"In architecture the slab or plinth which forms the upper member of the capital of a column or pillar, and upon which rests, in classic styles, the lower surface of the achitrave."—Wright, 1902

Abacus

"In architecture the slab or plinth which forms the upper member of the capital of a column or pillar,…

The acanthus is one of the most common ornaments used to depict foliage.

Acanthus Leaf, Front and Side Views

The acanthus is one of the most common ornaments used to depict foliage.

On the apex and two lower angles of the pediment were introduced acroteria, sometimes ornaments of flowers and tendrils, and sometimes statues of gods or animals. These were placed on small pedestals, and offered an æsthetic contrast to the sliding effect which would otherwise have been produced by the oblique lines of the pediment.

Acroteria from the Temple of Minerva at Ægina

On the apex and two lower angles of the pediment were introduced acroteria, sometimes ornaments of flowers…

On the apex and two lower angles of the pediment were introduced acroteria, sometimes ornaments of flowers and tendrils, and sometimes statues of gods or animals. These were placed on small pedestals, and offered an æsthetic contrast to the sliding effect which would otherwise have been produced by the oblique lines of the pediment.

Acroteria, or Roof-Pedestal, from the Temple of Theseus at Athens

On the apex and two lower angles of the pediment were introduced acroteria, sometimes ornaments of flowers…

Ante-fixae (from Latin antefigere, to fasten before), the vertical blocks which terminate the covering tiles of the roof of a Roman, Etruscan, or Greek temple; as spaced they take the place of the cymatium and form a cresting along the sides of the temple. The face of the ante-fixae was richly carved with the anthemion ornament.

Ante-fixae

Ante-fixae (from Latin antefigere, to fasten before), the vertical blocks which terminate the covering…

Ante-fixae, the vertical blocks which terminate the covering tiles of the roof of a Roman, Etruscan, or Greek temple, as spaced they take the place of the cymatium and form a cresting along the sides of the temple. The face of the ante-fixae was richly carved with the anthemion ornament.

Ante-fixae

Ante-fixae, the vertical blocks which terminate the covering tiles of the roof of a Roman, Etruscan,…

An astragal is molding profile composed of a half round surface surrounded by two flat planes (fillets). An astragal is sometimes referred to as a miniature torus. It can be an architectural element used at the top or base of a column, but is also employed as a framing device on furniture and woodwork.

Double Twist on an Astragal

An astragal is molding profile composed of a half round surface surrounded by two flat planes (fillets).…

"The Temple of Theseus, the Areopagus, and the Acropolis of Athens." -Breasted, 1914

Athens

"The Temple of Theseus, the Areopagus, and the Acropolis of Athens." -Breasted, 1914

The Tomb of Atreus also known as the Treasury of Atreus is a tomb located in Mycenae, Greece built between 1250 and 1300 B.C. The face of the tomb consists of columns and has a triangle above the doorway. The tomb has an interior that is formed of a semi-underground circular room with a beehive tomb, also known as the tholos.

Tomb of Atreus

The Tomb of Atreus also known as the Treasury of Atreus is a tomb located in Mycenae, Greece built between…

The so-called Attic base is the form which most frequently occurs; and consists of two tori separated by a cavetto, the whole having a plinth as basis; the upper torus being less high and projecting than the lower.

Attic Base in the Temple of Minerva Polias

The so-called Attic base is the form which most frequently occurs; and consists of two tori separated…

The capital of the antæ and pilasters is without volutes, as is seen here. The shaft has no flutings; the base, on the other hand, is the same as in the columns, and is continued round the walls as a plinth.

Ionic Antæ Capital from the Temple of Minerva Polias at Athens

The capital of the antæ and pilasters is without volutes, as is seen here. The shaft has no flutings;…

The capital of the antæ and pilasters is without volutes, as is seen here. The shaft has no flutings; the base, on the other hand, is the same as in the columns, and is continued round the walls as a plinth.

Plan of Ionic Antæ Capital from the Temple of Minerva Polias at Athens

The capital of the antæ and pilasters is without volutes, as is seen here. The shaft has no flutings;…

The structural tendency which prevails in the capitals of all orders to change from the circular form of the shaft into the square is modified in the Ionic by the voluted nature of the capital, and in the Corinthian by representations of vegetable life.

Corinthian Capital

The structural tendency which prevails in the capitals of all orders to change from the circular form…

Caryatides are a blending of architecture and sculpture, but they are not of frequent occurrence. These Caryatides are human figures which serve as supports instead of a column, and a similar purpose is answered by male figures, which are technically called Atlantes.

Caryatis from the Erechtheum at Athens

Caryatides are a blending of architecture and sculpture, but they are not of frequent occurrence. These…

Caryatides are a blending of architecture and sculpture, but they are not of frequent occurrence. These Caryatides are human figures which serve as supports instead of a column, and a similar purpose is answered by male figures, which are technically called Atlantes.

Profile of the Caryatis with Pedestal and Entablature

Caryatides are a blending of architecture and sculpture, but they are not of frequent occurrence. These…

The good effect of the Ionic capital is really only produced by the front-view. It seems calculated to be introduced between pillars and antæ, and not in a disconnected peristyle with with angle columns. In angle columns, however, the volutes are sometimes constructed in such a way that they meet at both sides diagonally.

Ionic Angle Column from the Temple of Minerva Polias at Athens, Front

The good effect of the Ionic capital is really only produced by the front-view. It seems calculated…

The good effect of the Ionic capital is really only produced by the front-view. It seems calculated to be introduced between pillars and antæ, and not in a disconnected peristyle with with angle columns. In angle columns, however, the volutes are sometimes constructed in such a way that they meet at both sides diagonally.

Ionic Angle Column from the Temple of Minerva Polias at Athens, Side

The good effect of the Ionic capital is really only produced by the front-view. It seems calculated…

The Doric columns, which are short, powerful, and closely ranged together, in order to support the weight of the massive entablature, consist of the shaft and the capital, and rest immediately without base on the upper step, which serves as the ground-floor, or stereobate of the temple.

Doric Column from the Temple of Neptune at Paestum

The Doric columns, which are short, powerful, and closely ranged together, in order to support the weight…

The entablature resting on the columns has three parts: a plain architrave divided into two, or more generally three, bands, with a frieze resting on it that may be richly sculptural, and a cornice built up with dentils, with a corona and cyma molding to support the projecting roof.

Ionic Cornice from the Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene

The entablature resting on the columns has three parts: a plain architrave divided into two, or more…

The Corinthian cornice is only distinguished from the Ionic by its mutules and modillions, which take the place of the dentels in the latter style. They are fewer in number, but richer and more ornamented, as well as more projecting.

Corinthian Cornice

The Corinthian cornice is only distinguished from the Ionic by its mutules and modillions, which take…

"A colonnaded hall and staircase in the Cretan palace at Cnossus." -Breasted, 1914

Cretan Palace

"A colonnaded hall and staircase in the Cretan palace at Cnossus." -Breasted, 1914

"Tile drainpipes from the Cretan Palace of Cnossus."

Cretan Palace

"Tile drainpipes from the Cretan Palace of Cnossus."

Egg-and-dart is an ornamental device often carved in wood, stone, or plaster quarter-round ovolo mouldings, consisting of an egg-shaped object alternating with an element shaped like an arrow, anchor or dart. Egg-and-dart enrichment of the ovolo molding of the Ionic capital is found in Ancient Greek architecture at the Erechtheion and was used by the Romans.

Egg-and-Dart

Egg-and-dart is an ornamental device often carved in wood, stone, or plaster quarter-round ovolo mouldings,…

"In architecture, a sculptured ornament in imitation of a garland or festoon of fruits, leaves, or flowers, or of other objects, suspended between two points." -Whitney, 1911

Encarpus

"In architecture, a sculptured ornament in imitation of a garland or festoon of fruits, leaves, or flowers,…

"Doric Entablature. E, entablature: a, epistyle or architrave; b, frieze; c, cornice." -Whitney, 1911

Doric Entablature

"Doric Entablature. E, entablature: a, epistyle or architrave; b, frieze; c, cornice." -Whitney, 1911

"The 'house of Erechtheus'; a temple of Ionic order on the Acropolis of Athens, noted as one of the most original achievements of Hellenic architecture." -Whitney, 1911

Erechtheum

"The 'house of Erechtheus'; a temple of Ionic order on the Acropolis of Athens, noted as one of the…

Belonging to the time directly after Pericles is the Erechtheum. This is a double temple in the Ionic style, dedicated to Minerva Polias, and is situated on the Acropolis. It has a hexastyle Ionic prostyle. A low building adjoins it, behind which is the shrine of the Nymph Pandrosos.

Erechtheum with the Pandrosium

Belonging to the time directly after Pericles is the Erechtheum. This is a double temple in the Ionic…

An exedra is a semicircular recess set into a building's facade. The exedra at the Street of Tombs in Assos (Turkey) is shown here.

Exedra at the Street of Tombs in Assos

An exedra is a semicircular recess set into a building's facade. The exedra at the Street of Tombs in…

The Ionic column has a less diminished shaft and a smaller parabolic curve than the Doric. It is, like the Doric, channeled; the flutings, which are 24 in number, are separated by annulets, and are therefore narrower, but at the same time deeper, than the Doric, and are terminated at the top and bottom by the final curvature.

Fluting Plan of the Ionic and Corinthian Column

The Ionic column has a less diminished shaft and a smaller parabolic curve than the Doric. It is, like…

The frieze of the Doric order is not taken up with sculpture in uninterrupted succession, but it occurs in groups at regular intervals, separated by features called triglyphs (a). The spaces formed between the triglyphs are called metopes (b).

Doric Order Frieze in the Parthenon at Athens

The frieze of the Doric order is not taken up with sculpture in uninterrupted succession, but it occurs…

The stairway of the great altar at Pergamon in Ancient Greece shows a frieze. A frieze is a sculpture of an entablature in bas-relief.

Frieze of Altar at Pergamon

The stairway of the great altar at Pergamon in Ancient Greece shows a frieze. A frieze is a sculpture…

"Guttae in Doric Architecture. A, form of gutta beneath regula; G, G, guttae beneath mutules and regulae. GUTTA. A drop; specifically, in architecture, one of a series of pendent ornaments, generally in the form of the frustum of a cone, but sometimes cylindrical, attached to the under side of the mutules and regulae of the Doric entablature." -Whitney, 1911

Gutta in Doric Architecture

"Guttae in Doric Architecture. A, form of gutta beneath regula; G, G, guttae beneath mutules and regulae.…

"The ancient capital of the Hittites in Central Asia Minor recently excavated." -Breasted, 1914

Hittite Masonry Walls

"The ancient capital of the Hittites in Central Asia Minor recently excavated." -Breasted, 1914

In the capital the Doric echinus is replaced either by a cyma ornamented with leaves, or, more generally, by an ovolo with a pearl-beading beneath. Instead of the Doric abacus there occurs a cushion-like band in its place, whose ends wound in a spiral shape and coiled with elastic force, when viewed either from in front or behind, formed volutes, which on both sides considerably exceed the diameter of the column, and also surpass the architrave in breadth. This specific one differs from the normal shape.

Ionic Capital from the Temple of Apollo at Basse

In the capital the Doric echinus is replaced either by a cyma ornamented with leaves, or, more generally,…

In the capital the Doric echinus is replaced either by a cyma ornamented with leaves, or, more generally, by an ovolo with a pearl-beading beneath. Instead of the Doric abacus there occurs a cushion-like band in its place, whose ends wound in a spiral shape and coiled with elastic force, when viewed either from in front or behind, formed volutes, which on both sides considerably exceed the diameter of the column, and also surpass the architrave in breadth.

Ionic Capital from the Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene

In the capital the Doric echinus is replaced either by a cyma ornamented with leaves, or, more generally,…

These volutes, or scrolls, when viewed from the side, appear to meet in the middle, and form a wavy line over the echinus. The intervals of the spiral coils are slightly hollowed, in order to bring them into more relief, and in this way the so-called channel is formed, which is continued in the horizontal portion which connects the volutes.

Side View of the Ionic Capital from the Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene

These volutes, or scrolls, when viewed from the side, appear to meet in the middle, and form a wavy…

These volutes, or scrolls, when viewed from the side, appear to meet in the middle, and form a wavy line over the echinus. The intervals of the spiral coils are slightly hollowed, in order to bring them into more relief, and in this way the so-called channel is formed, which is continued in the horizontal portion which connects the volutes.

Top View of the Ionic Capital from the Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene

These volutes, or scrolls, when viewed from the side, appear to meet in the middle, and form a wavy…

The Gate of the Lions is located in Mycenae, Greece. It was the entrance to the city. On top of the gate there are two lions carved in stone facing each other with a column in the middle, believed to have been a statue of god or goddess.

Gate of the Lions

The Gate of the Lions is located in Mycenae, Greece. It was the entrance to the city. On top of the…

"A Capital of the Parthenon. - E, Echinus. In architecture, the convex projecting molding of eccentric curve in Greek examples, supporting the abacus of the Doric capital."

Echinus Molding

"A Capital of the Parthenon. - E, Echinus. In architecture, the convex projecting molding of eccentric…

Of a less ambitious class were those monuments erected in honor of the victorious choragus in musical competitions. In these structures the tripod, as the reward of victory, was borne in mind. An instance of this style of building is preserved to us in the choragic monument of Lysicrates.

Choragic Monument of Lysicrates

Of a less ambitious class were those monuments erected in honor of the victorious choragus in musical…

Of a less ambitious class were those monuments erected in honor of the victorious choragus in musical competitions. In these structures the tripod, as the reward of victory, was borne in mind. An instance of this style of building is preserved to us in the choragic monument of Lysicrates.

Finial of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates

Of a less ambitious class were those monuments erected in honor of the victorious choragus in musical…

Rectangular block under the soffit of the cornice of the Greek Doric temple, which is studded with guttae. It is supposed to represent the piece of timber through which the wooden pegs were driven in order to hold the rafter in position, and it follows the sloping rake of the roof. In the Roman Doric order the mutule was horizontal, with sometimes a crowning fillet, so that it virtually fulfilled the purpose of the modillion in the Corinthian cornice.

Mutule, Front View

Rectangular block under the soffit of the cornice of the Greek Doric temple, which is studded with guttae.…

Rectangular block under the soffit of the cornice of the Greek Doric temple, which is studded with guttae. It is supposed to represent the piece of timber through which the wooden pegs were driven in order to hold the rafter in position, and it follows the sloping rake of the roof. In the Roman Doric order the mutule was horizontal, with sometimes a crowning fillet, so that it virtually fulfilled the purpose of the modillion in the Corinthian cornice.

Mutule, Side View

Rectangular block under the soffit of the cornice of the Greek Doric temple, which is studded with guttae.…

The Temple of Neptune is located in the Graeco-Roman ancient city of Paestum, located in the Campania region in Italy. The Temple is made out of vertical columns that stand on a flat base.

Temple of Neptune

The Temple of Neptune is located in the Graeco-Roman ancient city of Paestum, located in the Campania…

The Ionic order was indebted for its earlier development to western Asiatic influence, notably to that of Persepolis; but its maturer beauties are to be attributed to a Doric source. Its main features are the same as in the Doric style; their forms, however, are different. The Ionic order has more mouldings, its forms are richer and more elegant, and, as a style, it is lighter and more graceful than the Doric.

Ionic Pillar in the Erechtheum at Athens

The Ionic order was indebted for its earlier development to western Asiatic influence, notably to that…

"Sarcophagus from the Street of Tombs at Assos in the Troad, excavated by the Archaeological Institute of America." -Whitney, 1911

Sarcophagus

"Sarcophagus from the Street of Tombs at Assos in the Troad, excavated by the Archaeological Institute…

The scamillus is the piece of stone sitting directly underneath a column.

Scamillus

The scamillus is the piece of stone sitting directly underneath a column.

The Parthenon is a temple of the Greek Goddess Athena, who was considered as the protector of the city of Athens. The Temple was built in the 5th B.C. on Athenian Acropolis. The Parthenon is designed in a Doric Order style which consists of vertical columns that stand flat without a base, and a smooth capital.

The Parthenon

The Parthenon is a temple of the Greek Goddess Athena, who was considered as the protector of the city…

The theatres were originally built on a very large scale to accommodate the large number of people on stage, as well as the large number of people in the audience, up to fourteen thousand. Mathematics played a large role in the construction of these theatres, as their designers had to able to create acoustics in them such that the actors' voices could be heard throughout the theatre, including the very top row of seats.

Ground Plan of the Theatre at Iassus

The theatres were originally built on a very large scale to accommodate the large number of people on…

The Odeon of Herodes Atticus is a stone theatre structure located on the south slope of the Acropolis of Athens. It was built in 161 AD by Herodes Atticus in memory of his wife, Aspasia Annia Regilla. It was originally a steep-sloped amphitheater with a three-story stone front wall and a wooden roof, and was used as a venue for music concerts with a capacity of 5,000.

Ground Plan of the Theatre of Herodes Atticus

The Odeon of Herodes Atticus is a stone theatre structure located on the south slope of the Acropolis…

On the apex and two lower angles of the pediment were introduced acroteria, sometimes ornaments of flowers and tendrils, and sometimes statues of gods or animals. These were placed on small pedestals, and offered an æsthetic contrast to the sliding effect which would otherwise have been produced by the oblique lines of the pediment.

Façade Tile from the Temple of Diana at Ephesus

On the apex and two lower angles of the pediment were introduced acroteria, sometimes ornaments of flowers…

"The walls of Homeric Troy, built about 1500 B.C." -Breasted, 1914

Troy

"The walls of Homeric Troy, built about 1500 B.C." -Breasted, 1914

These volutes, or scrolls, when viewed from the side, appear to meet in the middle, and form a wavy line over the echinus. The intervals of the spiral coils are slightly hollowed, in order to bring them into more relief, and in this way the so-called channel is formed, which is continued in the horizontal portion which connects the volutes.

Section of a Volute of an Ionic Capital

These volutes, or scrolls, when viewed from the side, appear to meet in the middle, and form a wavy…