This science ClipArt gallery offers 202 illustrations of equipment and apparatus used in chemistry experiments and procedures, and includes images of full apparatus as well as parts, such as lab beakers and flasks. See also the Balances gallery in the Simple Machines collection.

Illustration of a tube inverted over mercury, with the mercury rising inside the test tube 114 millimeters above the level of the mercury in the beaker.

Mecury Barometer

Illustration of a tube inverted over mercury, with the mercury rising inside the test tube 114 millimeters…

"Metallic calcium is prepared by passing an electric current through fused calcium chloride contained in a cruicible of graphite, which acts as the anode." -Brownlee 1907

Metallic Calcium Preparation

"Metallic calcium is prepared by passing an electric current through fused calcium chloride contained…

A needle, used for dissection.

Needle

A needle, used for dissection.

"If air is passed through a strongly heated tube contaning reduced copper or fine-meshed copper gauze, nearly pure nitrogen results." -Brownlee 1907

Preparing Nitrogen

"If air is passed through a strongly heated tube contaning reduced copper or fine-meshed copper gauze,…

"The bottle (a) serves as an aspirator to draw airthrough the apparatus and also to collect the residual nitrogen. the oxygen is removed by combining it with copper (gauze) in the hard glass tube (c), which is heated by the combustion furnace (b)...air has to pass through the bottles (ee) containing a concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide to take out the carbon dioxide, and through the bottles (dd) containing concentrated sulphuric acid to remove the water vapor or moisture. The nitrogen [is] collected in a." -Brownlee 1907

Nitrogen Preparation

"The bottle (a) serves as an aspirator to draw airthrough the apparatus and also to collect the residual…

An apparatus used to produce and capture nitrous oxide. A flask containing ammonium nitrate is heated, which will produce water and nitrous oxide. The water drips into the bottle provided and the nitrous oxide is collected in the inverted bottle.

Nitrous Oxide Preparation

An apparatus used to produce and capture nitrous oxide. A flask containing ammonium nitrate is heated,…

An invention by Edison used to see if chemical vapors could change a strip of rubber.

Odorometer

An invention by Edison used to see if chemical vapors could change a strip of rubber.

"An open hearth furnace has a large bed (E) lined with fire-brick and sand (H) on which the charge is placed. Gas is used as fuel and is heated before entering the furnace by pass-heated gas is passed into the furnace through a pipe (a), while through another flue (b) aur enters which has been similarly heated...hot, gaseous product escapes through checkerworks (C,D)..." -Brownlee 1907

Open Hearth Furnace

"An open hearth furnace has a large bed (E) lined with fire-brick and sand (H) on which the charge is…

A tube of unglazed porcelain, closed at one end, through the pores of which the water is forced by its own pressure.

Pasteur Filter

A tube of unglazed porcelain, closed at one end, through the pores of which the water is forced by its…

Picture represents clay retorts used in the distillation of phosphorus at high temperatures, with phosphorus, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide being produced.

Phosphorus Distillation

Picture represents clay retorts used in the distillation of phosphorus at high temperatures, with phosphorus,…

This apparatus features an annular graduated base holding the base parallel to the brain of the subject. Stating that the personality traits of a person can be determined by the shape of their head. Phrenology is based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind

An Annular Graduated Base Phrenometer

This apparatus features an annular graduated base holding the base parallel to the brain of the subject.…

"Pincers used to cut wire." -Avery 1895

Pincers

"Pincers used to cut wire." -Avery 1895

A pipette, half filled with liquid.

Pipette

A pipette, half filled with liquid.

A dish used to condense sulphur.

Porcelain Dish

A dish used to condense sulphur.

This illustration shows the transition from potassium chlorate to potassium chloride and oxygen.

Potassium Chlorate

This illustration shows the transition from potassium chlorate to potassium chloride and oxygen.

Apparatus used for collecting the oxygen relased when potassium chlorate is heated in the test tube.

Preparation of Oxygen

Apparatus used for collecting the oxygen relased when potassium chlorate is heated in the test tube.

"When the current is passed through the melted hydroxide, the sodium and the hydrogen appear at the cathode and the oxygen appears at the anode." -Brownlee 1907

Preparation of Sodium and Potassium

"When the current is passed through the melted hydroxide, the sodium and the hydrogen appear at the…

"The anodes are placed in solutions of salt in compartments AA, and the cathodes in B. A layer of mercury (MM) permits the passage of a current between A and B, but prevents the mixing of the solutions." -Brownlee 1907

Preparation of Sodium Hydroxide

"The anodes are placed in solutions of salt in compartments AA, and the cathodes in B. A layer of mercury…

An illustration of a Geissler pump. A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as gases, liquids or slurries. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. Pumps alone do not create pressure they only displace fluid causing a flow. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure.

Geissler Pump

An illustration of a Geissler pump. A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as gases, liquids or…

An illustration of a Geissler pump. A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as gases, liquids or slurries. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. Pumps alone do not create pressure they only displace fluid causing a flow. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure.

Geissler Pump

An illustration of a Geissler pump. A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as gases, liquids or…

The Sprengel pump is a vacuum pump invented by Hanover-born chemist Hermann Sprengel in 1865 while he was working in London. The pump could be run continuously and without any supervision to achieve the lowest vacuum achievable at that time.

Sprengel Pump

The Sprengel pump is a vacuum pump invented by Hanover-born chemist Hermann Sprengel in 1865 while he…

The Sprengel pump is a vacuum pump invented by Hanover-born chemist Hermann Sprengel in 1865 while he was working in London. The pump could be run continuously and without any supervision to achieve the lowest vacuum achievable at that time.

Sprengel Pump

The Sprengel pump is a vacuum pump invented by Hanover-born chemist Hermann Sprengel in 1865 while he…

A Toepler pump is a form of mercury piston pump, invented by August Toepler in 1850.

Toepler Pump

A Toepler pump is a form of mercury piston pump, invented by August Toepler in 1850.

An instrument for determining the relative density or specific gravity of a solid body.

Pycnometer

An instrument for determining the relative density or specific gravity of a solid body.

An instrument for determining the relative density or specific gravity of a solid body.

Pycnometer

An instrument for determining the relative density or specific gravity of a solid body.

An instrument for determining the relative density or specific gravity of a solid body.

Pycnometer

An instrument for determining the relative density or specific gravity of a solid body.

Sprengel's pynkometer, a u-shaped flask.

Sprengel's pyknometer

Sprengel's pynkometer, a u-shaped flask.

An instrument used used for measuring the changes produced in the dimesnsions of solid bodies with applied heat.

Pyrometer

An instrument used used for measuring the changes produced in the dimesnsions of solid bodies with applied…

An instrument used used for measuring the changes produced in the dimesnsions of solid bodies with applied heat.

Pyrometer

An instrument used used for measuring the changes produced in the dimesnsions of solid bodies with applied…

An instrument used used for measuring the changes produced in the dimesnsions of solid bodies with applied heat.

Pyrometer

An instrument used used for measuring the changes produced in the dimesnsions of solid bodies with applied…

"As temperature elevates, the metal bar being tested expands accordingly and the dial measures the expansive power per degree of heat." —Quackenbos 1859

Pyrometer

"As temperature elevates, the metal bar being tested expands accordingly and the dial measures the expansive…

"An apparatus used to determine pressures beyond those that the McLcod gauge can discern." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Radiometer

"An apparatus used to determine pressures beyond those that the McLcod gauge can discern." —The…

"Configuration used to wash out a radiometer using oxygen. A, bulb containing perchlorate of potash; B, charcol; C, radiometer; D, outlet; E, used for examing the gas given off." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Washing Out a Radiometer

"Configuration used to wash out a radiometer using oxygen. A, bulb containing perchlorate of potash;…

"In the manufacture of artificial ice, ammonia is liquefied by being compressed by powerful pumps; then the liquid ammonia is cooled by passing cold water over the pipes containing it. the liquid ammonia is distributed through pipes, where it evaporates rapidly. The gas is drawn back by the pump, condensed to a liquid, and used again. The pipes in which the evaporation takes place are immersed in a strong salt solution, which, by furnishing heat for evaporation, is cooled to a point below the freezing-point of water." -Brownlee 1907

Refrigerating Plant

"In the manufacture of artificial ice, ammonia is liquefied by being compressed by powerful pumps; then…

"A Retort is a vessel in whose chamber an object is subjected to distillation or decomposition by heat, a neck conducting off the volatile products. The retort of the chemical laboratory is a vessel of glass, platinum, porcelain, or other material. It is bottle-shaped, having a long neck attached, in which the products of the distillation are condensed, and from which they pass into the receiver. The retort of the gas works is a cylinder or segment of a cylinder, formed of clay or iron."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Retort

"A Retort is a vessel in whose chamber an object is subjected to distillation or decomposition by heat,…

A retort is a primitive device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances. In the latter case in many cases where the absence of air is required.

Retort

A retort is a primitive device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances. In the latter…

"A peculiar-shaped vessel called a retort is half filled with a volatile liquid and heated; the steam, as it forms, passes through the neck of the retort into a glass receiver contained in a vessel filled with cold water, and is then condensed." —Wells, 1857

Retort

"A peculiar-shaped vessel called a retort is half filled with a volatile liquid and heated; the steam,…

"A vertical rod, generally of iron, with a heavy metallic foot, and a number of metallic rings, of different sizes ... the whole serves to support a retort or other vessel, properly adjusted as to height, over a lamp-flame." -Whitney, 1911

Retort Stand

"A vertical rod, generally of iron, with a heavy metallic foot, and a number of metallic rings,…

Furnace used in smelting ore; its' doors can be closed to control the air flow/oxygen.

Reverbatory Furnace

Furnace used in smelting ore; its' doors can be closed to control the air flow/oxygen.

There are many different kinds of funnels that have been adapted for specialized applications in the laboratory. Filter funnels, thistle funnels, and dropping funnels have stopcocks which allow the fluids to be added to a flask slowly.

Roost Funnel

There are many different kinds of funnels that have been adapted for specialized applications in the…

A decimeter rule.

Decimeter rule

A decimeter rule.

"Ruedorf's sand-bath, a simple form of sand-bath in which the temperature can be regulated by raising or lowering an S-shaped burner." -Whitney, 1911

Ruedorf's Sand Bath

"Ruedorf's sand-bath, a simple form of sand-bath in which the temperature can be regulated by raising…

"The most common way of determining the density of such a body [that is heavier than water] if it is unsoluble in water, is to find its weight in air (w); find its weight when immersed in water (w'); divide the weight in air by the loss of weight in water." -Avery 1895

Scale Designed to Weigh Objects While Underwater

"The most common way of determining the density of such a body [that is heavier than water] if it is…

"A glass vessel used to separate liquids which differ in specific gravity and are not miscible." -Whitney, 1911

Separator

"A glass vessel used to separate liquids which differ in specific gravity and are not miscible." -Whitney,…

A siphon (also spelled syphon) is a continuous tube that allows liquid to drain from a reservoir through an intermediate point that is higher, or lower, than the reservoir, the flow being driven only by the difference in hydrostatic pressure without any need for pumping. It is necessary that the final end of the tube be lower than the liquid surface in the reservoir

Siphon

A siphon (also spelled syphon) is a continuous tube that allows liquid to drain from a reservoir through…

A device used for measuring the specific gravity of an object or substance.

Specific gravity bottle

A device used for measuring the specific gravity of an object or substance.

"The light to be studied is admitted through a narrow slit (A) in the end of a tube, in such a way that it will fall in parallel rays on a prism (C) with its edges parallel to the slit. When the beam emerges from the prism, the different colors are separated and the spectrum is viewed through lenses (E) placed at the end of another tube." -Brownlee 1907

Diagrammatic Representation of Spectroscope

"The light to be studied is admitted through a narrow slit (A) in the end of a tube, in such a way that…

"An improved form of apparatus for the fractionation [sic] is represented in fig. 9." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Apparatus Designed for Spectroscopic Examination

"An improved form of apparatus for the fractionation [sic] is represented in fig. 9." —The Encyclopedia…

This illustration shows a standard Lowe water gas apparatus.

Standard Lowe Water Gas Apparatus

This illustration shows a standard Lowe water gas apparatus.

"A "still;" and, for condensing the vapor, vats are constructed, holding serpentine pipes or "worms," which present a greater condensing surface than if the pipe has passed directly through the vat." —Wells, 1857

Still

"A "still;" and, for condensing the vapor, vats are constructed, holding serpentine pipes or "worms,"…

A still is an apparatus that boils a mixed liquid and then cools, condensing the vapor.Stills are used to make perfumes and medicines.

Chemical Still

A still is an apparatus that boils a mixed liquid and then cools, condensing the vapor.Stills are used…

Tincture and an extract still. A tincture is an alcoholic extract that has an ethanol concentration of 40-60%. It is sometimes used in herbal medicines. The still is used to boil the solution, then hold it as it cools and condenses, making the solution more concentrated.

Extract Still

Tincture and an extract still. A tincture is an alcoholic extract that has an ethanol concentration…

The still takes in a mixed substance, boils it, and cools, causing the vapor to condense. This ultimately makes the substance more concentrated. This particular model was invented by Joseph P. Remington.

Remington's Still

The still takes in a mixed substance, boils it, and cools, causing the vapor to condense. This ultimately…

Another style of still. This picture shows what the interior of a still looks like lends greater insight as to how the still operates.

Steam Jacketed Still

Another style of still. This picture shows what the interior of a still looks like lends greater insight…

A strainer used to separate larger particles of a substance from smaller particles of a substance, like gravel from sand. Typically used by miners or archeologists to find precious stones, metals, or artifacts.

Large Strainer

A strainer used to separate larger particles of a substance from smaller particles of a substance, like…

"The sulphur is then further purified by heating it in iron vessels (retorts) without access of air, until it is vaporized. the vapor is led into brick-lined rooms. A part of the gas is suddenly cooled and is deposited as a fine powder on the sides of the room. The form is known as flowers of sulphur. Most of the sulphur vapor condenses in the liquid form, and flows down to the outlet of the condensing chamber." -Brownlee 1907

Sulfur Purification

"The sulphur is then further purified by heating it in iron vessels (retorts) without access of air,…

Diagrammatic representation of the sulphuric acid contact process. "Sulphur, or ores containing sulphur, are burned in air. The sulphur dioxide and the other gaseous products of the combustion are cooled, freed from dust, arsenic, and most of the moisture, then mixedwith air and passed through a tube containing a catalytic agent, usually finely divided platinum. The oxygen of the air cmbines with the sulphur dioxide and forms the trioxide, which is then combined with water to form sulphuric acid." -Brownlee 1907

Sulphuric Acid Contract Process

Diagrammatic representation of the sulphuric acid contact process. "Sulphur, or ores containing sulphur,…

"Take a tube bent like the letter U, and, having filled it with water, place a finger on each end, and in this state plunge one of the ends into a vessel of water, so that the end in the water shall be a little the highest then remove the fingers and the liquid will flow out, and continue to do so until the vessel is exhasted." -Comstock 1850

Syphon

"Take a tube bent like the letter U, and, having filled it with water, place a finger on each end, and…

A test tube

Test tube

A test tube

A container used in chemistry to store and mix chemicals in.

Test Tube

A container used in chemistry to store and mix chemicals in.