great height, by means of rootlets which cling to rough surfaces.

Ivy

The common ivy is a wellknown native of Britian and most parts of Europe and some parts of America.…