The tongue of the honey-bee.

Honey Bee

The tongue of the honey-bee.

"The structure of the mouth in insects exhibits very remarkable modifications, and these are of the utmost importance in the classification of these creatures. In some insects the mouth is formed exclusively for biting; in others, as exclusively for suction; while in others again it is fitted for the performance of both these actions; and the form of its constituent parts of course undergoes corresponding changes; but the same organs really exist in all, modified in apearance, indeed, so as sometimes to be scarecely recognizable." — Goodrich, 1859

Mouth and Tongue of a Bee

"The structure of the mouth in insects exhibits very remarkable modifications, and these are of the…

"Brank, or Branks, an instrument and formerly used in Scotland, and to some extent also in England, as a punishment for scolds. It consisted of an iron frame which went over the head of the offender, and had in front an iron plate which was inserted in the mouth, where it was fixed above the tongue, and kept it perfectly quiet." — Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Brank

"Brank, or Branks, an instrument and formerly used in Scotland, and to some extent also in England,…

The fifth cranial nerve. Labels: 1, orbit; 2, antrum of Highmore; 3, tongue; 4, lower jaw; 5, Casserian ganglion; 6, first branch of fifth; 7, second; 8, third; 9, frontal branch; 10, lacrymal branch; 11, nasal branch; 122, internal nasal nerve; 13, external nasal; 14, external and internal frontal nerve; 15, infra-orbital; 16, posterior dental branches; 17, middle dental; 18, anterior dental; 19, terminating branches infra-orbital nerve; 20, orbital branch; 21, ptyregoid nerve; 22, five anterior branches; 23, lingual branch; 24, inferior dental; 25, mental branches; 26, superficial temporal nerve; 27, auricular branches; 28, mylo-hyoid.

Fifth Cranial Nerve

The fifth cranial nerve. Labels: 1, orbit; 2, antrum of Highmore; 3, tongue; 4, lower jaw; 5, Casserian…

Anterior portion of mesial sagittal section of child's head, probably of about three year.

Mesial Sagittal Section of Child's Face

Anterior portion of mesial sagittal section of child's head, probably of about three year.

"Gular pouch of bustard; a, tongue; b, the pouch, opening under a, hanging in front of c, the trachea, behind which is the aesophagus, d, with its crop, e." Elliot Coues, 1884

Bustard Gular Pouch

"Gular pouch of bustard; a, tongue; b, the pouch, opening under a, hanging in front of c, the trachea,…

The hyoid, os hyoides, or tongue bone, is an isolated, U-shaped bone lying in front of the throat, just above the Adam's apple; it supports the tongue, and give attachment to some of its numerous muscles.

Human Hyoid Bone

The hyoid, os hyoides, or tongue bone, is an isolated, U-shaped bone lying in front of the throat, just…

The muscles of the hyoid bone and styloid process, and the extrinsic muscles of the tongue, with their nerves.

Muscles of the Hyoid Bone

The muscles of the hyoid bone and styloid process, and the extrinsic muscles of the tongue, with their…

View of the lower jaw bone with the tongue turned up.

Jaw Bone and Tongue

View of the lower jaw bone with the tongue turned up.

Larynx, viewed from above.

Larynx Viewed from Above

Larynx, viewed from above.

Superior aperture of larynx, exposed by laying open the pharynx from behind.

Superior Aperture of Larynx

Superior aperture of larynx, exposed by laying open the pharynx from behind.

The larynx as seen by means of the laryngoscope in different conditions of the glottis. Labels: A, while singing a high note; b, in quiet breathing; C, during a deep inspiration; l, base of tongue; e, upper free edge of epiglottis; e', cushion of the epiglottis; ph, part of anterior wall of pharynx; cv, the true vocal cords; cvs, the false vocal cords; tr, the trachea with its rings; b, the two bronchi at their commencement.

The Larynx in Different Conditions of the Glottis

The larynx as seen by means of the laryngoscope in different conditions of the glottis. Labels: A, while…

"The mouth, nose and pharynx, with the commencement of the gullet and larynx, as exposed by a section, a little to the left of the median plane of the head. a, vertebral column; b, gullet; c, wind-pipe; d, larynx; e, epiglottis; f, soft palate; g, opning of eustachian tube; k, tongue; l, hard palate; m, the sphenoid bone on the base of the skull; n, the fore part of the cranial cavity; o, p, q, the turbinate bones of the outer side of the left nostril-chamber." —Martin, 1917

Mouth

"The mouth, nose and pharynx, with the commencement of the gullet and larynx, as exposed by a section,…

Horizontal section through mouth and pharynx at the level of the tonsils.

Horizontal Section Through Mouth and Pharynx

Horizontal section through mouth and pharynx at the level of the tonsils.

Open mouth with tongue raised, and the sublingual and apical glands exposed.

Mouth and Tongue

Open mouth with tongue raised, and the sublingual and apical glands exposed.

Open mouth showing palate and tonsils. It also shows the two palatine arches, and the pharyngeal isthmus through which the nasopharynx above communicates with the oral portion of the pharynx below.

Mouth Showing Palate and Tonsils

Open mouth showing palate and tonsils. It also shows the two palatine arches, and the pharyngeal isthmus…

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the commencement of gullet (esophagus) and larynx, as exposed by a section a little to the left of the median plane of the head. Labels: a, vertebrae; b, gullet; c, trachea; d, larynx; e, epiglottis; f, soft palate; g, opening of Eustachian tube; k, tongue; l, hard palate; o, p, q, inferior turbinate bones of left nasal chamber.

The Mouth, Nose, and Pharynx

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the commencement of gullet (esophagus) and larynx, as exposed by…

Interior of the mouth. Labels: 1, soft palate; 2, its median ridge; 3, uvula; 4, anterior, 5, posterior pillar of fauces; 6, tonsil; 7, posterior wall of pharynx; 8, tongue.

The Mouth

Interior of the mouth. Labels: 1, soft palate; 2, its median ridge; 3, uvula; 4, anterior, 5, posterior…

Section of a mucous gland from the tongue. Labels: A, opening of the duct on the free surface; C, basement membrane with nuclei; B, flattened epithelial cells lining duct. The duct divides into several branches, which are convoluted and end blindly, being lined throughout by columnar epithelium. D, lumen of one of the tubuli of the gland.

Mucous Gland from Tongue

Section of a mucous gland from the tongue. Labels: A, opening of the duct on the free surface; C, basement…

Transverse section through muscular fibers of human tongue. The muscle corpuscles are indicated by their deeply stained nuclei situated at the inside of the sarcolemma. Each muscle fiber shows "Cohnheim's fields," that is, the sarcous elements in transverse section separated by clear (apparently linear) interstitial substance.

Muscular Fibers of the Human Tongue

Transverse section through muscular fibers of human tongue. The muscle corpuscles are indicated by their…

The upper illustrations show conical and fungiform papillae, the lower a circumvallate papilla. Labels: C, corium; E, epithelium of the mucous membrane. The wavy dark line represents arteries.

Papillae of the Tongue

The upper illustrations show conical and fungiform papillae, the lower a circumvallate papilla. Labels:…

Circumvallate papillae of the tongue.

Circumvallate Papillae

Circumvallate papillae of the tongue.

The epithelium covering the filiform papillae is extremely dense and thick, and projects from their sides and summits in the form of long, stiff, hair-like processes. Shown are two filiform papillae, one with epithelium, the other without. Labels: p, the substance of the papillae dividing at their upper extremities into secondary papillae; a, artery, and v, vein, dividing into capillary loops; e, epithelial covering, laminated between the papillae, but extended into hair-like processes, f, from the extremities of the secondary papillae.

Filiform Papillae

The epithelium covering the filiform papillae is extremely dense and thick, and projects from their…

Filiform papillae of the tongue.

Filiform Papillae

Filiform papillae of the tongue.

The fungiform papillae are scattered chiefly over the sides and tip, and sparingly over the middle of the dorsum, of the tongue; their name is derived from their being usually narrower at their base than at their summit. Shown in the surface section of the fungiform papillae. A, the surface of a fungiform papilla, partially denuded of its epithelium; p, secondary papillae; e, epithelium. B, section of a fungiform papilla with the blood vessels injected; a, artery; v, vein; c, capillary loops of similar papillae in the neighboring structure of the tongue; d, capillary loops of the secondary papillae; e, epithelium.

Fungiform Papillae

The fungiform papillae are scattered chiefly over the sides and tip, and sparingly over the middle of…

Fungiform papillae of the tongue.

Fungiform Papillae

Fungiform papillae of the tongue.

"While the food is being chewed it is moistened by saliva, or spittle, which flows into the mouth from six little glands. They are known as salivary glands.  There are three of them on each side." — Blaisedell, 1904

Salivary glands

"While the food is being chewed it is moistened by saliva, or spittle, which flows into the mouth from…

The salivary glands. One side of the lower jaw has been removed, and the face dissected, in order to show the salivary glands on the right side.

Salivary Glands

The salivary glands. One side of the lower jaw has been removed, and the face dissected, in order to…

"Interior mechanism of a spinet. A, Jack; B, tongue; C, quill; D, bristle; E, cloth damper; F, pivot; G, wire."—Finley, 1917

Interior mechanism of a spinet

"Interior mechanism of a spinet. A, Jack; B, tongue; C, quill; D, bristle; E, cloth damper; F, pivot;…

Isolated cells from taste bud of a rabbit.

Taste bud Cells of a Rabbit

Isolated cells from taste bud of a rabbit.

A, Three-quarter surface view of taste bud from the papilla foliata of a rabbit. B, Vertical section of taste bud from the papilla foliata of a rabbit.

Taste bud of Rabbit

A, Three-quarter surface view of taste bud from the papilla foliata of a rabbit. B, Vertical section…

<em>A</em>, epiglottis; <em>B</em>, glands at the base of tongue; <em>C</em>, tonsil; The various kinds of papillae are plainly shown." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Tongue

A, epiglottis; B, glands at the base of tongue; C, tonsil; The various kinds…

The upper surface of the tongue. Labels: 1,2, circumvallate papillae; 3, fungiform papillae; 4, filiform papillae; 6, mucous glands.

Tongue

The upper surface of the tongue. Labels: 1,2, circumvallate papillae; 3, fungiform papillae; 4, filiform…

The papillar surface of the tongue, with the fauces and tonsils. Labels: 1, circumvallate papillae, in front of 2, the foramen caecum; 3, fungiform papillae; 4, filiform and conical papillae; 5, transverse and oblique rugae; 6, mucous glands at the base of the tongue and in the fauces; 7, tonsils; 8, part of the epiglottis; 9, median glosso-epiglottidean fold (fraenum epiglottidis).

Tongue

The papillar surface of the tongue, with the fauces and tonsils. Labels: 1, circumvallate papillae,…

To graft two plants together using the tongue or whip grafting approach, you must first make a sloping cut in the rootstock with a 'tongue' pointing up. Next you must make a matching cut in the scion wood with a 'tongue' pointing downwards. Finally you join the two, ensuring maximum contact of the cambium layers. Bind with rafia or polythene tape and seal with grafting wax.

Tongue Grafting

To graft two plants together using the tongue or whip grafting approach, you must first make a sloping…

A, Section through papilla vallata of a human tongue. B, Section through part of the papilla foliata of a rabbit. Labels: 1, papilla; 2, vallum; 3, taste buds; 4, papillae; 5, taste buds; 6, ducts of serous gland.

Tongue of Human and Rabbit

A, Section through papilla vallata of a human tongue. B, Section through part of the papilla foliata…

The tongue showing three kinds of papillae- the conical (D), the whiplike (K, I), the circumvallate or entrenched (H, L); E, F, G, nerves; C, glottis.

The Tongue Showing Three Kinds of Papillae

The tongue showing three kinds of papillae- the conical (D), the whiplike (K, I), the circumvallate…

View of the back of the tongue, from which, by maceration, the periglottis has been removed and turned back on the right side.

Back View of the Tongue

View of the back of the tongue, from which, by maceration, the periglottis has been removed and turned…

View of a section of the front part of the tongue, seen from behind.

Section of the Tongue

View of a section of the front part of the tongue, seen from behind.

A, Transverse vertical section through the tongue. B, Longitudinal vertical section through the tongue. C, A lymphoid follicle from back part of tongue.

Sections of the Tongue

A, Transverse vertical section through the tongue. B, Longitudinal vertical section through the tongue.…

The tongue, showing the papillae.

The Tongue

The tongue, showing the papillae.

The upper surface of the tongue. Labels: 1, 2, circumvallate papillae; 3, fungiform papillae; 4, filiform papillae; 6, mucous glands.

Upper Surface of Tongue

The upper surface of the tongue. Labels: 1, 2, circumvallate papillae; 3, fungiform papillae; 4, filiform…

The upper surface of the tongue with part of the pillars of the fauces and the tonsils. Labels: 1, 2, circumvallate papillae; 3, fungiform papillae; 4, filiform papillae; 6, mucous glands; 7, tonsils; 8, tip of epiglottis.

Upper Surface of the Tongue

The upper surface of the tongue with part of the pillars of the fauces and the tonsils. Labels: 1, 2,…

One of the two long pieces of wood, which extends before a vehicle cart and attaches to a horse hitched on a shaft.

Combined Tongue and Thill for Vehicles

One of the two long pieces of wood, which extends before a vehicle cart and attaches to a horse hitched…

Image of vocal apparatus as seen in the laryngoscopic mirror held far back in the mouth.

Vocal Apparatus

Image of vocal apparatus as seen in the laryngoscopic mirror held far back in the mouth.

"Whip-grafting or tongue-grafting is the most usual mode of performing the operation. The stock is headed off by an oblique transverse cut as shown at a, a slice is then pared off the side as at b, and on the face of this a tongue or notch is made, the cut being in a downward direction; the scion c is pared off in a similar way by a single clean sharp cut, and this is notched or tongued in the opposite direction as the figure indicates, the two are then fitted together as shown at d, so that the inner bark of each may come in contact at least on one side, and then tied round with damp soft bast as at c; next some grafting clay is taken on the forefinger and pushed down on each side so as to fill out the space between the top of the stock and the graft, and a portion is also rubbed over the ligatures on the side where the graft is placed." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Whip-Grafting

"Whip-grafting or tongue-grafting is the most usual mode of performing the operation. The stock is headed…

This illustration shows the special development of tongues of woodpeckers; a, skull of flicker, showing root of tongue extending to tip of bill; b, head of hairy woodpecker, showing root of tongue curving around eye.

Woodpecker Tongue

This illustration shows the special development of tongues of woodpeckers; a, skull of flicker, showing…

An illustration of a woodpecker's tongue. The long sticky tongues, which possess bristles, aid these birds in grabbing and extracting insects deep within a hole of a tree.

Woodpecker Tongue

An illustration of a woodpecker's tongue. The long sticky tongues, which possess bristles, aid these…