"Bamboo. a.- upper portion of the stem with foliage. b.- root stem. c.- section of stem. Bamboo, the common name of the arborescent grasses belonging to the genus Bambusa." -Vaughan, 1906

Bamboo

"Bamboo. a.- upper portion of the stem with foliage. b.- root stem. c.- section of stem. Bamboo, the…

Barley is a grain.

Barley

Barley is a grain.

"Barley, the name of several cereal plants of the genus Hordeum, order Gramineae (grasses), yielding a grain used as food and also for making malt, from which are prepared beer, porter, and whisky." -Vaughan, 1906

Barley

"Barley, the name of several cereal plants of the genus Hordeum, order Gramineae (grasses), yielding…

"Broom-sedge (Andropogon Virginicus). a, spike; b, spikelet; c, glumes." -Whitney, 1911

Broomsedge

"Broom-sedge (Andropogon Virginicus). a, spike; b, spikelet; c, glumes." -Whitney, 1911

"Calyx of a spelt plant."—Finley, 1917

Spelt calyx

"Calyx of a spelt plant."—Finley, 1917

"a, Starch cells of the Pea, showing grains of starch in the interior. b, Seperate starch grains, with striae and hilum." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Starch Cells

"a, Starch cells of the Pea, showing grains of starch in the interior. b, Seperate starch grains, with…

Good ears of flint corn. Grown for grain in the northeast United States.

Flint corn

Good ears of flint corn. Grown for grain in the northeast United States.

"Esparto-Grasses. 1, 4, stalk and fruit of Macrochloa tenacissima. 2, 3, 5, stalk, flowering stem, and fruit of Lygeum Spartum." -Whitney, 1911

Esparto Grass

"Esparto-Grasses. 1, 4, stalk and fruit of Macrochloa tenacissima. 2, 3, 5, stalk, flowering stem, and…

An illustration of a family standing in front a barn filled from harvest.

Family & Barn

An illustration of a family standing in front a barn filled from harvest.

An illustration of a adult female farm hand transporting grain on her head.

Farm hand

An illustration of a adult female farm hand transporting grain on her head.

Various mixed bags of animal feed.

Feed

Various mixed bags of animal feed.

An infected grain.

Grain

An infected grain.

An infected grain, enlarged.

Grain

An infected grain, enlarged.

An image of a crop of grain.

Grain

An image of a crop of grain.

Field of grain.

Grain

Field of grain.

A Swedish grain cart.

Swedish grain cart

A Swedish grain cart.

A grain of sand as it appears under a microscope.

Grain of Sand

A grain of sand as it appears under a microscope.

Grain Vessels leaving Chicago.

Grain Vessels

Grain Vessels leaving Chicago.

Barley is a cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare, a common barley. It serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food, as well as the making of the alcoholic beverages beer. This is a spring species. The seed is more slender than wheat with a firmer and rougher covering of husk or chaff.

Barley

Barley is a cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare, a common barley. It serves as…

Barley is a cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare, a common barley. It serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food, as well as the making of the alcoholic beverages beer. This is a winter species and is shorter. The seed is more slender than wheat with a firmer and rougher covering of husk or chaff.

Barley

Barley is a cereal grain derived from the annual grass Hordeum vulgare, a common barley. It serves as…

The common oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed. While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats make up a large part of the diet of horses and are regularly fed to cattle as well. Oats are also used in some brands of dog and chicken feed.

Oat

The common oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed. While oats are suitable…

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop. Rye is characterized by long-bearded spikes, or ears, and a tall and slender stem. There are two prominent varieties known as winter and spring rye. The grain or kernel of rye is smaller in size than that of wheat.

Rye

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop. Rye is characterized by…

The Two-rowed Barley's spike, or ear, is long and somewhat compressed, and the grain is of a very good quality. It is sown in the spring. Barley succeeds best in soils of medium consistency, but accommodates itself to almost every variety of soil, except very moist ones. It endures a drought better than excessive moistures, but it requires as deep and good tillage as wheat.

Two-rowed Barley

The Two-rowed Barley's spike, or ear, is long and somewhat compressed, and the grain is of a very good…

A man milling corn by hand with a gristmill.

Gristmill

A man milling corn by hand with a gristmill.

A machine for cutting down standing grain, usually worked by a pair of horses, the cutting machinery being driven by being connected with the wheels on which the machine is drawn over the field.

Reaping Machine

A machine for cutting down standing grain, usually worked by a pair of horses, the cutting machinery…

A medal engraved with the portrait of Melita; the reverse side depicting a figure with two sets of wings holding a crook and a sickle in his hands. Traditionally a symbol for the production of grain, the image may also allude to the god of fertility.

Medal of Melita

A medal engraved with the portrait of Melita; the reverse side depicting a figure with two sets of wings…

"Grain enters the mill at H down into D and into tube A. The grain passes down through the holes B and C causing A to rotate. This rotation powers the millstone S at the top which grinds the grain before it reaches the dispersal tube A." —Quackenbos 1859

Barker's Mill

"Grain enters the mill at H down into D and into tube A. The grain passes down through the holes B and…

A machine used to separate immature seeds from wheat, oats, rye, barley, and other grains. This diagram shows the process of how the machine works.

Diagram of a Fanning Mill

A machine used to separate immature seeds from wheat, oats, rye, barley, and other grains. This diagram…

A mill which grounds grain into flour. This flour mill is located on a body of water.

Floating Flour Mill

A mill which grounds grain into flour. This flour mill is located on a body of water.

A stone used for grinding grain.

Mill-stone

A stone used for grinding grain.

The Flour Mite (Acarus siro) is an arachnid that is a pest of stored grain and flour.

Flour Mite

The Flour Mite (Acarus siro) is an arachnid that is a pest of stored grain and flour.

A smut of oats with a normal head.

Smut of Oats

A smut of oats with a normal head.

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the American continents.        Indian Corn, or maize, grows with a strong, jointed stalk, rising to the height of five to fifteen feet. The male or sterile flowers are arranged in a loose, spreading panicle at the apex, called the tassel and the female fertile flowers on the side. Each plant bears from one to five ears which are are cylindrical and enclosed in a covering of leaves called husks. The ears consists of grain, arranged around a pithy cylinder, called the cob. The seeds are rounded on the surface and compressed on the sides. Indian Corn is annual and is one of the most important of all the cultvated plants.

Indian Corn

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently…

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the American continents.        Indian Corn, or maize, grows with a strong, jointed stalk, rising to the height of five to fifteen feet. The male or sterile flowers , shown here, are arranged in a loose, spreading panicle at the apex, called the tassel and the female fertile flowers on the side. Each plant bears from one to five ears which are are cylindrical and enclosed in a covering of leaves called husks. The ears consists of grain, arranged around a pithy cylinder, called the cob. The seeds are rounded on the surface and compressed on the sides. Indian Corn is annual and is one of the most important of all the cultvated plants.

Indian Corn

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently…

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the American continents.        Indian Corn, or maize, grows with a strong, jointed stalk, rising to the height of five to fifteen feet. The male or sterile flowers , shown here, are arranged in a loose, spreading panicle at the apex, called the tassel and the female fertile flowers, shown here, on the side. Each plant bears from one to five ears which are are cylindrical and enclosed in a covering of leaves called husks. The ears consists of grain, arranged around a pithy cylinder, called the cob. The seeds are rounded on the surface and compressed on the sides. Indian Corn is annual and is one of the most important of all the cultvated plants.

Indian Corn

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently…

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the American continents.        Indian Corn, or maize, grows with a strong, jointed stalk, rising to the height of five to fifteen feet. The male or sterile flowers are arranged in a loose, spreading panicle at the apex, called the tassel and the female fertile flowers on the side. Each plant bears from one to five ears, are cylindrical and enclosed in a covering of leaves called husks. A ear of corn is shown here. The ears consists of grain, arranged around a pithy cylinder, called the cob. The seeds are rounded on the surface and compressed on the sides. Indian Corn is annual and is one of the most important of all the cultvated plants.

Indian Corn

Maize known as corn by most English-speakers, is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently…

A machine invented by Andrew Meikle to seperate grain from stalks and husks.

Portable Threshing-Machine

A machine invented by Andrew Meikle to seperate grain from stalks and husks.

A man reaping grain with a sickle.

Reaping

A man reaping grain with a sickle.

A species of grain of which there are several varieties It is an esculent grain bearing naked seeds on a flat ear, furnished with awns like barley.

Rye Grain

A species of grain of which there are several varieties It is an esculent grain bearing naked seeds…

"Side-oats (Atheropogon curtipendulus). a, spike; b, spikelet; c, spikelet with glumes removed." -Whitney, 1911

Side Oats

"Side-oats (Atheropogon curtipendulus). a, spike; b, spikelet; c, spikelet with glumes removed." -Whitney,…

A structure usually next to a barn, for the storage of grain or feed.

Silo

A structure usually next to a barn, for the storage of grain or feed.

"Grains with Five Prongs. GRAIN. An iron instrument with four or more barbed points, and a line attached to it, used at sea for striking and taking fish." -Whitney, 1911

Grain Spear

"Grains with Five Prongs. GRAIN. An iron instrument with four or more barbed points, and a line attached…

"A variety of the common wheat, originally cultivated by the Romans."—Finley, 1917

Spelt

"A variety of the common wheat, originally cultivated by the Romans."—Finley, 1917

Spicula of a spelt plant.

Spelt spicula

Spicula of a spelt plant.

A garden tool used to flatten granular material.

Tamper

A garden tool used to flatten granular material.

A farm machine used to seperate seeds or grain from the stocks.

Thresher

A farm machine used to seperate seeds or grain from the stocks.

"Take a piece of ivory, or any other substance that will sink in water, and weigh it accurately in the usual manner; then suspend it by a thread, or hair, in the empty cup a, and balance it. Now pour water into the cup, and it will be found that the suspended body will lose a part of its weight, so that a certain number of grains must be taken from the opposite scale, in order to make the scales balance as before the water was poured in. The number of grains taken from the opposite scale, show the weight of a quantity of water equal to the bulk of the body so suspended." —Comstock, 1850

Water Weighing

"Take a piece of ivory, or any other substance that will sink in water, and weigh it accurately in the…

Outer portion of a cross-section of a wheat grain; h, various integuments of the ovary and seed, forming the husk; a, cells of "aleurone layer" of endosperm, loaded with protein grains; b, starch-bearing cells.

Wheat Grain

Outer portion of a cross-section of a wheat grain; h, various integuments of the ovary and seed, forming…

"A grain of wheat. Back view." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Back view." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"A grain of wheat. Front view." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Front view." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"A grain of wheat. Vertical section, showing (b) the endosperm, and (a) embryo." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Vertical section, showing (b) the endosperm, and (a) embryo." — Encyclopedia…

"A grain of wheat. Commencement of germination, showing (b) the pileola and (c) the secondary rootlets surrounded by their coleorrhizae." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Commencement of germination, showing (b) the pileola and (c) the secondary rootlets…

An illustration of a wheat spikelet.

Spikelet of Wheat

An illustration of a wheat spikelet.

An illustration of a rice winnower.

Winnowing Rice

An illustration of a rice winnower.

A stool used to stack hay on so that it becomes ready faster then when it is stacked on the ground.

Young's Stack-Stool

A stool used to stack hay on so that it becomes ready faster then when it is stacked on the ground.