"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected by a long narrow india-rubber tube, which must be sufficiently strong in the body (or strengthened by a linen coating) to stand an outward pressure of 1 to 1.5 atmospheres. A terminates below in a narrow vertical tube c, which is a few inched longer than the height of the barometer, and to the lower end of this tube the india-rubber tube is attached which connects A with B. To the upper end of A is soldered a glass two-way stop-cock, by turning which the vessel A can either be made to communicate through s and a hole in the hollow cock with the vessel to be exhausted." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Air-Pump

"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected…

"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected by a long narrow india-rubber tube, which must be sufficiently strong in the body (or strengthened by a linen coating) to stand an outward pressure of 1 to 1.5 atmospheres. A terminates below in a narrow vertical tube c, which is a few inched longer than the height of the barometer, and to the lower end of this tube the india-rubber tube is attached which connects A with B. To the upper end of A is soldered a glass two-way stop-cock, by turning which the vessel A can either be made to communicate through s and a hole in the hollow cock with the vessel to be exhausted." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Air-Pump

"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected…

"This was invented in 1865 by H. Sprengel. The instrument, in its original (simplest) form, consists of a vertical capillary glass tube a of about 1 mm. bore, provided with a lateral branch b near its upper end, which latter, by an india-rubber join governable by a screw-clamp, communicates with a funnel. The lower end is bent into the shape of a hook, and dips into a pneumatic trough. The vessel to be exhausted is attached to b, and, in order to extract its gas contents, a properly regulated stream of mercury is allowed to fall through the vertical tube." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Air-Pump

"This was invented in 1865 by H. Sprengel. The instrument, in its original (simplest) form, consists…

This Roman Amphora is made out of glass and includes a stopper.

Roman Amphora

This Roman Amphora is made out of glass and includes a stopper.

This Antique glass ampulla is similar to the amphora with handles. It is painted in striped bright blue and yellow.

Antique Glass Ampulla

This Antique glass ampulla is similar to the amphora with handles. It is painted in striped bright blue…

"A glass tube about 33 inches in length, open at one end, is completely filled with mercury, and being firmly closed by the thumb, is inverted and placed vertically in a cup containing mercury. When the thumb is removed, the mercury sinks in the tube till it stands, generally, about 30 inches above the level of the mercury in the cup, leaving in the upper part a space free of air, which receiveds the name of the Torricellian vacuum." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Barometer

"A glass tube about 33 inches in length, open at one end, is completely filled with mercury, and being…

"A cistern barometer, being that generally seen in weather-glasses or ordinary barometers. The tube is bent at the bottom, and the cistern is merely an expansion of the lower end. Very generally, the cistern is hidden from view, and protected from injury by a wooden cover in front." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Barometer

"A cistern barometer, being that generally seen in weather-glasses or ordinary barometers. The tube…

"...being merely a tube of glass, nearly filled with mercury, with its lower end placed in a dish of the same fluid, and the upper end furnished with a scale, to measure the height of the mercury." -Comstock 1850

Barometer

"...being merely a tube of glass, nearly filled with mercury, with its lower end placed in a dish of…

This sugar basin is designed in cut prism glass.

Sugar Basin

This sugar basin is designed in cut prism glass.

A small bell inside of a glass sphere.

Bell in globe

A small bell inside of a glass sphere.

This Antique bottle is a small watch shaped perfume bottle. Made out of blue and white glass, it has handles for suspension that is similar to a hunting flask.

Antique Bottle

This Antique bottle is a small watch shaped perfume bottle. Made out of blue and white glass, it has…

This four sided bottle is a rigid container. A glass bottle is a bottle created from glass. Glass bottles can vary in size considerably.

Four Sided Bottle

This four sided bottle is a rigid container. A glass bottle is a bottle created from glass. Glass bottles…

This modern bottle is made out of yellowish green glass.

Modern Bottle

This modern bottle is made out of yellowish green glass.

This Old German bottle is made out of glass found in the Spessart region in Germany.

Old German Bottle

This Old German bottle is made out of glass found in the Spessart region in Germany.

"An air thermometer consists essentially of a large glass bulb at the upper end of a tube of small but uniform bore, the lower end of which dips into colored water." — Avery, 1895

Glass bulb

"An air thermometer consists essentially of a large glass bulb at the upper end of a tube of small but…

This center-dish is found in London, England and is made out of glass and silver.

Center-Dish

This center-dish is found in London, England and is made out of glass and silver.

This marble mosaic circle pattern is inlaid pieces of glass found in the windows of a cathedral in Florence, Italy.

Marble Mosaic Circle Pattern

This marble mosaic circle pattern is inlaid pieces of glass found in the windows of a cathedral in Florence,…

The marble mosaic circle pattern is inlaid pieces of stone, wood, glass, leather or straw to make a picture or pattern. This design is found in the San Vitale church in Ravenna, Italy.

Marble Mosaic Circle Pattern

The marble mosaic circle pattern is inlaid pieces of stone, wood, glass, leather or straw to make a…

This Medieval Tile circle pattern is a stained glass design. It the oldest process of fitting together pieces of colored glass in a mosaic style.

Medieval Tile Circle Pattern

This Medieval Tile circle pattern is a stained glass design. It the oldest process of fitting together…

This medieval tile circle pattern is a stained glass design. It the oldest process of fitting together pieces of colored glass in a mosaic style.

Medieval Tile Circle Pattern

This medieval tile circle pattern is a stained glass design. It the oldest process of fitting together…

This medieval tile circle pattern is a stained glass design. It the oldest process of fitting together pieces of colored glass in a mosaic style.

Medieval Tile Circle Pattern

This medieval tile circle pattern is a stained glass design. It the oldest process of fitting together…

"The compressed air manometer consists of a strong graduated glass tube of uniform narrow bore, closed at the top and fixed hermetically into the neck of a wide iron cylinder. The tube contains dry air, and its lower end dips below the surface of mercury contained in the cylinder. Attached to the side of the cylinder is a tube A, with a stop-cock, to afford communication with the vessel the pressure in which is to be measured. When the manometer is attached to the vessel containing compressed gas the mercury rises in the glass tube till the pressure of the air confined in the tube plus the height of the mercury column above the level of the mercury in the cylinder is equal to the pressure on the surface of mercury in the cylinder." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Compressed Air Manometer

"The compressed air manometer consists of a strong graduated glass tube of uniform narrow bore, closed…

A cup of water next to a jar, with a tube running between the two.

Cup and jar

A cup of water next to a jar, with a tube running between the two.

This decanter is made out of glass and is used to store wine.

Decanter

This decanter is made out of glass and is used to store wine.

A shallow bowl covered with a sheet of glass.

Covered dish

A shallow bowl covered with a sheet of glass.

This is an ornamental container for drinking. A chalice is a goblet or footed cup intended to hold a drink. In general religious terms, it is intended for quaffing during a ceremony.

Unique Pattern Glass Dish

This is an ornamental container for drinking. A chalice is a goblet or footed cup intended to hold a…

An illustration of a doll in a glass case.

Doll in Glass Case

An illustration of a doll in a glass case.

"The electrical machine most usually employed consists of a large circular plate of glass, mounted upon a metallic axis, and supported upon pillars fixed to a secure base, so that the plate can, by means of a handle, w, be turned with ease. Upon the supports of the glass, and fixed so as to press easily but uniformly on the plate, are four rubbers, marked r r r r in the figure; and flaps of silk, s s, oiled on one side, are attached to these, and secured to fixed supports by several silk cords. When the machine is put in motion, these flaps of silk are drawn tightly against the glass, and thus the friction is increased, and electricity excited. The points p p collect the electricity from the glass, and convey it to the conductor, c, which is supported by the glass rod g." —Wells, 1857

Electrical Machine

"The electrical machine most usually employed consists of a large circular plate of glass, mounted upon…

"A form of an electrical machine. S being the glass cylinder turning on an axis, Y the conductor, F the rubber, A A supports." —Wells, 1857

Electrical Machine

"A form of an electrical machine. S being the glass cylinder turning on an axis, Y the conductor, F…

"Gold leaf electroscope; it consists of two strips of gold foil suspended from a brass rod within a glass jar. Used to detect the presence and sign of an electric charge." -Hawkins, 1917

Gold Leaf Electroscope

"Gold leaf electroscope; it consists of two strips of gold foil suspended from a brass rod within a…

"Remove the air from a high glass tube by means of an instrument called the air-pump... Then... drop a feather and a cent simultaneously, and they will reach the bottom at precisely the same instant. Let in the air and drop them, and the feather will be several seconds longer than the cent in reaching the bottom." —Quackenbos 1859

Two Objects Falling in a Vacuum

"Remove the air from a high glass tube by means of an instrument called the air-pump... Then... drop…

This glass flower-vase is a 17th century design.

Glass Flower-Vase

This glass flower-vase is a 17th century design.

This modern flower-vase is made out of glass.

Modern Flower-Vase

This modern flower-vase is made out of glass.

This modern flower-vase is made out of glass.

Modern Flower-Vase

This modern flower-vase is made out of glass.

This modern flower-vase is made out of glass.

Modern Flower-Vase

This modern flower-vase is made out of glass.

"Draw out a piece of glass tubing to a jet, and push it through a perforation in a cork that snugly fits a bottle. Slip a short piece of snugly fitting rubber tubing over the outer end of the glass tubing, and insert the cork so that the jet shall project into the bottle. Remove by suction as much air as possible, pinch the rubber tubing tightly, place it under water, and remove the pressure. Something will force the water into the bottle, forming the 'fountain in vacuo' as shown." -Avery 1895

Foutain in Vacuo

"Draw out a piece of glass tubing to a jet, and push it through a perforation in a cork that snugly…

A furnace used to harden glass.

Furnace

A furnace used to harden glass.

A furnace used to harden glass.

Furnace

A furnace used to harden glass.

Inside Length of Furnace, 12 Feet.

Furnace

Inside Length of Furnace, 12 Feet.

An illustration of a glass.

Glass

An illustration of a glass.

This glass was made in London, England. It has a delicate design.

Glass

This glass was made in London, England. It has a delicate design.

This glass was made in London, England. It has a delicate design.

Glass

This glass was made in London, England. It has a delicate design.

This glass was made in London, England. It has a bold design.

Glass

This glass was made in London, England. It has a bold design.

An illustration of two adult men pulling a glass tube that was blown.

Glass Blowing

An illustration of two adult men pulling a glass tube that was blown.

In making sheet glass, a very large lump of molten glass is gathered on the rod as is shown at (a). This mass is rolled on an iron slab, expanded (b) by blowing down the pipe, and further manipulated by rolling on the slab, reheating at the mouth of the furnace, re-blowing, and allowing the soft mass to hang downward. if the glass is to be used for windows,  the blower has a cave in the floor about 8 ft deep, and in this hole he works the glass until he has a cylinder (c), which he swings backward and forward, holding onto the pipe. The cylinder is then blown to a length from 4 to 8 ft, according to the size of the window desired. It becomes very thin and chills rapidly. The blower then takes a second lump of hot glass, pulls it out to a string, winds it around each end of the cylinder (d), and cracks both ends off. A piece of wet iron is next drawn along the cylinder in the direction of the its length, as indicated by the dotted lines in (d). A crack follows the wet iron, and the detached cylinder opens a little at the long crack (e). A slight reheating, and opening out in a flattening kiln, serves to convert the split cylinder into a sheet.

Glass Blowing and Stretching

In making sheet glass, a very large lump of molten glass is gathered on the rod as is shown at (a).…

"The cylinder is placed vertically in the jaws of a cutting instrument, having a diamond cutter, pressing by a spring, inside the glass. The cutter moves by small wheels on the table on which it is placed, and being pushed around the cylinder it makes an accurate cut of uniform height." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Cutter

"The cylinder is placed vertically in the jaws of a cutting instrument, having a diamond cutter, pressing…

"Now the splitting is done with a diamond cutter fixed in the fleft of a stick and guided from end to end of the cylinder by a straight-edge K laid within it. The cylinder is now ready to be taken to the flattening kiln." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Cutter

"Now the splitting is done with a diamond cutter fixed in the fleft of a stick and guided from end to…

"In the arrangement of the flattening and annealing ovens numerous improvements have been effected, which have resulted in greatly increased smoothness and uniformity of the glass, and in considerable economy of time and labor in the operations. This shows a section of a flattening (L) and annealing kiln (M) in common use. The split cylinder O is introduced and gradually pushed forward so as to be uniformly heated till it reaches P, the flattening stone or table, mounted on a movable waggon N. On this waggon after it has been flattened it is carried into the annealing arch M, as shown by the dotted outline. Here in a less heat is graually stiffens, till it is ready to be moved by a forked tool to a horizontal position on the bed of the annealing oven." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Cutter

"In the arrangement of the flattening and annealing ovens numerous improvements have been effected,…

"A form of glass cutter with a cast-iron handle." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Cutter

"A form of glass cutter with a cast-iron handle." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

This is a combination tool featuring a glass cutter and knife. A glass cutter is a hand tool which aids in the cutting of flat or sheet glass.

Combined Knife and Scissors Glass Cutter

This is a combination tool featuring a glass cutter and knife. A glass cutter is a hand tool which aids…

"Glass is made by melting together sand, an alkali, and calcium carbonate in pots of fire-clay." Brownlee 1907

Glass Furnace

"Glass is made by melting together sand, an alkali, and calcium carbonate in pots of fire-clay." Brownlee…

"Flint-Glass Manufactory." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Manufactory

"Flint-Glass Manufactory." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Interior of a crown-glass house." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Manufactory

"Interior of a crown-glass house." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

An illustration of a glass quarter full.

Glass Quarter Full

An illustration of a glass quarter full.

An illustration of an empty drinking glass.

Empty Drinking Glass

An illustration of an empty drinking glass.

An illustration of a full drinking cup.

Full Drinking Glass

An illustration of a full drinking cup.

A magnifying glass.

Magnifying glass

A magnifying glass.

Conventional cross hatching for glass for mechanical drawing.

Mechanical Drawing Cross Hatching of Glass

Conventional cross hatching for glass for mechanical drawing.

Found in the woods of the Southern States, the glass-snake has the head of a lizard, but the body resembles that of a snake.

Glass-snake

Found in the woods of the Southern States, the glass-snake has the head of a lizard, but the body resembles…

"The form of the bottle and the use of the blow-pipe are unequivocally indicated; and the green hue, in the painting, of the fused material, taken from the fire at the point of the pipe, cannot fail to show the intention of the artists." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian glassblowers

"The form of the bottle and the use of the blow-pipe are unequivocally indicated; and the green hue,…