An apparatus showing how to capture pure samples of gases.

Apparatus

An apparatus showing how to capture pure samples of gases.

"Hearson's machine is cylindrical in form, and is surmounted by two turrets. Internally the cylinder is divided into two compartments by a transverse portion, one being occupied by a rotary blower, an apparatus similar in construction to the drum of a water-meter, and the other by an elevator or dipper wheel, the function of which is to raise gasolin into the blower chamber, where the gasoline must be maintained at a constant level." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Auto-Pneumatic Apparatus

"Hearson's machine is cylindrical in form, and is surmounted by two turrets. Internally the cylinder…

An instrument by which a current of air or gas is driven through the flame of a lamp, candle, or gas jet, and that flame directed upon a mineral substance, to fure or vitrify it, an instense head being created by the rapid supply of oxygen and the concentration of the flame upon a small area.

Blowpipe

An instrument by which a current of air or gas is driven through the flame of a lamp, candle, or gas…

This apparatus is used to prove Boyle's Law which describes the relationship between the product pressure and volume within a closed system as constant when temperature remains at a fixed measure; both entities remain inversely proportional.

Proof of Boyle's Law for Expanding Air

This apparatus is used to prove Boyle's Law which describes the relationship between the product pressure…

"These brick retorts are 9 feet long and with diameters of 22 and 13.5 inches, set four in an oven to one unarched furnace. Each retort will, it is affirmed, carbonize 500 tons cannel coal, or 2000 tons per oven of four, without any repairs whatever. Decayed bricks may be removed from these retorts and new ones inserted, and when thoroughly repaired they are again equal to new." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Brick Retort

"These brick retorts are 9 feet long and with diameters of 22 and 13.5 inches, set four in an oven to…

"...gas lighted above an iron gauze (a, Fig. 11) does not catch fire below the gauze because the heat of the flame is conducted away by the iron." -Brownlee 1907

Bunsen Burner

"...gas lighted above an iron gauze (a, Fig. 11) does not catch fire below the gauze because the heat…

"Flat-flame burners, or burners which spread their flame in a broad thin sheet, are of two principal kinds known respectively as "fishtail" and "batwing" burners. The fishtail or union burner has two orifices driller in its surface, which are inclined towards each other at the angle of 90 degrees, so that the issuing currents impinge and spread the flame in a broad sheet." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Burner

"Flat-flame burners, or burners which spread their flame in a broad thin sheet, are of two principal…

"Flat-flame burners, or burners which spread their flame in a broad thin sheet, are of two principal kinds known respectively as "fishtail" and "batwing" burners. The fishtail or union burner has two orifices driller in its surface, which are inclined towards each other at the angle of 90 degrees, so that the issuing currents impinge and spread the flame in a broad sheet." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Burner

"Flat-flame burners, or burners which spread their flame in a broad thin sheet, are of two principal…

A gas burner is a device to generate a flame to heat up products using a gaseous fuel such as acetylene, natural gas or propane. Some burners have an air inlet to mix the fuel gas with air to make a complete combustion.

Gas Burner

A gas burner is a device to generate a flame to heat up products using a gaseous fuel such as acetylene,…

Burner such that combustible gas issues from a nozzle to form a steady flame

Gas Burner

Burner such that combustible gas issues from a nozzle to form a steady flame

Burner such that combustible gas issues from a nozzle to form a steady flame

Gas Burner

Burner such that combustible gas issues from a nozzle to form a steady flame

Device to generate a flame to heat up products using a gaseous fuel such as acetylene, natural gas or propane. Some burners have an air inlet to mix the fuel gas with air to make a complete combustion. Acetylene is commonly used in combination with oxygen.

Gas Burner

Device to generate a flame to heat up products using a gaseous fuel such as acetylene, natural gas or…

"The tip or armature of a gas-burning lamp or bracket, through which the gas is caused to issue for consumption." -Whitney, 1911

Argand Gas Burner

"The tip or armature of a gas-burning lamp or bracket, through which the gas is caused to issue for…

"The tip or armature of a gas-burning lamp or bracket, through which the gas is caused to issue for consumption." -Whitney, 1911

Bat's Wing Gas Burner

"The tip or armature of a gas-burning lamp or bracket, through which the gas is caused to issue for…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel (End Section)

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

"Coal-gas was first used as a lighthouse illuminant at Salvore, near Trieste, in 1817. For many years it has been used in the harbour lights of Great Britain when in the neighborhood of gas-works. Mr. J. R. Wigham has designed a compound or crecus burner consisting of a group of twenty-eight vertical tubes, each carrying an ordinary double fish-tail burner, and the ignited gases issuing from all these jets unite into one large flame." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Coal-gas

"Coal-gas was first used as a lighthouse illuminant at Salvore, near Trieste, in 1817. For many years…

"Coal-gas was first used as a lighthouse illuminant at Salvore, near Trieste, in 1817. For many years it has been used in the harbour lights of Great Britain when in the neighborhood of gas-works. Mr. J. R. Wigham has designed a compound or crecus burner consisting of a group of twenty-eight vertical tubes, each carrying an ordinary double fish-tail burner, and the ignited gases issuing from all these jets unite into one large flame." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Coal-gas

"Coal-gas was first used as a lighthouse illuminant at Salvore, near Trieste, in 1817. For many years…

"It consists of a series of upright pipes connected in pairs at the top by semicircular pipes e, e, and terminating at the bottom in a trough X Y containing water, and divided by means of partitions in such a way that, as the gas enters the trough from one pipe, it passes up the next pipe and down into the next partition, and so on to the end of the condenser." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Condenser

"It consists of a series of upright pipes connected in pairs at the top by semicircular pipes e, e,…

"The condensing pump is an instrument for compressing a gas into a closed vessel, as in pumping air into a pneumatic tire of a bicycle, or oxygen or hydrogen into the cylinders commonly used for stereopticon purposes, or charging water with carbon dioxide for sale as 'soda water'." -Avery 1895

Condensing Pump

"The condensing pump is an instrument for compressing a gas into a closed vessel, as in pumping air…

An experiment using a balloon and air-pump to demonstrate the expansibility of gases.

Expansibility of Gases

An experiment using a balloon and air-pump to demonstrate the expansibility of gases.

"For measuring the gas concentration, pressure and temperature, use may be made of an apparatus of the type shown [here]." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Apparatus for Measuring Gas Concentration Pressure and Temperature

"For measuring the gas concentration, pressure and temperature, use may be made of an apparatus of the…

"Every retort is furnished with a seperate mouthpiece, usually of cast iron, with a socket b for receiving the stand-pipe or ascension-pipe, and there is a movable lid attached to the mouth, together with an ear-box cast on each side of the retort for receiving the ears which support the lid." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas Cover

"Every retort is furnished with a seperate mouthpiece, usually of cast iron, with a socket b for receiving…

This illustration shows gas with a heavier density then air collecting at the bottom of a beaker.

Gas Density

This illustration shows gas with a heavier density then air collecting at the bottom of a beaker.

"Electric gas lighting is often effected by sparks from the interrupted circuit of a voltaic battery, in which circuit is a 'kicking coil,' or by sparks from the secondary of an induction coil, or from a machine for the generation of static electricity." — Avery, 1895

Electric gas light

"Electric gas lighting is often effected by sparks from the interrupted circuit of a voltaic battery,…

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube of narrow bore. To fill this tube with gas, both ends being open, a globule of mercury is first introduced at the lower curved extremity; the tube is then placed in a nearly horizontal position, the curved extremity is connected with the holder contraining the gas, or with the apparatus in which the gas is being evolved, by means of caoutehone tubing, and a current of the pure dry gas is passed through the tube until the air is entirely expelled; this being effected, the point opposite to the curved extremity is sealed in the blowpipe flame; the tube is then brought into a vertical position, so that the globule of mercury closes the lower extremity, the caoutchouc tube is withdrawn, and the tube AA thus filled is screwed into its place in the cylinder B." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas Liquidation

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube…

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube of narrow bore. To fill this tube with gas, both ends being open, a globule of mercury is first introduced at the lower curved extremity; the tube is then placed in a nearly horizontal position, the curved extremity is connected with the holder contraining the gas, or with the apparatus in which the gas is being evolved, by means of caoutehone tubing, and a current of the pure dry gas is passed through the tube until the air is entirely expelled; this being effected, the point opposite to the curved extremity is sealed in the blowpipe flame; the tube is then brought into a vertical position, so that the globule of mercury closes the lower extremity, the caoutchouc tube is withdrawn, and the tube AA thus filled is screwed into its place in the cylinder B." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas Liquidation

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube…

"Elevation of Hislop's Gas Retort Furnace." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas Retort

"Elevation of Hislop's Gas Retort Furnace." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

This sign is used to indicate that gas is available nearby.

Gas, Black and White

This sign is used to indicate that gas is available nearby.

This sign is used to indicate that gas is available nearby.

Gas, Color

This sign is used to indicate that gas is available nearby.

This sign is used to indicate that gas is available nearby.

Gas, Outline

This sign is used to indicate that gas is available nearby.

This sign is used to indicate that gas is available nearby.

Gas, Silhouette

This sign is used to indicate that gas is available nearby.

"Section of Gas-holder." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas-holder

"Section of Gas-holder." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas-work, used to extract gas from coal.

Gas-work

Gas-work, used to extract gas from coal.

"Invert the second vessel over the first, mouth to mouth, so that the contents of the two vessels shall be separated only by the paper. Each vessel is filled with an invisible gas. Remove the paper, and notice that the invisible gases quickly-diffuse into each other and form a dense cloud." -Avery 1895

Mixing Gases in Inverted Containers

"Invert the second vessel over the first, mouth to mouth, so that the contents of the two vessels shall…

This sign is used to indicate that gas is available nearby.

Gasoline, Color

This sign is used to indicate that gas is available nearby.

Ginger is the dried rhizome of the tropical plant Zingiber officinale. It is used in cookery, because of its aromatic volatile oil, and as a confection, either in syrup or 'crystallized' with sugar. In medicine, it is usually employed as a carminative, usually in the form of the tincture. It is grown principally in the East Indies (its original home), the West Indies, and tropical Africa.

Ginger

Ginger is the dried rhizome of the tropical plant Zingiber officinale. It is used in cookery, because…

A test tube stoppered and connected to an inverted beaker, that will be used to collect the gas generated by the heating of the elements and/or compounds in the test tube.

Heated Test Tube

A test tube stoppered and connected to an inverted beaker, that will be used to collect the gas generated…

A Hempel Gas Burette is an instrument used to measure gases.

Hempel Gas Burette

A Hempel Gas Burette is an instrument used to measure gases.

A design improvement when creating hydrocarbon gas.

Machine for Hydrocarbon Gas

A design improvement when creating hydrocarbon gas.

A small lamp with an open flame.

Lamp

A small lamp with an open flame.

A tall, slender lamp.

Lamp

A tall, slender lamp.

A lamp that burns illuminating gas

Gas Lamp

A lamp that burns illuminating gas

Lamps using natural gas to produce light. Uses convention make the lamp very efficient.

Gas Lighting

Lamps using natural gas to produce light. Uses convention make the lamp very efficient.

"A labratory liquid air machine used by Thomson and Joule used to cool hydrogen from a gaseous state to a liquid state." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Liquid Air Machine

"A labratory liquid air machine used by Thomson and Joule used to cool hydrogen from a gaseous state…

When gases of different densities are inclosed in the same space an intimate mixture takes place, so that each gas becomes uniformly diffused throughout the entire space.

Mixture of Gases

When gases of different densities are inclosed in the same space an intimate mixture takes place, so…

Oil is obtained by boring. The wells so produced are similar to artesian wells, except in the material discharged. In many instances the oil issues in powerful streams, which continue to flow for considerable periods of time. The crude oil is stored in huge tanks, from which it is transferred to barrels or iron tanks for transportation.

Oil Well and Tank

Oil is obtained by boring. The wells so produced are similar to artesian wells, except in the material…

Device that converts oxygen into ozone, normally by means of a silent electrical discharge; an ozone generator

Air Ozonizer

Device that converts oxygen into ozone, normally by means of a silent electrical discharge; an ozone…

A gas holder is a metallic shell which is open at the bottom (like a bell), the lower edge of which dips into a deep tank of water in order to prevent the contained gas from escaping. The framework may be either of steel or timber -- the latter being preferred for the largest holders.

This illustration shows a partial section of a typical large American gas holder. It is a 5,000,000 cubic foot holder in New York City.

Partial Section of Typical Large American Gas Holder

A gas holder is a metallic shell which is open at the bottom (like a bell), the lower edge of which…

A device used for measuring pressure.

Piezometer

A device used for measuring pressure.

"AB is a strong metal tube, closed at the lower end, and carrying at the upper a bent pipe for admitting the compressed gas and a stop-cock R pierced with holes in a T form. DE and FG are two graduated glass tubes communicating at their lower ends by a narrow passage in the metal block to which they are hermetically fixed. DE and AB Also communicate at the upper ends by a passage in a metal piece attached bermetically to them. By the stop-cock R', having radial holes at right angles to each other, DE can communicate either with AB or with the atmosphere at O; and by the stop-cock R'' it can communicate either with FG or with the open air. The three tubes are surrounded by a cylinder MM' containing water to keep the temperature constant. The tube AB is filled with the compressed gas whose pressure is to be ascertained. Mercury is poured into FG till it fills DE and runs out at O." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Regnaults Manometer

"AB is a strong metal tube, closed at the lower end, and carrying at the upper a bent pipe for admitting…

This illustration shows a standard Lowe water gas apparatus.

Standard Lowe Water Gas Apparatus

This illustration shows a standard Lowe water gas apparatus.

"A small enclosure, to prevent the escape of steam, etc., at a joint in machinery. — Williams, 1889

Stuffing-box

"A small enclosure, to prevent the escape of steam, etc., at a joint in machinery. — Williams,…

A complicated tester used to test kerosene.

Saybolt Tester

A complicated tester used to test kerosene.

This apparatus is used for a titration where gas is going to be released as a product and needs to be captured, measured and quantified.

Titration with Gas

This apparatus is used for a titration where gas is going to be released as a product and needs to be…

An oil well is a general term for any boring through the Earth's surface designed to find and produce petroleum oil hydrocarbons. Usually some natural gas is produced along with the oil, and a well designed to produce mainly or only gas may be termed a gas well. If boring happens to penetrate the higher portion the gas rushes forth with greater or less violence and pesisstence.

Oil Wells

An oil well is a general term for any boring through the Earth's surface designed to find and produce…

An illustration of a political cartoon depicting a woman and an oil container.

Woman & Oil

An illustration of a political cartoon depicting a woman and an oil container.