Burgoyne addressing the Indians.

Burgoyne

Burgoyne addressing the Indians.

Burgoyne's encampment on the West Bank of the Hudson, September 20, 1777.

Burgoyne's encampment

Burgoyne's encampment on the West Bank of the Hudson, September 20, 1777.

"Burning the Stamps in New York, during the opposition of the Stamp Act in 1764."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

burning stamps

"Burning the Stamps in New York, during the opposition of the Stamp Act in 1764."—E. Benjamin…

"Burr's head-quarters."—Lossing, 1851

Burr's head-quarters

"Burr's head-quarters."—Lossing, 1851

The Butler House. John Butler was one of the leading Tories of Tyron county during the whole war of the Revolution.

Butler House

The Butler House. John Butler was one of the leading Tories of Tyron county during the whole war of…

"The view is taken from the American intrenchments on Butt's Hill. he windmill is on Quaker Hill. The hill at the right is Anthony's. The British artillery fired from both hills. Sullivan replied from the ditch in the foreground. The battle was down by the third fence, at the left hand of the view. A small brook winds along near the fence, and in the ravine was a belt of woods, where Greene posted his men."—Coffin, 1879

Butt's Hill, Looking South

"The view is taken from the American intrenchments on Butt's Hill. he windmill is on Quaker Hill. The…

"The view shows the intrenchments in the foreground. The Americans retreated past the houses in the center of the picture."—Coffin, 1879

View Looking North from Butt's Hill

"The view shows the intrenchments in the foreground. The Americans retreated past the houses in the…

Cairn on the St. Lawrence. This is probably the only structure of the kind on the American continent. Cairn is a word of Celtic origin, used to denote the conical piles of stones frequently found upon the hills of Britain. These piles are supposed by some to have been erected as memorials of some local event, while others assign to them a sepulchral character. Some are supposed to be sacrificial, like the <em>carnedd</em> of the Welsh. They all have a smiliar appearance wherever found, being composed of loose stones piled in a conical form.

Cairn

Cairn on the St. Lawrence. This is probably the only structure of the kind on the American continent.…

Caldwell's monument. The following are the inscriptions upon the Caldwell monument: East Side: "This monument is erected to the memory of the Rev. James Caldwell, the pious and fervent Christian, the zealous and faithful minister, the eloquent preacher, and a prominent leader among the worthies who secured the independence of his country. His name will be cherished in the church and in the state so long as Virtue is esteemed and Patriotism honored." West Side: "Hannah, wife of the Rev. James Caldwell, and daughter of Johnathan Ogden, of Newark, was killed at Connecticut Farms by a shot from a British soldier, June 25th, 1780, cruelty sacrificed by the enemies of her husband and of her country." North Side: "The memory of the just is blessed. Be of good courage- and let us behave ourselves valiant for our people, and for the cities of our God, and let the Lord do that which is good in his sight. The glory of children are their fathers." South Side: "James Caldwell. Born in Charlotte county, in Virginia, April, 1734. Graduated at Princeton College, 1759. Ordained pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Elizabethtown, 1762. After serving as chaplain in the army of the Revolution, and acting as commissary to the troops in New Jersey, he was killed by a shot from a sentinel at Elizabethtown Point, November 24th, 1781."

Caldwell's Monument

Caldwell's monument. The following are the inscriptions upon the Caldwell monument: East Side: "This…

A caleche.

Caleche

A caleche.

"In Sullivan's ranks is John Callendar, of Massachusetts. He commanded the artillery at Bunk Hill, and was accused of being a coward, and his command was taken from him. But he is a patriot, and is in the ranks. He sees a lieutenant commanding a battery fall, and the gunners begin to leave their guns. 'Stop!' he shouts. It is the voice of one accustomed to be obeyed, and the gunners return. He opens fire, and holds the position till the British sweep up the hill. The other soldiers flee, but he will not. He is ramming home a charge, when a bayonet is leveled at his breast. A British officer admires his heroism, and will not let him be harmed."&mdash;Coffin, 1879

John Callendar Saved by a British Officer

"In Sullivan's ranks is John Callendar, of Massachusetts. He commanded the artillery at Bunk Hill, and…

"View of the Camp Ground. This is from a painting by Tice, in my possession. The land on which the encampment on the west side of the meadow was, in now owned chiefly by Gilbert Tompkins and Nathaniel Moore. This view is from the land of Mr. Tompkins, looking east-southeast. On the slopes seen in the foreground, and on the margine of the meadow beyond Van Cortlandt's New York regiment, and the Maryland and Virginia troops were encamped. On the east side of the meadow, upon the most distant elevation in the middle ground, the New England troops were stationed. On the slope toward the right o that elevation stood the <em>Temple</em>. In the distance is seen the upper entrance of the Hudston into the Highlands. The meadow was formerly called Beayer Dam Swamp, from the circumstance that beavers constructed dams at the lower extremity, causing the waters to overflow the low grounds."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Camp Ground

"View of the Camp Ground. This is from a painting by Tice, in my possession. The land on which the encampment…

Mansion of Judge Campbell. This pleasant dwelling is upon the northern verge of the town, on the road leading from Cherry Valley to the Mohawk. The sketch was taken from the road.

Campbell Mansion

Mansion of Judge Campbell. This pleasant dwelling is upon the northern verge of the town, on the road…

Campbell's Monument. This rude memorial was erected in 1831, by J. W. Barber, Esq., of New Haven, the historian of that city, and author of the <em>Historical Collections of Connecticut</em>, as a tribute of respect for a meritorious officer. It is about a foot and a half high. The site of Campbell's grave was pointed out to Mr. Barber by the late Chauncy Alling, who saw him buried. Several Americans, who were killed at the same time, were buried near. Their remains were afterward removed. Those of Adjutant Campbell rest undisturbed.

Campbell's Monument

Campbell's Monument. This rude memorial was erected in 1831, by J. W. Barber, Esq., of New Haven, the…

Cannon used at the time of the American revolution

Cannon used at the time of the American Revolution

Cannon used at the time of the American revolution

Cape Diamond, this is a view of the spot where Montgomery was killed. The cliff is Cape Diamond, crowned with the citadel. The street at the foot of it is called Champlain, and is inhabited chiefly by a mixed population of French, Canadians, and Irish. It extends from Mountain Street south almost to Wolfe's Cove. This view is from Champlain Street, a few rods south of <em>Pres de Ville</em>, looking north. High upon the rocks Alfred Hawkins, Esq., of Quebec, has placed a board with this inscription: "Here Major-General Montgomery Fell, December 31st, 1775."

Cape Diamond

Cape Diamond, this is a view of the spot where Montgomery was killed. The cliff is Cape Diamond, crowned…

"The Old Capitol."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Old Capitol

"The Old Capitol."—Lossing, 1851

"The Captors' Medal."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Captors' Medal

"The Captors' Medal."—Lossing, 1851

Sir Guy Carleton, afterward Lord Dorchester, was Wolfe's quartermaster at the storming of Quebec, and was appointed a major in the British army in 1772. In 1774 he was constituted Captain-general and Governor of Quebec or Canada. He successfully commanded the British at Quebec when attacked by Montgomery in 1775, compelled the Americans to raise the siege in 1776, and drove them out of the province. In October he recaptured Crown Point. He was unjustly superseded in military command by Burgoyne in 1777. He was appointed to succeed Sir Henry Clinton in 1782, and was in command of the British troops when they evacuated New York on the 25th of November, 1783. He died in England at the close of 1808, aged 83 years.

Sir Guy Carleton

Sir Guy Carleton, afterward Lord Dorchester, was Wolfe's quartermaster at the storming of Quebec, and…

Carpenter's Hall, where the First Congress met

Carpenter's Hall

Carpenter's Hall, where the First Congress met

An illustration of Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia, where the First Continental Congress assembled.

Outside View of Carpenter's Hall

An illustration of Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia, where the First Continental Congress assembled.

"Carpenters' Hall. This building is constructed of small imported bricks, each alternate one glazed, and darker than the other, giving it a checkered appearance. Many of the old houses of Philadelphia were built of ike materials. It was originally erected for the hall of meeting for the society of house-carpenters of Philadelphia. It stands at the end of an alley leading south from Chestnut Street, between Third and Fourth Streets."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Carpenters' Hall

"Carpenters' Hall. This building is constructed of small imported bricks, each alternate one glazed,…

The Cascades, on St. Ann's Rapids. These rapids are so called from the cirumstance that a village of the same name is near. This was considered by the Canadian voyageurs the place of departure when going from Montreal on fur-trading excursions, as here was the last church upon the island. This fact suggested to Moore the thoughts expressed in the first verse of his <em>Canadian Boat Song</em>.

Cascades

The Cascades, on St. Ann's Rapids. These rapids are so called from the cirumstance that a village of…

"View of the Great Falls of the Catawba. This view is from the west side of the Catawba, looking northeast, toward Lancaster District."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Catawba

"View of the Great Falls of the Catawba. This view is from the west side of the Catawba, looking northeast,…

"Then came Lord Cathcart upon a powerful horse. He was chief of the knights. Two negro slaves wearing white breeches and blue sashes, with large silver clasps around their necks, help his stirrups."&mdash;Coffin, 1879

Captain Cathcart

"Then came Lord Cathcart upon a powerful horse. He was chief of the knights. Two negro slaves wearing…

Caughnawaga church. This old church, now (1848) known as the <em>Fonda Academy</em>, under the management of Rev. Douw Van Olinda, is about half a mile east of the court-house, in the village of Fonda. It is a stone edifice, and was erected in 1763 by voluntary contributions. Sir William Johnson contributed liberally. Its first pastor was Thomas Romayne, who was succeeded in 1795 by Abraham Van Horn, one of the earliest graduates of King's (now Columbia) College, in the city of New York. He was from Kingston, Ulster county, and remained its pastor until 1840. During his ministry he united in marriage 1500 couples. The church was without a bell until he confiscated property of Sir John Johnson was sold in the Revolution, when the <em>dinner-bell</em> of his father was purchased and hung in the steeple. The bell weighs a little more than one hundred pounds, and bears the following inscription: "S. R. William Johnson, baronet, 1774. Made by Miller and Ross, in Eliz. Town."

Caughnawaga Church

Caughnawaga church. This old church, now (1848) known as the Fonda Academy, under the management…

Cedars Rapids, at St. Timothy.

Cedars Rapids

Cedars Rapids, at St. Timothy.

"View at Chad's Ford. This view is from the east bank of the Brandywine, looking southwest. The ford was about ten rods above the present bridge. Its place is indicated in the picture by the hollow in front of the tree on the extreme left. The wooded height seen on the opposite side of the river is the place where Knyphausen's artillery was planted."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Chad's Ford

"View at Chad's Ford. This view is from the east bank of the Brandywine, looking southwest. The ford…

Appearance of the chambers. The miners, when they branch off from the main shaft or avenue, leave pillars of coal about eighteen feet square, to support the roof or mass above. These huge pillars were crushed by the great weight upon them, in the accident recorded.

chambers

Appearance of the chambers. The miners, when they branch off from the main shaft or avenue, leave pillars…

"Charleston in 1780."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Charleston

"Charleston in 1780."—Lossing, 1851

"Charlestown in 1775. No. 1 is Bunker Hill; 2, Breed's Hill; 3, Moulton's Point; 4, a causeway near the Neck, at the foot of Bunker Hill; 5, Charlestown, at the foot of Breed's Hill. Charlestown neck is on the extreme left."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Charlestown

"Charlestown in 1775. No. 1 is Bunker Hill; 2, Breed's Hill; 3, Moulton's Point; 4, a causeway near…

"This picture was drawn by a British engineer at the time of the battle. The view is from Copp's Hill, in Boston, looking north. A British battery on Copp's Hill fired across the water and set the town on fire. The smoke of the battle is seen on the hill behind the town. The wind was south-west, and carried the smoke eastward over the Mystic River."&mdash;Coffin, 1879

Burning of Charlestown

"This picture was drawn by a British engineer at the time of the battle. The view is from Copp's Hill,…

"A profile view of the Heights of Charlestown, in the American Revolution."&mdash;E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Heights of Charlestown

"A profile view of the Heights of Charlestown, in the American Revolution."—E. Benjamin Andrews,…

The Charter Oak. This venerable relic is still virgorous, and is a "gnarled oak" indeed. It stands upon the northern slope of the Wyllys Hill, a beautiful elevation on the south side of charter Street, a few rods east of Main Street. This engraving is from a sketch which I made of the tree from Charter Street, on the 3d of October, 1848. I omitted the picket fence in front, in order to show the appearance of the whole trunk.

Charter Oak

The Charter Oak. This venerable relic is still virgorous, and is a "gnarled oak" indeed. It stands upon…

"Chatham's monument, Westminster Abbey. William Pitt, the first Earl of Chatham, was born on the 5th of November, 1708."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Chatham's Monument

"Chatham's monument, Westminster Abbey. William Pitt, the first Earl of Chatham, was born on the 5th…

"Chatterton's Hill, from the rail-way station. This is a view of the southeastern side of Chatterton's Hill, from the rail-way station. They crossed the Bronx at a point seen on the extreme right. On the top of the hill, in the edge of the woods on the left, Hamilton's cannons were placed."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Chatterton's Hill

"Chatterton's Hill, from the rail-way station. This is a view of the southeastern side of Chatterton's…

"View at the Cherokee Ford. This view is from the east bank of the river. Toward the extreme right is seen the dam, made to supply water-power for the iron-works delineated toward the left of the picture. The fording-place, which crosses a small island in the middle of the steam, is indicated by the slight fall toward the left."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Cherokee Ford

"View at the Cherokee Ford. This view is from the east bank of the river. Toward the extreme right is…

Distant view of Cherry Valley. Cherry Valley derived is name, according to Campbell, from the following circumstance: "Mr. Dunlop [the venerable pastor whose family suffered at the time of the massacre in 1778], engaged in writing some letters, inquired of Mr. Lindesay [the original proprietor of the soil] where he should date them, who proposed the name of a town in Scotland. Mr. Dunlop, pointing to the fine wild cherry-trees and to the valley, replied, 'Let us give our place an appropriate name, and call it Cherry Valley,' which was readily agreed to."

Cherry Valley

Distant view of Cherry Valley. Cherry Valley derived is name, according to Campbell, from the following…

The coach car of a rich Tory judge, Judge Chew. He had a driver and footman in gold-laced cocked hats.

The Chew Coach

The coach car of a rich Tory judge, Judge Chew. He had a driver and footman in gold-laced cocked hats.

A festival gathering at Judge Chew's home, who was a very rich Tory judge.

Reception in Chew House

A festival gathering at Judge Chew's home, who was a very rich Tory judge.

Chimney Point Landing. This view is taken from the green in front of the inn at Chimney Point, looking west-southwest. The first land seen across the lake is Crown Point, with the remaining barracks and other works of the fortress, and the dwellings and outhouses of Mr. Baker, and a resident farmer. Beyond the point is Bulwaggy Bay, a broad, deep estuary much wider than the lake at Chimney Point. Beyond the bay, and rising from its western shore, is a Bulwaggy mountain, varying in perpendicular height from four to nine hundred feet, and distant from the fort between one and two miles. A little to the right of the larger tree on the shore is the site of Fort St. Frederic, and at the edge of the circle on the left, along the same shore, is the locality of the <em>Grenadiers' Battery.</em> The wharf and bridge in the foreground form the steam-boat and ferry landing at Chimney Point.

Chimney Point

Chimney Point Landing. This view is taken from the green in front of the inn at Chimney Point, looking…

(--) French major general who led troops for the American Revolution

M. De Choisé

(--) French major general who led troops for the American Revolution

The famous church in Boston, Massachusetts where the line "one if by land, and two if by sea" signal was said to have been sent.

Old North Church

The famous church in Boston, Massachusetts where the line "one if by land, and two if by sea" signal…

Ruins of the Citadel of Fort George.

Citadel

Ruins of the Citadel of Fort George.

"Clark's House, Lexington. This building was standing when I visited Lexington in 1848. It was built by Thomas Hancock, Esq., of Boston, as a parsonage for his father, the Reverend John Hancock, of Lexington, about 130 years ago. Mr. Hancock was a minister at Lexington fifty-two years, and was succeeded by the Reverend Jonas Clark, the occupant of the house at the time of the skirmish at Lexington. Mr. Clark lived in the house fifty-two years. The room in which the two patriots, Samuel Adams and John Hancock, were sleeping on the night before the skirmish at Lexington, is retained in its original condition. The wainscoting is of Carolina pine, and the sides of the room are covered with a heavy paper, with dark figures, pasted upon the boards in rectangular pieces about fourteen inches square. In an adjoining room is one of those ancient fire-places, ornamented with pictorial tiles, so rarely found in New England."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Clark's House

"Clark's House, Lexington. This building was standing when I visited Lexington in 1848. It was built…

(1752-1818) Surveyor and soldier of the Revolutionary war. Led a militia group in Kentucky and after the war he participated in a military expedition against the Wabash Indians.

Major George Rogers Clark

(1752-1818) Surveyor and soldier of the Revolutionary war. Led a militia group in Kentucky and after…

(1739-1812) General during the American Revolution and governor of New York. He was also Vice president under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.

George Clinton

(1739-1812) General during the American Revolution and governor of New York. He was also Vice president…

Grave of Colonel Robert Cochran, who commanded a detachment of militia at Fort Edward at the time of Burgoyne's surrender.

Cochran Grave

Grave of Colonel Robert Cochran, who commanded a detachment of militia at Fort Edward at the time of…

The old Colony Seal.

Colony Seal

The old Colony Seal.

Distant view of Compo. This view is from the top of a high hill northeast of the dwelling of Mr. Ebenezer Smith, near Norwalk. Its long sand-bar is seen stretching into the Sound on the right, and over the lowest extemity of the point the shade trees of Fairfield are visible. The water on the left is the mouth of the Saugatuck River, and that in the distance, on the right, is Long Island Sound.

Compo

Distant view of Compo. This view is from the top of a high hill northeast of the dwelling of Mr. Ebenezer…

A statue by Daniel C. French at Concord Bridge.

The Concord Minute Man

A statue by Daniel C. French at Concord Bridge.

"Monument at Concord."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Concord Monument

"Monument at Concord."—Lossing, 1851

"Congress Hall."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Congress Hall

"Congress Hall."—Lossing, 1851

"The Congress House. This view is from Baltimore Street, looking southeast. The ront on the left is on Baltimore Street; the other is on Liberty Street. Its first story is now used for commercial purposes; otherwise it exhibits the same external appearances as when Congress assembled there."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Congress House

"The Congress House. This view is from Baltimore Street, looking southeast. The ront on the left is…

The Constitution House, Kingston. This house, the property and residence of James W. Baldwin, Esq., was used for the session of the state Convention in 1777. It is built of blue limestone, and stands on the southwest corner of Maiden Lane and Fair Street. It is one of the few houses that survived the conflagration of the village.

Constitution House

The Constitution House, Kingston. This house, the property and residence of James W. Baldwin, Esq.,…

Fac-simile of the Continental Bills. The paper on which these bills were printed was quite thick, and the enemy called it "the <em>pasteboard</em> money of the rebels." The vignettes were generally, both in device and motto, significant. The one most prominent in the engraving represents a beaver in the slow but sure process of cutting down a tree with its teeth. The motto, "Preseverando- by Preseverance," said to the colonists, "Persist, and you will be successful." I will notice a few other devices and mottoes of bills which I have seen. A globe, with the motto, in Latin, "The Lord reigns; let the earth rejoice." A candlestick with thirteen branches and burners, denoting the number of states; motto, "One fire, and to the same purpose." A thorn-bush with a hand grasping it; motto, "Sustain or abstain." A circular chain bearing on each link the name of a state, an emblem of union; motto, "We are one."

Continental Bills

Fac-simile of the Continental Bills. The paper on which these bills were printed was quite thick, and…

Continental currency

Continental Currency

Continental currency

A soldier in the Continental Army.

Continental Soldier

A soldier in the Continental Army.

"View of the encampment of the Convention Troops."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Convention Troops

"View of the encampment of the Convention Troops."—Lossing, 1851

Rhode Island Governor Nicholas Cooke's Monument.

Governor Nicholas Cooke's Monument

Rhode Island Governor Nicholas Cooke's Monument.