A ship of Columbus' time.

1400's Ship

A ship of Columbus' time.

Or Barque, a three-masted vessel of which the foremast and mainmast are square-rigged, but the mizzenmast has fore-and-aft sails only.

Bark

Or Barque, a three-masted vessel of which the foremast and mainmast are square-rigged, but the mizzenmast…

Structure of a Cornstalk, in transverse and longitudinal section.

Cornstalk

Structure of a Cornstalk, in transverse and longitudinal section.

A detached cell, with rhaphides being forced out, as happens when put in water.

Detached Cell

A detached cell, with rhaphides being forced out, as happens when put in water.

"Early Human Embryo, giving diagrammatically the principal vessels antecedent to the establishment of the regular fetal circulation. H, heart; P, lungs; L, liver; T A, the aortic trunk or cardiac aorta; c, c', c", common, external, and internal carotids; s, subclavian artery; v, vertebral artery; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, the aortic arches (the persistent left aortic arch hidden); A, subvertebral aorta; o, o', omphalomeseraic artery and vein, to and from U, the umbilical vesicle with its vitelline duct, dv; u, u, the two hypogastric or umbilical arteries, with the ramifications, u", u", in the placenta; u', umbilical vein; vh, hepatic vein; cv, inferior vena cava; vil, iliac veins; az, an azygous vein; vc, a posterior cardinal vein; vi, innominate vein; vp, portal vein; Dv, the ductus venosus; DC, a ductus Cuvieri. The anterior cardinal vein is seen beginning in the head and running down to the ductus Cuvieri, on the under side of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5." -Whitney, 1911

Human Embryo

"Early Human Embryo, giving diagrammatically the principal vessels antecedent to the establishment of…

A section across the forearm a short distance below the elbow-joint. R and U, its two supporting bones, the radius and ulna; e, the epidermis, and d, the dermis of the skin; the latter is continuous below with bands of connective tissue, s, which penetrate between and invest the muscles, which are indicated by numbers; n, n, nerves and vessels.

Forearm, Section of

A section across the forearm a short distance below the elbow-joint. R and U, its two supporting bones,…

A vessel formerly used extensively in the Mediterranean.

Venetian Galleass

A vessel formerly used extensively in the Mediterranean.

Small portion of epidermis of the Garden Balsam, showing very sinuous-walled cells, and three stomata.

Garden Balsam

Small portion of epidermis of the Garden Balsam, showing very sinuous-walled cells, and three stomata.

Artisans used a mass of mud and straw fixed around a metal rod to form a core, and built up a vessel by either dipping the core in liquified glass, or by trailing liquid glass over the core. The core was removed after the glass had cooled, and handles, rims and bases were then added. These vessels are characterized by relatively thick walls, bright colors and zigzagging patterns of contrasting colors, and were limited in size to small unguent or scent containers

Glass Vessel

Artisans used a mass of mud and straw fixed around a metal rod to form a core, and built up a vessel…

Glomerate crystal in a cell, from Beet-root.

Glomerate crystal

Glomerate crystal in a cell, from Beet-root.

Upper part of a stem of a Horsetail, Equisetum sylvaticum.

Horsetail

Upper part of a stem of a Horsetail, Equisetum sylvaticum.

Some cells of the albumen or floury part of Indian Corn, filled with starch-grains.

Indian Corn

Some cells of the albumen or floury part of Indian Corn, filled with starch-grains.

A few cells of Locust-bark, a crystal in each.

Locust-bark

A few cells of Locust-bark, a crystal in each.

A lymphatic gland, with several vessels passing through it.

A Lymphatic Gland

A lymphatic gland, with several vessels passing through it.

Magnified view of surface of a bit of young Maple wood from which the bark has been torn away, showing the wood-cells and the bark-ends of medullary rays.

Bit of Young Maple Wood

Magnified view of surface of a bit of young Maple wood from which the bark has been torn away, showing…

"Occupation of Norfolk, VA., by the Federal troops- view of the city- Federal vessels at anchor." —Leslie, 1896

Occupation of Norfolk

"Occupation of Norfolk, VA., by the Federal troops- view of the city- Federal vessels at anchor." —Leslie,…

Four cells from dried Onion-peel, each holding a crystal of different shape, one of them twinned.

Onion-Peel

Four cells from dried Onion-peel, each holding a crystal of different shape, one of them twinned.

Two individuals of an Oscillaria.

Oscillaria

Two individuals of an Oscillaria.

The evolute spiral paintings is a wave pattern that mimics the wave of the sea. In this design it was used on the borders of antique vessels.

Evolute Spiral Paintings

The evolute spiral paintings is a wave pattern that mimics the wave of the sea. In this design it was…

The evolute spiral paintings is a wave pattern that mimics the wave of the sea. In this design it was used on the borders of antique vessels.

Evolute Spiral Paintings

The evolute spiral paintings is a wave pattern that mimics the wave of the sea. In this design it was…

The evolute spiral paintings is a wave pattern that mimics the wave of the sea. In this design it was used on the borders of antique vessels.

Evolute Spiral Paintings

The evolute spiral paintings is a wave pattern that mimics the wave of the sea. In this design it was…

The evolute spiral paintings is a wave pattern that mimics the wave of the sea. In this design it was used on the borders of antique vessels.

Evolute Spiral Paintings

The evolute spiral paintings is a wave pattern that mimics the wave of the sea. In this design it was…

A Palm-stem in transverse and longitudinal section, the dots on the cross sections represent cut ends of the woody bundles or threads.

Palm-stem

A Palm-stem in transverse and longitudinal section, the dots on the cross sections represent cut ends…

Prismatic crystals from the bark of Hickory.

Prismatic crystals

Prismatic crystals from the bark of Hickory.

Rhaphides in a cell, from Arisaema, with small cells surrounding.

Rhaphides

Rhaphides in a cell, from Arisaema, with small cells surrounding.

Some cells from stalk of Rhubarb-plant, three containing chlorophyll; two (one torn across) with rhaphides.

Rhubarb-plant

Some cells from stalk of Rhubarb-plant, three containing chlorophyll; two (one torn across) with rhaphides.

Piece of stem of Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica), with two leaves. the lower open, the upper in the closed state.

Sensitive Plant

Piece of stem of Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica), with two leaves. the lower open, the upper in the…

"A semicylindrical piece of wood, fitted with a handle...used for convenience in serving ropes...to prevent chafing. a, serving-mallet; b, 'wormed' rope 'parceled' with canvas; c, serving-yarn." -Whitney, 1911

Serving Mallet

"A semicylindrical piece of wood, fitted with a handle...used for convenience in serving ropes...to…

A small piece (pinnule) of a Shield-Fern: a row of fruit-dots on each side of the midrib, each covered by its kidney shaped indusium.

Shield-Fern

A small piece (pinnule) of a Shield-Fern: a row of fruit-dots on each side of the midrib, each covered…

An image of a ship being built in Spain during the 1400's before Columbus' exploration.

Ship Building

An image of a ship being built in Spain during the 1400's before Columbus' exploration.

Piece of a stem of Soft Maple, of a year old, cut crosswise and lengthwise.

Piece of Stem from a Soft Maple

Piece of a stem of Soft Maple, of a year old, cut crosswise and lengthwise.

This representation of the vessels of the early Spanish navigators is a fac-simile of a cut in Medina's <em>Arte de navegar</em>, Vallodolid, 1545, which was re-engraved in the Venice edition of 1555. In the variety of changes in methods of measurement it is not easy to find the equivalent in tonnage of the present day for the ships of Columbus' time. Those constituting his little fleet seem to have been liht and swift vessels of the class called caravels. One had a deck amidships, with high forecastle and two were without this deck, though high, and covered at the ends. Captaing G. V. Fox has given what he supposes were the dimensions of the larger one,- a heavier craft and duller sailer than the others. He calculates for a hundred tons, -makes her sixty-three feet over all, fifty-one feet keel, twenty feet beam, and ten and a half feet draft of water. She carried the kind of gun termed lombards, and a crew of fifty men.

Spanish Vessels

This representation of the vessels of the early Spanish navigators is a fac-simile of a cut in Medina's…

Spiral ducts which uncoil into a single thread.

Spiral Ducts

Spiral ducts which uncoil into a single thread.

Spiral ducts which tears up as a band.

Spiral Ducts

Spiral ducts which tears up as a band.

An annular duct.

Spiral Ducts

An annular duct.

Loose spiral duct passing into annular.

Spiral Ducts

Loose spiral duct passing into annular.

Scalariform ducts of a Fern; part of a bundle, prismatic by pressure.

Spiral Ducts

Scalariform ducts of a Fern; part of a bundle, prismatic by pressure.

Part of the head or spike of spore-cases, with some of the latter taken off.

Spore-Cases

Part of the head or spike of spore-cases, with some of the latter taken off.

Some magnified starch-grains, in two cells of a potato.

Starch-Grains

Some magnified starch-grains, in two cells of a potato.

Short piece of stem of Flax, magnified, showing the bark, wood, and pith in a cross section.

Stem of Flax

Short piece of stem of Flax, magnified, showing the bark, wood, and pith in a cross section.

Portion of stem and leaves of Telegraph-plant (Desmodium gyrans), almost of natural size.

Telegraph-plant

Portion of stem and leaves of Telegraph-plant (Desmodium gyrans), almost of natural size.

A Tree-Fern, Dicksonia arborescens, with a young one near its base. In front a common herbaceous Fern (Polypodium vulgare) with its creeping stem or rootstock.

Tree-Fern

A Tree-Fern, Dicksonia arborescens, with a young one near its base. In front a common herbaceous Fern…

A section of the trunk of a Tree-Fern.

Tree-Fern Trunk

A section of the trunk of a Tree-Fern.

This illustration shows a vascular bundle enlarged: x, xylem; v, vessels or ducts; p, phloem; s, sieve tube; ac, accompanying cell; c, cambium; st, stereome.

Vascular Bundle

This illustration shows a vascular bundle enlarged: x, xylem; v, vessels or ducts; p, phloem; s, sieve…

Plant of Dionaea muscipula, or Venus's Fly-trap.

Venus' Fly-trap

Plant of Dionaea muscipula, or Venus's Fly-trap.

Vases and other pottery made by the ancient Greeks.

Classic Vessels

Vases and other pottery made by the ancient Greeks.

"When any liquid is placed in one or more of several vessels communicating with each other, it will not come to rest until it stands at the same height inall of thw vessels. This principle is emobodied in the familiar expression 'Water seeks its level.' the principle is illustrated, on a large scale, in the system of pipes by which water is distributed in cities." -Avery 1895

Water Level in Multiple Connected Vessels

"When any liquid is placed in one or more of several vessels communicating with each other, it will…

"Fire raft sent down from Fort Jackson to destroy the Federal fleet below the fort- the boats of the squadron, with grapnels, buckets, etc. and the ferryboat "Westfield," towing it away from the Federal vessels. On April 17th, 1862, as the fire raft came on, the ferryboat "Westfield" ran into it, and then rapidly backing, poured a tremendous stream of water from a hose at the burning mass as it slowly floated down the river. The "Westfield" was assisted by numerous boats from the fleet, who used their buckets and boathoks to guide it safely away from the vessels at anchor. After a long and desperate conflict with the floating and fiery mass the brave Federal tars triumphed, the fire was extinguished, and only a mass of blackened and half-burned timber remained." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Westfield

"Fire raft sent down from Fort Jackson to destroy the Federal fleet below the fort- the boats of the…

Magnified section of a leaf of White Lily, to exhibit the cellular structure, both of upper and lower stratum, the air-passages of the lower, and the epidermis or skin, in section, also a little of that of the lower face, with some of its stomates.

White Lily

Magnified section of a leaf of White Lily, to exhibit the cellular structure, both of upper and lower…

Small portion of epidermis of the lower face of a White-Lily leaf, with stomata.

White Lily leaf

Small portion of epidermis of the lower face of a White-Lily leaf, with stomata.

Diagram of structure of Palm or Yucca.

Yucca

Diagram of structure of Palm or Yucca.