The Parthenon is a temple of the Greek goddess Athena, built in the 5th century BC on the Athenian Acropolis. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered one of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of ancient Greece and of Athenian democracy, and is considered one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. The Greek Ministry of Culture is currently carrying out a program of restoration and reconstruction. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon was used as a treasury, and for a time served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the 6th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin. After the Ottoman conquest, it was converted into a mosque in the early 1460s, and it even had a minaret. On 26 September 1687 an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment. The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. In 1806, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures, with Ottoman permission. These sculptures, now known as the Elgin or Parthenon Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British Museum in London, where they are now displayed. The Greek government is committed to the return of the sculptures to Greece, so far with no success.

Parthenon

The Parthenon is a temple of the Greek goddess Athena, built in the 5th century BC on the Athenian Acropolis.…

"The Parthenon stood on this highest part of the Acropolis, near its centre, and probably occupied the site of an earlier temple destroyed by the Persians. It was entirely of Pentelic marble, on a rustic basement of ordinary limestone, and its architecture, which was of the Doric order, was of purest kind." — Smith, 1882

Parthenon restored

"The Parthenon stood on this highest part of the Acropolis, near its centre, and probably occupied the…

"Ancient Persia was among the great empires that figure in the early history of mankind. Little of their history is known till the conqueror Cyrus ascended the throne, about the year, about 559 B.C." — Goodrich, 1844

Ancient Persia

"Ancient Persia was among the great empires that figure in the early history of mankind. Little of their…

"But Peter said, Silver and gold have I none; but what I have, that give I thee. In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, walk. And he took him by the right hand, and raised him up: and immediately his feet and his ankle-bones received strength." Acts 3:6-7 ASV
<p>Illustration of Peter and John walking up the temple steps and approaching a lame beggar. Peter has a halo over his head and reaches his right arm out over the beggar's head. The beggar looks up and reaches for Peter. He is holding his hat in his hand and his crutch has fallen on the steps. A woman holding a baby and walking with a small child ascends the stairs (left).

Peter Heals a Lame Beggar at the Temple

"But Peter said, Silver and gold have I none; but what I have, that give I thee. In the name of Jesus…

"Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not as the rest of men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. I fast twice in the week; I give tithes of all that I get. But the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote his breast, saying, God, be thou merciful to me a sinner." Luke 18:10-13
<p>Illustration of two men, one a Pharisee and one a publican, praying in the temple. The Pharisee on the right is standing, while the publican on the left kneels and bows on the steps. Incense burns in a large container behind them.

A Pharisee and a Publican Pray in the Temple

"Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. The Pharisee…

"Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not as the rest of men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. I fast twice in the week; I give tithes of all that I get. But the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote his breast, saying, God, be thou merciful to me a sinner." Luke 18:10-13
<p>Illustration of two men, one a Pharisee and one a publican, praying on the steps of the temple. The Pharisee in front is standing, while the publican behind him kneels and bows on the steps, arms folded on his chest. Incense burns in a large container behind them.

A Pharisee and a Publican Praying on the Steps of the Temple

"Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. The Pharisee…

The Roman-Corinthian pilaster capital has a leaf and floral design, then it volutes with a spiral scroll like ornaments on the sides. It is found in the temple of Pantheon in Rome.

Roman-Corinthian Pilaster Capital

The Roman-Corinthian pilaster capital has a leaf and floral design, then it volutes with a spiral scroll…

"Pillar in Hindu temple." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Pillar

"Pillar in Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

"Temple of Poseidon at Paestum." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Poseidon Temple

"Temple of Poseidon at Paestum." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"And when the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled, they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord (as it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord), and to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons." Luke 2:22-24 ASV
<p>Illustration of Mary and Joseph presenting Jesus in the temple forty days after his birth.

Presentation of Jesus in the Temple

"And when the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled, they brought…

"And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity, and she had been a widow even unto fourscore and four years), who departed not from the temple, worshipping with fastings and supplications night and day. And coming up at that very hour she gave thanks unto God, and spake of him to all them that were looking for the redemption of Jerusalem." Luke 2:36-38 ASV
<p>The prophetess  Anna kneels before the infant Jesus who is held by Mary. Joseph looks on.

Presentation of Jesus at the Temple - Encounter with Anna

"And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a…

"And behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Spirit was upon him. And it had been revealed unto him by the Holy Spirit, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord's Christ. And he came in the Spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, that they might do concerning him after the custom of the law, then he received him into his arms, and blessed God, and said, Now lettest thou thy servant depart, Lord, According to thy word, in peace; For mine eyes have seen thy salvation, Which thou hast prepared before the face of all peoples; A light for revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of thy people Israel. And his father and his mother were marvelling at the things which were spoken concerning him; and Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel; and for a sign which is spoken against; yea and a sword shall pierce through thine own soul; that thoughts out of many hearts may be revealed." Luke 2:25-25 ASV
<p>Illustration depicts Simeon holding the infant Jesus. Joseph looks on while Mary holds two turtledoves.

Presentation of Jesus at the Temple - Encounter with Simeon

"And behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous and devout,…

"...and Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel; and for a sign which is spoken against; yea and a sword shall pierce through thine own soul; that thoughts out of many hearts may be revealed." Luke 2:34-35 ASV
<p>Illustration of Simeon prophesying as he holds the baby Jesus in his arms in the temple. Mary reaches out to cradle Jesus in her arms as Joseph stands by, holding a basket. A woman kneels behind Simeon. A priest stands in the background. The scene takes place during the presentation of Jesus at the temple.

The Prophecy of Simeon at the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple

"...and Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the falling…

"And, behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Ghost was upon him. And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord's Christ. And he came by the Spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custom of the law, Then took he him up in his arms, and blessed God, and said, Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word: For mine eyes have seen thy salvation, Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people; A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel." Luke 2: 25-32 KJV <p>Illustration of Simeon holding Jesus in his arms and prophesying. Mary and Joseph stand next to him. Joseph is holding a cage with two turtle doves inside. A prophetess named Anna stands next to Simeon. A domed arch frames Simeon. Onlookers stand to either side.

Simeon Prophesies When Jesus is Presented at the Temple

"And, behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and the same man was just and devout,…

"Sectional Elevation of the Pronaos of a Hexastyle-peripteral Temple." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Pronaos

"Sectional Elevation of the Pronaos of a Hexastyle-peripteral Temple." — Encyclopedia Britanica,…

"A. Pinacotheca, B. Temple of Nike Apteros, C. Pedestal of Agrippa, D. Road leading to the central entrace, E. Central enterance, F. Hail corresponding to the Pinacotheca." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Propylea restored

"A. Pinacotheca, B. Temple of Nike Apteros, C. Pedestal of Agrippa, D. Road leading to the central entrace,…

A monumental gateway, usually between two towers in outline like truncated pyramids.

Propylon

A monumental gateway, usually between two towers in outline like truncated pyramids.

"Prostyle, in architecture, applied to a portico in which the columns stand out quite free from the wall of the building to which it is attached; also applied to a temple or other structure having pillars in front only." -Marshall

Plan view of a Prostyle Temple

"Prostyle, in architecture, applied to a portico in which the columns stand out quite free from the…

Exterior of the Pylon of the Temple of Edfu.

Pylon of the Temple of Edfu

Exterior of the Pylon of the Temple of Edfu.

"Gopura, or gate pyramid to a Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

Gate pyramid

"Gopura, or gate pyramid to a Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

The pyramids of Egypt.

Pyramids

The pyramids of Egypt.

"The best preserved of Roman temples. Located at Nimes in southern France, where it is known as La Maison Carree ("the square house"). The structure is now used as a museum of antiquities."—Webster, 1913

A Roman Temple

"The best preserved of Roman temples. Located at Nimes in southern France, where it is known as La Maison…

The pantheon at Rome is a temple that was built to all the gods of Ancient Rome. It was built by Marcus Agrippa Roman statesman, general, and son-in-law to Emperor Caesar Augustus. The structure has a circular body with columns and a dome that covers the ceiling.

The Pantheon at Rome

The pantheon at Rome is a temple that was built to all the gods of Ancient Rome. It was built by Marcus…

"A Sacrifice. (From a vase-painting by Polygnotus.)"

Sacrifice

"A Sacrifice. (From a vase-painting by Polygnotus.)"

"Temple of Saturn, Tabularium and Tower of Capitol." &mdash; Young, 1901

Temple of Saturn

"Temple of Saturn, Tabularium and Tower of Capitol." — Young, 1901

"Sekos- Plan of the Great Hall of the Mysteries, Eleusis, as excavated in 1888." -Whitney, 1911

Sekos

"Sekos- Plan of the Great Hall of the Mysteries, Eleusis, as excavated in 1888." -Whitney, 1911

"The pagoda forms a very prominent feature in the architecture of Further India. A specimen of the Burmese style of temples is presented in the Shoemadoo." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Pagoda, Shoemadoo

"The pagoda forms a very prominent feature in the architecture of Further India. A specimen of the Burmese…

The Basilica of St. John Lateran (Italian: Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano) is the cathedral of the church of Rome and the official ecclesiastical seat of the Bishop of Rome, who is the Pope. As the cathedral of the Bishop of Rome, containing the papal throne (Cathedra Romana), it ranks above all other churches in the Roman Catholic Church, even above St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican.

St. John's Church, Lateran Palace, Rome

The Basilica of St. John Lateran (Italian: Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano) is the cathedral of…

"And let them make me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them. According to all that I show thee, the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the furniture thereof, even so shall ye make it." Exodus 25:8-9 ASV
<p>Illustration of an aerial view of the Tabernacle. It was built using specifications given to Moses directly by God. Several elements are clearly pictured, including the curtain enclosure, the temple, the brazen altar, and the brazen laver. Pillars of smoke rise from the brazen altar and from the altar of incense inside the temple. The tents of the Israelite camp surround the tabernacle. A few people and animals are pictured. There are palm trees in the foreground.

The Tabernacle - Aerial View with the Israelite Camp in the Background

"And let them make me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them. According to all that I show thee, the…

"The great pagoda at Tanjore is by far the grandest temple in India, resting on a base 83 feet suare, rises in fourteen stories to a height of nearly 200 feet." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Temple, Tanjore

"The great pagoda at Tanjore is by far the grandest temple in India, resting on a base 83 feet suare,…

Chinese Temple

Temple

Chinese Temple

Restored Temple, from the Egyptian Commission.

Temple

Restored Temple, from the Egyptian Commission.

The temple of heaven, Peking.

Temple

The temple of heaven, Peking.

A religious temple in Cevlon.

Temple

A religious temple in Cevlon.

The Temple of Minerva in Athens.

Temple

The Temple of Minerva in Athens.

"West Front of Temple at Aegina" &mdash; Morey, 1903

Temple Aegina

"West Front of Temple at Aegina" — Morey, 1903

Temple at Assus, Greece.

Temple at Assus

Temple at Assus, Greece.

The entrance to the Temple Beth-el, a Jewish synagogue in New York City.

Temple Beth-el

The entrance to the Temple Beth-el, a Jewish synagogue in New York City.

"And Solomon stood before the altar of the LORD in the presence of all the congregation of Israel, and spread forth his hands toward heaven:" 1 Kings 8:22 KJV

Solomon Dedicates the Temple

"And Solomon stood before the altar of the LORD in the presence of all the congregation of Israel, and…

The ruins of the temple Aurelian built for Sol Invictus, the sun god.

Temple for Sol Invictus

The ruins of the temple Aurelian built for Sol Invictus, the sun god.

"Temple at Jerusalem" — Morey, 1903

Temple Jerusalem

"Temple at Jerusalem" — Morey, 1903

"The temple of Diana was the chief glory of the city. The style was Grecian. The length of the ground-plan was four-hundred and twenty-five feet and the breadth two-hundred and twenty feet. The structure was thus four times as large as the Pantheon at Athens. The statue of the goddess was one of the finest works of art ever produced. It was wrought of ivory and gold, and was a marvel of costliness and beauty. The temple was decorated with sculptures by Praxiteles and one of the masterpieces of Apelles. A representation of the temple was stamped on the coins and medals of the city."&mdash;Ridpath, 1885

Temple of Diana at Ephesus

"The temple of Diana was the chief glory of the city. The style was Grecian. The length of the ground-plan…

Temple of Isis at Philae.

Temple of Isis

Temple of Isis at Philae.

"The Temple of Janus is represented as closed." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Coin of Temple of Janus

"The Temple of Janus is represented as closed." — Anthon, 1891

Temple of Jupiter at Olympia.

Temple of Jupiter

Temple of Jupiter at Olympia.

An illustration of the temple of Solomon.

Temple of Solomon

An illustration of the temple of Solomon.

"A considerable part of the land -- perhaps one third -- belonged to temples, in order that the temple worship might be kept up." - West, 1904

Temple of the Sun at Karnak

"A considerable part of the land -- perhaps one third -- belonged to temples, in order that the temple…

"Rock-cut temple at Ipsambul, on the Nile." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Egyptian temple

"Rock-cut temple at Ipsambul, on the Nile." —D'Anvers, 1895

An Ancient Egyptian temple complex founded in 1400 B.C.E.

Luxor Temple

An Ancient Egyptian temple complex founded in 1400 B.C.E.

"The Round temple in the Piazza Bocca Della Verita." &mdash; Young, 1901

Round temple

"The Round temple in the Piazza Bocca Della Verita." — Young, 1901

The Parthenon is a temple of the Greek Goddess Athena, who was considered as the protector of the city of Athens. The Temple was built in the 5th B.C. on Athenian Acropolis. The Parthenon is designed in a Doric Order style which consists of vertical columns that stand flat without a base, and a smooth capital.

The Parthenon

The Parthenon is a temple of the Greek Goddess Athena, who was considered as the protector of the city…

"The Temple of Theseus at Athens." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Temple of Theseus

"The Temple of Theseus at Athens." —D'Anvers, 1895

"The threshold was, with the ancients, an object of superstitious reverence, and it was thought unfortunate to tread on it with the left foot. On this account, the steps leading into a temple were of an uneven number, because the worshipper, after placing his right foot on the bottom step, would then place the same foot on the threshold also." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Threshold

"The threshold was, with the ancients, an object of superstitious reverence, and it was thought unfortunate…

An aeriel view of the temple at Tiravalur, which measures 945 by 700 feet.

Temple, Tiravalur

An aeriel view of the temple at Tiravalur, which measures 945 by 700 feet.

This illustration shows a round temple at Tivoli.

Tivoli

This illustration shows a round temple at Tivoli.

"Then the high priest rent his garments, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy: what further need have we of witnesses? behold, now ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? They answered and said, He is worthy of death." Matthew 26:65-66 ASV
<p>Illustration of Jesus standing in trial before the High Priest, Caiaphas, and the other priests in the temple. Caiaphas rents his robe and points at Jesus in accusation. A soldier kneels at Jesus' feet with the rope that binds Jesus' feet. The soldier looks up at Jesus with arms open.

Jesus Appears Before Caiaphas, the High Priest

"Then the high priest rent his garments, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy: what further need have we…

The Temple of the Wingless Victory.

Temple of the Wingless Victory

The Temple of the Wingless Victory.

"And they, when they heard it, went out one by one, beginning from the eldest, even unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman, where she was, in the midst. And Jesus lifted up himself, and said unto her, Woman, where are they? did no man condemn thee? And she said, No man, Lord. And Jesus said, Neither do I condemn thee: go thy way; from henceforth sin no more." John 8:9-11 ASV
<p>Illustration of Jesus standing next to two large columns. A woman is kneeling next to Jesus with her hands clasped.

Jesus Tells a Woman to Go and Sin No More

"And they, when they heard it, went out one by one, beginning from the eldest, even unto the last: and…

"And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of altar of incense. And Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, and fear fell upon him. But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: because thy supplication is heard, and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John." Luke 1:11-13 ASV
<p>Illustration of Zacharias, the priest, on his knees in front of an angel in the temple. Zacharias has an incense burner in his hand and smoke is rising from the altar. The angel's right arm is raised. A menorah sits behind Zacharias. The Table of Showbread is on the right. The curtain, or veil, that leads to the Holy of Holies is behind the altar. Zacharias doesn't believe the angel's message and so is struck blind.

Zacharias is Told by an Angel that His Wife Will Have a Son, John the Baptist

"And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of altar of incense. And…