"Bamboo. a.- upper portion of the stem with foliage. b.- root stem. c.- section of stem. Bamboo, the common name of the arborescent grasses belonging to the genus Bambusa." -Vaughan, 1906

Bamboo

"Bamboo. a.- upper portion of the stem with foliage. b.- root stem. c.- section of stem. Bamboo, the…

Barley is a grain.

Barley

Barley is a grain.

"Barley, the name of several cereal plants of the genus Hordeum, order Gramineae (grasses), yielding a grain used as food and also for making malt, from which are prepared beer, porter, and whisky." -Vaughan, 1906

Barley

"Barley, the name of several cereal plants of the genus Hordeum, order Gramineae (grasses), yielding…

"Broom-sedge (Andropogon Virginicus). a, spike; b, spikelet; c, glumes." -Whitney, 1911

Broomsedge

"Broom-sedge (Andropogon Virginicus). a, spike; b, spikelet; c, glumes." -Whitney, 1911

"Calyx of a spelt plant."—Finley, 1917

Spelt calyx

"Calyx of a spelt plant."—Finley, 1917

"a, Starch cells of the Pea, showing grains of starch in the interior. b, Seperate starch grains, with striae and hilum." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Starch Cells

"a, Starch cells of the Pea, showing grains of starch in the interior. b, Seperate starch grains, with…

Good ears of flint corn. Grown for grain in the northeast United States.

Flint corn

Good ears of flint corn. Grown for grain in the northeast United States.

"Esparto-Grasses. 1, 4, stalk and fruit of Macrochloa tenacissima. 2, 3, 5, stalk, flowering stem, and fruit of Lygeum Spartum." -Whitney, 1911

Esparto Grass

"Esparto-Grasses. 1, 4, stalk and fruit of Macrochloa tenacissima. 2, 3, 5, stalk, flowering stem, and…

An illustration of a family standing in front a barn filled from harvest.

Family & Barn

An illustration of a family standing in front a barn filled from harvest.

An illustration of a adult female farm hand transporting grain on her head.

Farm hand

An illustration of a adult female farm hand transporting grain on her head.

Various mixed bags of animal feed.

Feed

Various mixed bags of animal feed.

An infected grain.

Grain

An infected grain.

An infected grain, enlarged.

Grain

An infected grain, enlarged.

An image of a crop of grain.

Grain

An image of a crop of grain.

Field of grain.

Grain

Field of grain.

A Swedish grain cart.

Swedish Grain Cart

A Swedish grain cart.

A grain of sand as it appears under a microscope.

Grain of Sand

A grain of sand as it appears under a microscope.

Grain Vessels leaving Chicago.

Grain Vessels

Grain Vessels leaving Chicago.

Barley is a cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare, a common barley. It serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food, as well as the making of the alcoholic beverages beer. This is a spring species. The seed is more slender than wheat with a firmer and rougher covering of husk or chaff.

Barley

Barley is a cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare, a common barley. It serves as…

Barley is a cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare, a common barley. It serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food, as well as the making of the alcoholic beverages beer. This is a winter species and is shorter. The seed is more slender than wheat with a firmer and rougher covering of husk or chaff.

Barley

Barley is a cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare, a common barley. It serves as…

The common oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed. While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats make up a large part of the diet of horses and are regularly fed to cattle as well. Oats are also used in some brands of dog and chicken feed.

Oat

The common oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed. While oats are suitable…

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop. Rye is characterized by long-bearded spikes, or ears, and a tall and slender stem. There are two prominent varieties known as winter and spring rye. The grain or kernel of rye is smaller in size than that of wheat.

Rye

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop. Rye is characterized by…

The Two-rowed Barley's spike, or ear, is long and somewhat compressed, and the grain is of a very good quality. It is sown in the spring. Barley succeeds best in soils of medium consistency, but accommodates itself to almost every variety of soil, except very moist ones. It endures a drought better than excessive moistures, but it requires as deep and good tillage as wheat.

Two-rowed Barley

The Two-rowed Barley's spike, or ear, is long and somewhat compressed, and the grain is of a very good…

A man milling corn by hand with a gristmill.

Gristmill

A man milling corn by hand with a gristmill.

"48 And he gathered up all the food of the seven years which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up the food in the cities: the food of the field, which was round about every city, laid he up in the same. And Joseph laid up grain as the sand of the sea, very much, until he left off numbering; for it was without number." Genesis 41:48-49 ASV
<p>
Illustration of Joseph riding through Egypt's streets in a chariot with a herald leading the horse and announcing him. He holds several sheaves of wheat with his left arm and is collecting more from the people. A small child is handing him more sheaves. Pharaoh and four other royals emerge from a doorway behind Joseph and Pharaoh is pointing to him. An obelisk is visible in the background.

Joseph Collects Wheat as Governor of Egypt in Preparation for the Famine

"48 And he gathered up all the food of the seven years which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up…

A machine for cutting down standing grain, usually worked by a pair of horses, the cutting machinery being driven by being connected with the wheels on which the machine is drawn over the field.

Reaping Machine

A machine for cutting down standing grain, usually worked by a pair of horses, the cutting machinery…

A medal engraved with the portrait of Melita; the reverse side depicting a figure with two sets of wings holding a crook and a sickle in his hands. Traditionally a symbol for the production of grain, the image may also allude to the god of fertility.

Medal of Melita

A medal engraved with the portrait of Melita; the reverse side depicting a figure with two sets of wings…

"Grain enters the mill at H down into D and into tube A. The grain passes down through the holes B and C causing A to rotate. This rotation powers the millstone S at the top which grinds the grain before it reaches the dispersal tube A." —Quackenbos 1859

Barker's Mill

"Grain enters the mill at H down into D and into tube A. The grain passes down through the holes B and…

A machine used to separate immature seeds from wheat, oats, rye, barley, and other grains. This diagram shows the process of how the machine works.

Diagram of a Fanning Mill

A machine used to separate immature seeds from wheat, oats, rye, barley, and other grains. This diagram…

A mill which grounds grain into flour. This flour mill is located on a body of water.

Floating Flour Mill

A mill which grounds grain into flour. This flour mill is located on a body of water.

A stone used for grinding grain.

Mill-stone

A stone used for grinding grain.

The Flour Mite (Acarus siro) is an arachnid that is a pest of stored grain and flour.

Flour Mite

The Flour Mite (Acarus siro) is an arachnid that is a pest of stored grain and flour.

A smut of oats with a normal head.

Smut of Oats

A smut of oats with a normal head.

"And he spake a parable unto them, saying, The ground of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully: and he reasoned within himself, saying, What shall I do, because I have not where to bestow my fruits. And he said, This will I do: I will pull down my barns, and build greater; and there will I bestow all my grain and my goods. And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, be merry." Luke 12:16-19 ASV
<p>Illustration of a wealthy man, dressed in expensive robes, leaning on expensive pillows and linens, and looking over his riches. There is a chair and pitcher nearby and incense is burning in a large vase. His barns and granaries are visible in the background.

A Wealthy Man Relaxing and Surveying His Riches

"And he spake a parable unto them, saying, The ground of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully:…

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the American continents.        Indian Corn, or maize, grows with a strong, jointed stalk, rising to the height of five to fifteen feet. The male or sterile flowers are arranged in a loose, spreading panicle at the apex, called the tassel and the female fertile flowers on the side. Each plant bears from one to five ears which are are cylindrical and enclosed in a covering of leaves called husks. The ears consists of grain, arranged around a pithy cylinder, called the cob. The seeds are rounded on the surface and compressed on the sides. Indian Corn is annual and is one of the most important of all the cultvated plants.

Indian Corn

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently…

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the American continents.        Indian Corn, or maize, grows with a strong, jointed stalk, rising to the height of five to fifteen feet. The male or sterile flowers , shown here, are arranged in a loose, spreading panicle at the apex, called the tassel and the female fertile flowers on the side. Each plant bears from one to five ears which are are cylindrical and enclosed in a covering of leaves called husks. The ears consists of grain, arranged around a pithy cylinder, called the cob. The seeds are rounded on the surface and compressed on the sides. Indian Corn is annual and is one of the most important of all the cultvated plants.

Indian Corn

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently…

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the American continents.        Indian Corn, or maize, grows with a strong, jointed stalk, rising to the height of five to fifteen feet. The male or sterile flowers , shown here, are arranged in a loose, spreading panicle at the apex, called the tassel and the female fertile flowers, shown here, on the side. Each plant bears from one to five ears which are are cylindrical and enclosed in a covering of leaves called husks. The ears consists of grain, arranged around a pithy cylinder, called the cob. The seeds are rounded on the surface and compressed on the sides. Indian Corn is annual and is one of the most important of all the cultvated plants.

Indian Corn

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently…

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the American continents.        Indian Corn, or maize, grows with a strong, jointed stalk, rising to the height of five to fifteen feet. The male or sterile flowers are arranged in a loose, spreading panicle at the apex, called the tassel and the female fertile flowers on the side. Each plant bears from one to five ears, are cylindrical and enclosed in a covering of leaves called husks. A ear of corn is shown here. The ears consists of grain, arranged around a pithy cylinder, called the cob. The seeds are rounded on the surface and compressed on the sides. Indian Corn is annual and is one of the most important of all the cultvated plants.

Indian Corn

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently…

A machine invented by Andrew Meikle to seperate grain from stalks and husks.

Portable Threshing-Machine

A machine invented by Andrew Meikle to seperate grain from stalks and husks.

A man reaping grain with a sickle.

Reaping

A man reaping grain with a sickle.

"And she went, and came and gleaned in the field after the reapers: and her hap was to light on the portion of the field belonging unto Boaz, who was of the family of Elimelech. And, behold, Boaz came from Bethlehem, and said unto the reapers, Jehovah be with you. And they answered him, Jehovah bless thee. Then said Boaz unto his servant that was set over the reapers, Whose damsel is this? And the servant that was set over the reapers answered and said, It is the Moabitish damsel that came back with Naomi out of the country of Moab:" Ruth 2:3-6 ASV
<p>Illustration of Ruth gleaning grain in the fields of Boaz. She is on her knees at the feet of Boaz, who walks with a staff and a dog behind him. His servant tells him about Ruth. Four men and women, also gleaning, watch in the background. A small town and some trees are pictured in the background.

Ruth Meets Boaz While Gleaning in the Fields

"And she went, and came and gleaned in the field after the reapers: and her hap was to light on the…

A species of grain of which there are several varieties It is an esculent grain bearing naked seeds on a flat ear, furnished with awns like barley.

Rye Grain

A species of grain of which there are several varieties It is an esculent grain bearing naked seeds…

"A reaping hook; a curved blade of steel (anciently also of bronze) having the edge on the inner side of the curve, with a short handle or haft, for cutting with the right hand grain or grass which is grasped by the left." &mdash;Whitney, 1889
<p>This sickle has a serrated edge on the inside curve of the blade.

Sickle with Serrated Edge

"A reaping hook; a curved blade of steel (anciently also of bronze) having the edge on the inner side…

"Side-oats (Atheropogon curtipendulus). a, spike; b, spikelet; c, spikelet with glumes removed." -Whitney, 1911

Side Oats

"Side-oats (Atheropogon curtipendulus). a, spike; b, spikelet; c, spikelet with glumes removed." -Whitney,…

A structure usually next to a barn, for the storage of grain or feed.

Silo

A structure usually next to a barn, for the storage of grain or feed.

"Grains with Five Prongs. GRAIN. An iron instrument with four or more barbed points, and a line attached to it, used at sea for striking and taking fish." -Whitney, 1911

Grain Spear

"Grains with Five Prongs. GRAIN. An iron instrument with four or more barbed points, and a line attached…

"A variety of the common wheat, originally cultivated by the Romans."&mdash;Finley, 1917

Spelt

"A variety of the common wheat, originally cultivated by the Romans."—Finley, 1917

Spicula of a spelt plant.

Spelt spicula

Spicula of a spelt plant.

A garden tool used to flatten granular material.

Tamper

A garden tool used to flatten granular material.

A farm machine used to seperate seeds or grain from the stocks.

Thresher

A farm machine used to seperate seeds or grain from the stocks.

"Take a piece of ivory, or any other substance that will sink in water, and weigh it accurately in the usual manner; then suspend it by a thread, or hair, in the empty cup a, and balance it. Now pour water into the cup, and it will be found that the suspended body will lose a part of its weight, so that a certain number of grains must be taken from the opposite scale, in order to make the scales balance as before the water was poured in. The number of grains taken from the opposite scale, show the weight of a quantity of water equal to the bulk of the body so suspended." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Water Weighing

"Take a piece of ivory, or any other substance that will sink in water, and weigh it accurately in the…

Outer portion of a cross-section of a wheat grain; h, various integuments of the ovary and seed, forming the husk; a, cells of "aleurone layer" of endosperm, loaded with protein grains; b, starch-bearing cells.

Wheat Grain

Outer portion of a cross-section of a wheat grain; h, various integuments of the ovary and seed, forming…

"A grain of wheat. Back view." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Back view." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"A grain of wheat. Front view." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Front view." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"A grain of wheat. Vertical section, showing (b) the endosperm, and (a) embryo." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Vertical section, showing (b) the endosperm, and (a) embryo." — Encyclopedia…

"A grain of wheat. Commencement of germination, showing (b) the pileola and (c) the secondary rootlets surrounded by their coleorrhizae." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Commencement of germination, showing (b) the pileola and (c) the secondary rootlets…

An illustration of a wheat spikelet.

Spikelet of Wheat

An illustration of a wheat spikelet.

An illustration of a rice winnower.

Winnowing Rice

An illustration of a rice winnower.

A stool used to stack hay on so that it becomes ready faster than when it is stacked on the ground.

Young's Stack-Stool

A stool used to stack hay on so that it becomes ready faster than when it is stacked on the ground.