"On this principle the common balance, represented [here] is constructed. A beam is poised on the top of a pillar, so as to be exactly horizontal. From each end of the beam, at equal distances from the fulcrum, a pan is suspended by means of cords. The object to be weighed is placed in one of these plans, and the weights in the other." —Quackenbos 1859

Balance

"On this principle the common balance, represented [here] is constructed. A beam is poised on the top…

An adult common carpet beetle, a small grayish or black beetle belonging to the order Coleoptera.

Adult Common Carpet Beetle

An adult common carpet beetle, a small grayish or black beetle belonging to the order Coleoptera.

Larva of the common carpet beetle, a small grayish or black beetle belonging to the order Coleoptera.

Common Carpet Beetle Larva

Larva of the common carpet beetle, a small grayish or black beetle belonging to the order Coleoptera.

Larva of the common carpet beetle, a small grayish or black beetle belonging to the order Coleoptera.

Common Carpet Beetle Larva

Larva of the common carpet beetle, a small grayish or black beetle belonging to the order Coleoptera.

Pupa of the common carpet beetle, a small grayish or black beetle belonging to the order Coleoptera.

Common Carpet Beetle Pupa

Pupa of the common carpet beetle, a small grayish or black beetle belonging to the order Coleoptera.

The common bittern of Europe feeds at night, primarily on frogs, lizards, small birds, and fish.

Common Bittern

The common bittern of Europe feeds at night, primarily on frogs, lizards, small birds, and fish.

"Blackberry knot gall common on the stems of the blackberry." —Davison, 1906

Blackberry Knot

"Blackberry knot gall common on the stems of the blackberry." —Davison, 1906

Among the several species of Brittle-Star found in the British seas is the Common Brittle-Star, <em>Ophicoma rosula</em>, which displays the most varied hues, arranged in beautiful patterns." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common brittle-star

Among the several species of Brittle-Star found in the British seas is the Common Brittle-Star, Ophicoma

"<em>B. vulgaris</em> is twenty-two inches long, the head is large and the body heavy. Above, the color is chocolate-brown; grayish-white beneath. Its flight is low, and much of its time is spent in sitting on trees, in wooded districts, awaiting its prey, which consists of small quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, insects, and earthworms." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Common Buzzard of Europe

"B. vulgaris is twenty-two inches long, the head is large and the body heavy. Above, the color…

"The Pen-Fish or Common Calamary, <em>L. vulgaris</em>, is the best-known species of the genus; the body is somewhat pellucid, of a greenish hue, changeable to dirty brown; the eyes are large and lustrous, of an emerald green, phosphoric, and fiery in a high degree. It is common in the european seas, and was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans. [Shown with a quill pen]" &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common calamari

"The Pen-Fish or Common Calamary, L. vulgaris, is the best-known species of the genus; the…

"It is ten to forty inches long, and sometimes attains the weight of a hundred pounds; the general color is rich olive-brown above, yellowish-white beneath." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common Carp

"It is ten to forty inches long, and sometimes attains the weight of a hundred pounds; the general color…

Measuring between sixteen and eightenn inches long, the common chameleon of Europe is native to India and parts of Northern Africa; it has become naturalized in some parts of Southern Europe.

Common chameleon

Measuring between sixteen and eightenn inches long, the common chameleon of Europe is native to India…

The common chickadee, found in the United States.

Common chickadee

The common chickadee, found in the United States.

"The common chipping-knife, used by apothecaries, and represented [here], is a familiar illustration of levers of the second kind [class]." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Chipping Knife

"The common chipping-knife, used by apothecaries, and represented [here], is a familiar illustration…

"It is two to four feet long, and weighs from two to seventy spounds; the general color is greenish brown above, and silvery white beneath. It inhabits deep water, and is often taken a a depth of thirty fathoms." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common Cod

"It is two to four feet long, and weighs from two to seventy spounds; the general color is greenish…

"A genus of trees belonging to the natural order Oleaceae, and distinguished by very imperfect flowers, in which the calyx is obsolete, and the corolla either wanting or 3-4 partite; the fruit is a samara, a seed-vessel foliaceous at the extremity." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Common Ash

"A genus of trees belonging to the natural order Oleaceae, and distinguished by very imperfect flowers,…

"Common Ash. a, a branch with leaves; b, flowers; c, fruit (on a considerably larger scale than the leaves and flowers)." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Common Ash

"Common Ash. a, a branch with leaves; b, flowers; c, fruit (on a considerably larger scale than the…

Also known as Juniperus communis. It is generally found throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

Branch of Common Juniper

Also known as Juniperus communis. It is generally found throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

Averaging about sixteen inches in length, the common coot of Europe is found throughout Europe and Asia.

Common European coot

Averaging about sixteen inches in length, the common coot of Europe is found throughout Europe and Asia.

The black cormorant averages about three feet in length, and is found in Greenland, as well as a long the coasts of Asia, Europe, and North America. In some countries it was domesticated, and trained to fish for its masters.

Black cormorant

The black cormorant averages about three feet in length, and is found in Greenland, as well as a long…

The common crane of Europe is mostly of a blueish-ash color, feeding on worms, insects, reptiles, mollusca, and sometimes on grain.

Common European crane

The common crane of Europe is mostly of a blueish-ash color, feeding on worms, insects, reptiles, mollusca,…

A small, quick moving bird which feeds on insects.

Common European creeper

A small, quick moving bird which feeds on insects.

Also known as the common American cuckoo, the yellow-billed cuckoo subsists on a diet of hairy caterpillars, cock-chafers, and the eggs of small birds.

Yellow-billed cuckoo

Also known as the common American cuckoo, the yellow-billed cuckoo subsists on a diet of hairy caterpillars,…

"Twelve to eighteen inches long; the skin smooth, whitish, and spotted with brown and purple." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Cuttlefish

"Twelve to eighteen inches long; the skin smooth, whitish, and spotted with brown and purple." —…

"An internal support of a calcareous nature, and formed in laminae; this is the well-known <em>cuttlefish bone</em>, used fro cage birds, and also for making <em>pounce</em>; when reduced to powder, it is employed as a mould for fine castings." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Bone of the cuttle-fish

"An internal support of a calcareous nature, and formed in laminae; this is the well-known cuttlefish

"Is eight to ten inches long, feeds on crustacea, small fish, and marine insects, is often caught with plaice or flounder, but is preferred to either at the table." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common Dab

"Is eight to ten inches long, feeds on crustacea, small fish, and marine insects, is often caught with…

Also known as the burrow-duck and the sly goose, the common European sheldrake has been known to make its nest in abandoned rabbit burrows.

Common Sheldrake Duck

Also known as the burrow-duck and the sly goose, the common European sheldrake has been known to make…

"These have an elongated form, and a soft, thick, slimy skin; the scales are very minute, and imbedded in the thick, fat, cuticle so as only to be seen when this is dried. The gill orifices are small, and cartried far back, so that the branchiae are protected, on which account these animals can live a considerable time out of water. They are averse to cold and are not found in high northern countries." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common European Eel

"These have an elongated form, and a soft, thick, slimy skin; the scales are very minute, and imbedded…

"Is found at the mouths of nearly all European rivers, and is especially abundant where the bottom is soft and muddy." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Flounder

"Is found at the mouths of nearly all European rivers, and is especially abundant where the bottom is…

"The common frog of Europe, a common and well-known animal." &mdash; Goodrich. 1859

Common frog

"The common frog of Europe, a common and well-known animal." — Goodrich. 1859

Also known as the thistle-finch, it is often kept as a pet and taught to do tricks.

Common Goldfinch of Europe

Also known as the thistle-finch, it is often kept as a pet and taught to do tricks.

The cereopsis goose is found in Australia, and is about the same size as the common goose.

Cereopsis Goose

The cereopsis goose is found in Australia, and is about the same size as the common goose.

Also known as common gannet and as the channel-goose, the soland-goose is common to the sea between England and the Isle of Wight.

Soland Goose

Also known as common gannet and as the channel-goose, the soland-goose is common to the sea between…

"Diagrammatic section of the common form of a station governor." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Governor

"Diagrammatic section of the common form of a station governor." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Sugg's Consumers' Governor" &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Governor

"Sugg's Consumers' Governor" — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Is from six to fifteen inches long, and is found in the Mediterranean, and also in the European and American seas. These are called <em>Flying-Fish</em>, and perform nearly the same feats in the air as the true flying-fish." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Flying Gurnard

"Is from six to fifteen inches long, and is found in the Mediterranean, and also in the European and…

A large lizard, the common iguana is common to the tropical regions of the Americas. It spends much of its time in trees.

Common iguana

A large lizard, the common iguana is common to the tropical regions of the Americas. It spends much…

The common linnet of Europe is a small, active bird that feeds primarily on seeds.

Common Linnet of Europe

The common linnet of Europe is a small, active bird that feeds primarily on seeds.

Also known as the Superb Menura, the lyre bird is noted for its distinctive tail feathers. The male of this species has a pair which curve upwards in an "S" shape, giving it a resemblence to the ancient musical instrument it draws its name from.

Lyre Bird

Also known as the Superb Menura, the lyre bird is noted for its distinctive tail feathers. The male…

"Eaten both fresh and salted, and is caught in immense numbers in Europe and America. It is fourteen to twenty inches long, weighing from one to two pounds; the shape is elongated and spindle-like; the colors brilliant and beautiful." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common Mackerel

"Eaten both fresh and salted, and is caught in immense numbers in Europe and America. It is fourteen…

A plant widespread throughout temperate, subtropical and tropical regions.

Common Mallow

A plant widespread throughout temperate, subtropical and tropical regions.

"Showing One of the More Common Molds found on Fruits and Bread. The tiny stalks grow verticallyinto the air. The end of each thread swells into a small round knob, from the inside of which hundreds of minute bodies, called <em>spores</em>, burst. As <em>a</em> is seen a large knob filled with spores." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Common mold

"Showing One of the More Common Molds found on Fruits and Bread. The tiny stalks grow verticallyinto…

"Though inferior to the oyster, immense quantities of the Common Mussel, <em>Mytilus edulis</em>, are eaten in Europe." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common mussel

"Though inferior to the oyster, immense quantities of the Common Mussel, Mytilus edulis, are…

A small, omnivorous bird, which gets its name from the hatches or hammerings it leaves on nuts.

Common European Nuthatch

A small, omnivorous bird, which gets its name from the hatches or hammerings it leaves on nuts.

The common partridge of Europe, or gray partridge, is found throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa. Its diet consists of grains, seeds, tender herbage, and insects.

Common Partridge of Europe

The common partridge of Europe, or gray partridge, is found throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa. Its…

The common white pelican measures about five to six feet in length, with a wingspan of approximately twelve to thirteen feet; it is the largest of the web-footed birds.

Common White Pelican

The common white pelican measures about five to six feet in length, with a wingspan of approximately…

"One of the best and handsomest of the freshwater fishes of that quarter of the globe." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

European Perch

"One of the best and handsomest of the freshwater fishes of that quarter of the globe." — Goodrich,…

The common pheasant of Europe is prized as a game bird, and prefers to make its home in marshes, thickets, and other wet areas.

Pheasant of Europe

The common pheasant of Europe is prized as a game bird, and prefers to make its home in marshes, thickets,…

The Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a bird in the pheasant family (Phasianidae). It is native to Asia but has been widely introduced elsewhere as a game bird. In parts of its range, namely in places where none of its relatives occur such as in Europe (where it is naturalized), it is simply known as "the pheasant". It is a well-known gamebird, among those of more than regional importance perhaps the most widespread and ancient one in the whole world.

Common Pheasant

The Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a bird in the pheasant family (Phasianidae). It is native…

"This consists of a brass or iron barrel, A, containing at its upper part a hollow piston and valve opening upward. Below this there is another valve, also opening upward. The pipe and stockcock C, are for the purpose of letting the water from the barrel to the tube, which descends into the well." -Comstock 1850

Common Metalic Pump

"This consists of a brass or iron barrel, A, containing at its upper part a hollow piston and valve…

Also known as the Carolina rail, soree rail, and the English rail, the common American rail is found in the temperate wetlands of the United States.

Common American Carolina Rail

Also known as the Carolina rail, soree rail, and the English rail, the common American rail is found…

The common European water-rail is native to warmer parts of Europe, as well as portions of Asia.

Common European Water Rail

The common European water-rail is native to warmer parts of Europe, as well as portions of Asia.

The common red-shank averages about twelve inches in length, and makes its home along sea-shores, and the banks of rivers and streams.

Spotted Redshank

The common red-shank averages about twelve inches in length, and makes its home along sea-shores, and…

"The common snake of Europe... frequents woods, bogs, and other sheltered situations in the vicinity of water." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common ring-snake

"The common snake of Europe... frequents woods, bogs, and other sheltered situations in the vicinity…

The common roller, which subsists on a diet of fruits and insects. It builds its nests in the holes of trees, or sometimes in the banks of rivers.

Common Roller

The common roller, which subsists on a diet of fruits and insects. It builds its nests in the holes…

"The most common way of determining the density of such a body [that is heavier than water] if it is unsoluble in water, is to find its weight in air (w); find its weight when immersed in water (w'); divide the weight in air by the loss of weight in water." -Avery 1895

Scale Designed to Weigh Objects While Underwater

"The most common way of determining the density of such a body [that is heavier than water] if it is…

Found throughout Northern Europe, the common skua has been known to attack other birds in order to steal the fish they have caught.

Common Scua

Found throughout Northern Europe, the common skua has been known to attack other birds in order to steal…

"This is furnished with four tentacula, two of which are smaller than the others; at the end of these, which the animal pushes out or draws back like telescopes, are blackish knobs, which are the eyes." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common snail

"This is furnished with four tentacula, two of which are smaller than the others; at the end of these,…

Ranging as far north as Scandanavia, Iceland, and Greenland in the summer, the European snipe migrates as far south as Egypt and Asia minor during the winter months.

European Snipe

Ranging as far north as Scandanavia, Iceland, and Greenland in the summer, the European snipe migrates…

"Ten to twenty inches long, and weighing from on to ten pounds; it inhabits sandy shores in deep water, being taken by the trawl-net, and not by the hook." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common Sole

"Ten to twenty inches long, and weighing from on to ten pounds; it inhabits sandy shores in deep water,…