"A blower, a contrivance for fumigating wheat and other grain, to bleach it and destroy fungi and insects."-Whitney, 1902

Aerator

"A blower, a contrivance for fumigating wheat and other grain, to bleach it and destroy fungi and insects."-Whitney,…

Diagram showing air gaps between parts of Gray & Davis apparatus.

Air Gaps

Diagram showing air gaps between parts of Gray & Davis apparatus.

"The letter C marks the point where the vessel to be exhausted is attached." -Century, 1889

Mercury Air-Pump

"The letter C marks the point where the vessel to be exhausted is attached." -Century, 1889

An illustration of an Alcoholometer, used to measure the alcohol content in liquids. A, distilling-flask; B, Condenser; C, Receiver.

Alcoholometer

An illustration of an Alcoholometer, used to measure the alcohol content in liquids. A, distilling-flask;…

This figure represents an apparatus frequently employed for illustrating some of the consequences of Torricelli's Theorem.

Apparatus for verifying Torricelli's Theorem

This figure represents an apparatus frequently employed for illustrating some of the consequences of…

"Hearson's machine is cylindrical in form, and is surmounted by two turrets. Internally the cylinder is divided into two compartments by a transverse portion, one being occupied by a rotary blower, an apparatus similar in construction to the drum of a water-meter, and the other by an elevator or dipper wheel, the function of which is to raise gasolin into the blower chamber, where the gasoline must be maintained at a constant level." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Auto-Pneumatic Apparatus

"Hearson's machine is cylindrical in form, and is surmounted by two turrets. Internally the cylinder…

"An apparatus designed to measure the elongation or contraction of a spring when attached to two scale-pans, with one immersed in water." -Avery 1895

Jolly Balance

"An apparatus designed to measure the elongation or contraction of a spring when attached to two scale-pans,…

"A current is caused to pass from the mercury through C along the radius of the disc A through the field of magnetic force due to the horse-shoe magnet NO. The result is that the wheel rotates in the direction indicated by the arrow." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Barlow Apparatus

"A current is caused to pass from the mercury through C along the radius of the disc A through the field…

A stop top utensil that is used to cook delicate sauce.

Double Boiler

A stop top utensil that is used to cook delicate sauce.

"Bunsen's Burner, a form of gas burner especially adapted for heating, consisting of a tube, in which, by means of holes in the side, the gas becomes mixed with air before consumption, so that it gives a non-illuminating smokeless flame." -Vaughan, 1906

Bunsen Burner

"Bunsen's Burner, a form of gas burner especially adapted for heating, consisting of a tube, in which,…

A nozzle or jet on a fitting through which combustible gas is released to burn. Also called gas jet.

Gas Burner

A nozzle or jet on a fitting through which combustible gas is released to burn. Also called gas jet.

A device, as in a furnace, stove, or gas lamp, that is lighted to produce a flame.

Mantle Burner

A device, as in a furnace, stove, or gas lamp, that is lighted to produce a flame.

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric cylindric refractor with zones of silvered mirror above and below similar in profile to Bordier Marcet's reflector. By the adoption of the refractor the whole of the wasteful divergence which occurs in Marcet's reflector is prevented. We have here a geometrically perfect combination, but it is not so physically, because metallic reflexion is used. This physical defect Fresnel obviated in his next design." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadiopteric Light

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric…

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric cylindric refractor with zones of silvered mirror above and below similar in profile to Bordier Marcet's reflector. By the adoption of the refractor the whole of the wasteful divergence which occurs in Marcet's reflector is prevented. We have here a geometrically perfect combination, but it is not so physically, because metallic reflexion is used. This physical defect Fresnel obviated in his next design." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadiopteric Light

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric…

In semiconductor design, standard cell methodology is a method of designing Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) with mostly digital-logic features.

Clark's Standard Cell

In semiconductor design, standard cell methodology is a method of designing Application Specific Integrated…

In semiconductor design, standard cell methodology is a method of designing Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) with mostly digital-logic features.

Fleming's Standard Cell

In semiconductor design, standard cell methodology is a method of designing Application Specific Integrated…

A chemistry apparatus.

Chemistry Apparatus

A chemistry apparatus.

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly over the angle of 45 degrees pgp, while the supplemental rays fall upon the straight condensing prisms p, each of which spreads the incident rays parallel to the corresponding rays in the central angle pgp. In this way the whole of the front hemisphere of rays is parallelized in the vertical plane and spread equally over the 45 degree in azimuth." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Octant

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly…

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly over the angle of 45 degrees pgp, while the supplemental rays fall upon the straight condensing prisms p, each of which spreads the incident rays parallel to the corresponding rays in the central angle pgp. In this way the whole of the front hemisphere of rays is parallelized in the vertical plane and spread equally over the 45 degree in azimuth." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Octant

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly…

"Condensing Quadrant.—The fixed apparatus bbb, with spherical mirror behind, throws its rays directly through the angle of 90 degrees afa', while the supplementary rays falling on the straight condensing prisms p, p, p', p' are sent out parallel to the corresponding rays in the unobstructed central quadrant of the main apparatus. The whole light will therefore be condensed equally over 90 degrees." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Quadrant

"Condensing Quadrant.—The fixed apparatus bbb, with spherical mirror behind, throws its rays directly…

"Currying Apparatus. C, pommel; R, raising board; S, slicker." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Currying Apparatus

"Currying Apparatus. C, pommel; R, raising board; S, slicker." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"The Danglish apparatus consists of the following parts: 1st, a generator A, in which carbonic acid is evolved from chalk by sulphuric or hydrochloric acid; 2nd, a gas-holder, in which the carbonic acid is stored for use after being purified in passing through water; 3rd, an air pump, for pumping carbonic acid from the gas-holder, and forcing it into the water vessel and mixer; 4th, another air-pump, for withdrawing atmospheric air from the mixer before the aerated water is admitted; 5th, a water vessel B, a strong cylinder of copper capable of withstanding a pressure of 100 lbs on the square inch, and of sufficient size to contain water for a full charge of the mixer; attached to this water vessel there are a gauge-glass C, and a pressure gauge D, for indicating the pressure of gas as it is pumped in; 6th, the mixer E, a globular vessel of cast-iron, capable of bearing high pressure, through the center of which an axle runs, fitted with iron kneating arms extending to the circumference of the vessel." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Danglish Apparatus

"The Danglish apparatus consists of the following parts: 1st, a generator A, in which carbonic acid…

Apparatus used for distillation, separating liquid from the impurities contained in it. A, reservoir; B, light for heating; C, connecting tube; D, steam passes into; E, pipe where cold water is supplied; F, discharged liquid; H, pure water.

Distillation

Apparatus used for distillation, separating liquid from the impurities contained in it. A, reservoir;…

An illustration of various fractional distillation devices. fractional distillation must be used in order to separate the components well by repeated vaporization-condensation cycles within a packed fractionating column. This separation, by successive distillations, is also referred to as rectification.

Fractional Distillation

An illustration of various fractional distillation devices. fractional distillation must be used in…

"An apparatus at one time in use in Britain for the punishment of wives. The ducking-stool grew out of the cucking-stool, which was not, as many have supposed, a mere difference of name for the same thing. The cucking-stool of itself did not admit of the ducking of its occupants. It was a simple chair in which the offender was placed, usually before her or his (for the cucking-stool was not so specially for women as the ducking-stool) own door, to be pelted and insulted by the mob." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Ducking-Stool

"An apparatus at one time in use in Britain for the punishment of wives. The ducking-stool grew out…

"1. Tumbrel preserved at Leominster; 2. Ducking-chair in the museum at Scarborough." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Ducking-Stool

"1. Tumbrel preserved at Leominster; 2. Ducking-chair in the museum at Scarborough." — Chambers'…

A generator consisting of a coil which rotates between the poles of an electromagnet causing a current to flow in.

Electric Machine for Dynamo

A generator consisting of a coil which rotates between the poles of an electromagnet causing a current…

"ABC is a horizontal coil of wire terminating at the binding screws a, b. FG is a ring-shaped trough of mercury for the sliding contacts. A wire connects the mercury with the binding screw d. DE is an upright support screwed into a metal base D in connection with the binding screw c, and terminating above in a mercury cup E. When required, DE can be replaced by the shorter supports D'E' and D"E". HLK is a support for a screw L, which carries an adjustible center." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Electric Apparatus

"ABC is a horizontal coil of wire terminating at the binding screws a, b. FG is a ring-shaped trough…

"An apparatus used for electrolysis of water." -Avery 1895

Electrolysis

"An apparatus used for electrolysis of water." -Avery 1895

"Modern apparatus for decomposing water by electrolysis." -Hawkins, 1917

Electrolysis Apparatus

"Modern apparatus for decomposing water by electrolysis." -Hawkins, 1917

Apparatus for showing the presence of electricity without giving quantitative measurements.

Electroscope

Apparatus for showing the presence of electricity without giving quantitative measurements.

"In the gold-leaf electroscope (invented by Bennet in 1787), two light strips of gold-leaf hang from the lower end of a metal rod, which passes vertically through an opening in the top of a glass bottle and expands above into a plate. If a piece of rubbed sealing-wax or other electrified body be brought near the plate, the gold leaves will repel each other and diverge ... A cylinder of wire gauze placed just inside the glass case, improves the action of the instrument." -Hazeltine, 1894

Gold Leaf Electroscope

"In the gold-leaf electroscope (invented by Bennet in 1787), two light strips of gold-leaf hang from…

"This apparatus shows the rotation at once of a magnet and of a movable conductor. The rotating pieces are the magnet sn, which is tied to the copper peg at the bottom of G by means of a piece of string, and swims round the vertical current buoyed up by the mercury in G, and the wire DE, which is hinged to D by a thin flexible wire, and swims round the pole of the vertical magnet n's'." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Faraday Apparatus

"This apparatus shows the rotation at once of a magnet and of a movable conductor. The rotating pieces…

"Faraday used in his experiments two identical pieces of apparatus, which were vertually two spherical Leyden jars. The outer coating EF was divided into two hemispheres, which could be fitted together airtight. The lower hemisphere F was fitted to a perforated stem, provided with a stop-cock G, so that it could be screwed to an airpump while the apparatus was being exhausted, and afterwards screwed into a foot H. The upper hemisphere was pierced by a tube, into which was cemented a shellac plug B. C is a metal wire passing down through B, which supports the hollow metal sphere D, forming the inside armature, and carries the metal ball A, by means of which D can be charged and discharged." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Faraday Experiment

"Faraday used in his experiments two identical pieces of apparatus, which were vertually two spherical…

"Ponsard Furnace or Forno-Convertisseur. This apparatus is essentially a combination of the Pernot furnace with the Bessemer converter, consisting of a hearth movable about an obliquely vertical axis. Instead of rotating round and round on this axis, the hearth D only moves through half a revolution." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Forno-Convertisseur

"Ponsard Furnace or Forno-Convertisseur. This apparatus is essentially a combination of the Pernot furnace…

"An apparatus setup for fractional distillation of water." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Apparatus Used for Fractional Distillation

"An apparatus setup for fractional distillation of water." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

"For measuring the gas concentration, pressure and temperature, use may be made of an apparatus of the type shown [here]." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Apparatus for Measuring Gas Concentration Pressure and Temperature

"For measuring the gas concentration, pressure and temperature, use may be made of an apparatus of the…

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube of narrow bore. To fill this tube with gas, both ends being open, a globule of mercury is first introduced at the lower curved extremity; the tube is then placed in a nearly horizontal position, the curved extremity is connected with the holder contraining the gas, or with the apparatus in which the gas is being evolved, by means of caoutehone tubing, and a current of the pure dry gas is passed through the tube until the air is entirely expelled; this being effected, the point opposite to the curved extremity is sealed in the blowpipe flame; the tube is then brought into a vertical position, so that the globule of mercury closes the lower extremity, the caoutchouc tube is withdrawn, and the tube AA thus filled is screwed into its place in the cylinder B." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas Liquidation

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube…

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube of narrow bore. To fill this tube with gas, both ends being open, a globule of mercury is first introduced at the lower curved extremity; the tube is then placed in a nearly horizontal position, the curved extremity is connected with the holder contraining the gas, or with the apparatus in which the gas is being evolved, by means of caoutehone tubing, and a current of the pure dry gas is passed through the tube until the air is entirely expelled; this being effected, the point opposite to the curved extremity is sealed in the blowpipe flame; the tube is then brought into a vertical position, so that the globule of mercury closes the lower extremity, the caoutchouc tube is withdrawn, and the tube AA thus filled is screwed into its place in the cylinder B." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas Liquidation

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube…

"Produces a jet of hydrogen." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Hydrogen Jet Apparatus

"Produces a jet of hydrogen." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

"Hyoid arch, branchial apparatus, and scapulary arch of the Perca." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hyoid Arch

"Hyoid arch, branchial apparatus, and scapulary arch of the Perca." — Encyclopedia Britannica,…

An apparatus in which environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, can be controlled, often used for growing bacterial cultures, hatching eggs artificially, or providing suitable conditions for a chemical or biological reaction.

Medical Incubator

An apparatus in which environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, can be controlled,…

"Lenz's apparatus for measuring the heat given off by an electric current." -Hawkins, 1917

Lenz's Apparatus

"Lenz's apparatus for measuring the heat given off by an electric current." -Hawkins, 1917

A feeding machine which has been adapted to feed and push a material with a high consistency by means of subjecting the material to a large stretching and contracting force, namely the combined actions of folding back, pulling and shearing being applied simultaneously.

Feeding Machine

A feeding machine which has been adapted to feed and push a material with a high consistency by means…

This invention relates to heat presses and, more particularly, to heat presses that are easy to use and expandable for greater workloads.

Hat Pressing Machine

This invention relates to heat presses and, more particularly, to heat presses that are easy to use…

This particular invention relates to a mixing machine which is suited for mixing and kneading the raw ingredients for soils and fertilizers.

Mixing Machine

This particular invention relates to a mixing machine which is suited for mixing and kneading the raw…

This is an apparatus employed to obtain a uniform flow of water. The device provides a constant pressure delivering a constant rate of flow.

Mariotte's Bottle

This is an apparatus employed to obtain a uniform flow of water. The device provides a constant pressure…

"This coffee apparatus consists of a glass globe a, an infusing jar b, of glass or porcelain and a bent tube c of block tin or German silver fitted by a cork stopper into the neck of the globe and passing to the bottom of the jar, where it ends in a finely perforated disc. The apparatus also requires a spirit lamp d or other means of communicating a certain amount of heat to the globe. The coffee is infused with boiling water in the jar, and a small quantity of boiling water is also placed in the globe. The tube is then fitted in, and the spirit lamp is lighted under the globe. The steam generated expels the air from the globe, and it bubbles up through the jar. When the bubbles of air cease to appear almost the whole of the air will have been ejected, and on withdrawing the lamp the steam in the globe condenses, creating a vacuum, to fill up which the infused coffee rushes up through the metal tube, being at the same time filtered by the accumulated coffee grounds around the perforated disc." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Napier's Coffee Apparatus

"This coffee apparatus consists of a glass globe a, an infusing jar b, of glass or porcelain and a bent…

Opposite side of steam spraying apparatus constructed by the Shade and Fruit Tree Protective Association of New York.

Opposite Side of Steam Spray Apparatus

Opposite side of steam spraying apparatus constructed by the Shade and Fruit Tree Protective Association…

An apparatus, used to demonstrate how root-hairs are used to take in soil-water

Osmosis apparatus

An apparatus, used to demonstrate how root-hairs are used to take in soil-water

This apparatus features an annular graduated base holding the base parallel to the brain of the subject. Stating that the personality traits of a person can be determined by the shape of their head. Phrenology is based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind

An Annular Graduated Base Phrenometer

This apparatus features an annular graduated base holding the base parallel to the brain of the subject.…

For removing a hinge pin, a tool having a wedge-shaped head mounted on a shank equipped with a support projection to receive the hinge. The head includes an impact surface for hammering the wedge portion between the hinge and the head of the hinge pin. A striker plate perpendicular to the tool shank receives impact blows to dislodge the pin from the hinge.

Pin Removal Tool

For removing a hinge pin, a tool having a wedge-shaped head mounted on a shank equipped with a support…

"In the apparatus shown... three forces act on a small body and are allowed to assume a position of equilibrium. A triangle is then constructed with sides parallel respectively to the three forces; it will be found by measurement that the sides are also the lengths proportional to the forces, and as will be seen the arrowheads point concurrently round the triangle.

Polygon of Forces

"In the apparatus shown... three forces act on a small body and are allowed to assume a position of…

"Plane mirrors M revolve on an endless chain placed outside of the apparatus and alter the direction of the flashes after they pass into the dark arc on the landward side so as to cause the lenses L, L to repeat their flashes over the seaward are which requires strengthening. The condensing spherical mirror and mirror of unequal areas will also be found applicable in cases where the flashes do not require to sweep over the whole horizon." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Repeating Light

"Plane mirrors M revolve on an endless chain placed outside of the apparatus and alter the direction…

"An apparatus for lifting heavy bodies a short distance." — Williams, 1889

Screw-jack

"An apparatus for lifting heavy bodies a short distance." — Williams, 1889

"A glass vessel used to separate liquids which differ in specific gravity and are not miscible." -Whitney, 1911

Separator

"A glass vessel used to separate liquids which differ in specific gravity and are not miscible." -Whitney,…

Device for separating, by means of an electromagnet, magnetic particles in a slurry from the remainder of the particles in the mixture. Used in the recovery of medium in heavy-media separation.

Magnetic Separator

Device for separating, by means of an electromagnet, magnetic particles in a slurry from the remainder…

"An improved form of apparatus for the fractionation [sic] is represented in fig. 9." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Apparatus Designed for Spectroscopic Examination

"An improved form of apparatus for the fractionation [sic] is represented in fig. 9." —The Encyclopedia…

Steam spraying apparatus constructed by the Shade and Fruit Tree Protective Association of New York.

Steam Spray Apparatus

Steam spraying apparatus constructed by the Shade and Fruit Tree Protective Association of New York.

Apparatus for breaking a plate of glass by torsion, with an example of results produced.

Torsion Apparatus

Apparatus for breaking a plate of glass by torsion, with an example of results produced.