Casts of the bony labyrinth of the ear. Labels: A, left labyrinth see from the outer side; B, right labyrinth from the inner side; C, left labyrinth from above; Fc, round foramen; Fv, oval foramen; h, horizontal semicircular canal; ha, its ampulla; Vaa, ampulla of anterior vertical semicircular canal; Vpa, ampulla of posterior vertical semicircular canal; Vc, conjoined portion of the two vertical canals.

The Bony Labyrinth of the Ear

Casts of the bony labyrinth of the ear. Labels: A, left labyrinth see from the outer side; B, right…

A boy putting his hand up to his ear to listen.

Boy Listening

A boy putting his hand up to his ear to listen.

"A Cast of the External Auditory Canal. The auditory canal is a passage in the solid potion of the temporal bone. It is lined by skin on which there are fine hairs, and a set of glands secreting earwax, which serves to moisten the parts, catch particles fo dust, and keep away small insects." — Blaisedell, 1904

External auditory canal

"A Cast of the External Auditory Canal. The auditory canal is a passage in the solid potion of the temporal…

Diagram of a section of a coil of the cochlea of the ear. Labels: C.C, canal of the cochlea; mR, its upper wall; Sc.V, the part of the bony cavity above the canal of the cochlea; Sc.T, the part below it; O.C, the organ of Corti on the basilar membrane; A.N., branch of auditory nerve in the central column of the spiral; a, connective tissue cushion to which the basilar membrane is attached; b, the bony walls; m.t, a membrane lying over the organ of Corti; l.s, the spiral ledge projecting from the axis.

Cochlea

Diagram of a section of a coil of the cochlea of the ear. Labels: C.C, canal of the cochlea; mR, its…

In this figure are shown the winding passages of the ear (the labyrinth of the ear). The middle part of it (v) is the vestibule. From this go out on the upper side the semi-circular canals (x,y,z) and on the lower side of the passages of the cochlea (k). The opening into the vestibule (o) is covered by the second drum. Another opening (r) is also covered by a membrane or drum. The cochlea (k) is so called because it is shaped like a snail's shell.

The Cochlea and Passages of the Ear

In this figure are shown the winding passages of the ear (the labyrinth of the ear). The middle part…

A section through the cochlea in the line of its axis.

The Cochlea of the Ear

A section through the cochlea in the line of its axis.

Section of one coil of the cochlea, magnified. Labels: SV, scala vestibuli; R, membrane of Reissner; CC, membranous cochlea; lls, limbus laminae spiralis; t, tectorial membrane; ST, scala tympani; lso, spiral lamina; Co, rods of Corti; b, basilar membrane.

Cochlea, Section of

Section of one coil of the cochlea, magnified. Labels: SV, scala vestibuli; R, membrane of Reissner;…

The organ of hearing.

Ear

The organ of hearing.

"The Ear Trumpet is an instrument designed for the collection and conduction of sounds. By increasing the size of the auricle, a much larger volume of sound is gathered than by the natural ear without such aid."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Ear Trumpet

"The Ear Trumpet is an instrument designed for the collection and conduction of sounds. By increasing…

Bones of the ear together with the ear drum.

Bones of the Ear

Bones of the ear together with the ear drum.

"1, malleus, or hammer; 2, incus, or anvil; 3, stapes, or stirrup." — Blaisedell, 1904

Bones of the ear

"1, malleus, or hammer; 2, incus, or anvil; 3, stapes, or stirrup." — Blaisedell, 1904

Cross-section of the external and internal ear. <em>a, b, and c</em>: External ear. <em>d</em>: Entrance to the tube of the ear <em>(f)</em>. <em>g</em>: Drum of the ear. <em>h</em>: Cavity beyond the drum where the chain of bones is, the bones being left out that the arrangement of the apparatus may be more clear to you. <em>k</em>: Tube which comes from the back part of the throat to this cavity. If you shut your mouth and close the nostrils with your fingers, and then force the air strongly from your chest into the mouth, you can feel the air pass through this tube into the ear where the little bones are. <em>l</em>: is the vestibule of the labyrinth. <em>m</em>: Semi-circular canals. <em>n</em>: Cochlea. <em>o</em>: Trunk of the nerve of hearing as it goes to branch out in the labyrinth. <em>e</em>: Bone in which the labyrinth is enclosed.

A Cross-Section of the Ear

Cross-section of the external and internal ear. a, b, and c: External ear. d: Entrance…

"<em>A</em>, oval window; <em>B, C, D,</em> semicircular canals; * represents the bulging part of each canal; <em>E, F, G,</em> cochlea; <em>H</em>, round window." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Internal ear

"A, oval window; B, C, D, semicircular canals; * represents the bulging part of each…

View of the left ear in its normal state.

Left Ear

View of the left ear in its normal state.

The middle ear and its bones, considerably magnified. Labels: G, the inner end of the external auditory meatus, closed internally by the conical tympanic membrane; L, the malleus, or hammer-bone; H, the incus, or anvil-bone; S, the stapes, or stirrup-bone.

Middle Ear

The middle ear and its bones, considerably magnified. Labels: G, the inner end of the external auditory…

Semidiagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, external auditory meatus; T, tympanic membrane; P, middle ear; o, oval foramen; r, round foramen; R, pharyngeal opening of Eustachian tube; V, vestibule; B, a semicircular canal; S, the cochlea; Vt, scala vestibuli; Pt, scala tympani; A, auditory nerve.

Section of the Ear

Semidiagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, external auditory meatus; T, tympanic…

Semi-diagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, external auditory meatus; T, tympanic or drum membrane; P, middle ear; o, oval foramen; r, round foramen. Extending from T to o is seen the chain of tympanic bones. R, Eustachian tube. V,B,S, bony labyrinth: V, vestibule; B, semicircular canal; S, cochlea. b,l,l', membranous semicircular canal and vestibule. A, auditory nerve dividing into branches for vestibule, semicircular canal, and cochlea.

Section Through the Right Ear

Semi-diagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, external auditory meatus; T,…

Structure of the ear.

Structure of the Ear

Structure of the ear.

A view of the left ear in its natural state.

The Left Ear

A view of the left ear in its natural state.

"<em>A</em>, pinna; <em>B</em>, cavity of the concha, showing the openings of a great number of sebaceous glands; <em>C</em>, external auditory meatus; <em>D</em>, typanic membrane; <em>F</em>, incus; <em>H</em>, malleus; <em>K</em>, handle of malleus applied to the internal surface of the membrana typani; <em>L</em>, tensor typani muscle; between <em>M</em> and <em>K</em> is the tymphanic cavity; <em>N</em> Eustachian tube; <em>O,P,</em> semicircular canals; <em>R</em>, internal auditory canal; <em>S</em>, large nerve given off from the facial nerve; <em>T</em>, facial and auditory nerves." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

General view of organ of hearing

"A, pinna; B, cavity of the concha, showing the openings of a great number of sebaceous…

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves. These sound waves come to animals through the air, through water, or throught both air and water. Here we see the auditory organ of a mollusk showing the (a) auditory nerve, (b) the outer wall of connective tissue, (c) cells with auditory hairs, and (d) otolith.

Sense of Hearing

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves.…

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves. These sound waves come to animals through the air, through water, or throught both air and water. Here we see the auditory organ of a cray fish showing the auditory sac at the base.

Sense of Hearing

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves.…

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves. These sound waves come to animals through the air, through water, or throught both air and water. Here we see the auditory organ of a grasshopper located in the abdomen.

Sense of Hearing

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves.…

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves. These sound waves come to animals through the air, through water, or throught both air and water. Here we see the auditory organ of a cricket showing the auditory organ in the foreleg.

Sense of Hearing

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves.…

A man sitting at a desk, with a boy standing in front, with his eyes closed.

Man at desk and boy

A man sitting at a desk, with a boy standing in front, with his eyes closed.

"A poor man here is asking for relief, / The full-fed, portly man appears quite deaf; / He's humbly pleading - see the poor creature; / The big man before him grows still deafer; / Alas! how passing strange does this appear, / None are so deaf as those that will not hear. / Of those whose vision's dim, where'er they be, / None are so blind as those who will not see."&mdash;Barber, 1857

None so Deaf as Those That Won't Hear

"A poor man here is asking for relief, / The full-fed, portly man appears quite deaf; / He's humbly…

The rods of Corti of the ear showing a pair of rods separated from the rest. Labels: i, inner, and e, outer rods.

The Rods of Corti

The rods of Corti of the ear showing a pair of rods separated from the rest. Labels: i, inner, and e,…

The rods of Corti of the ear. Shown hear is a bit of the basilar membrane with several rods on it, showing how they cover in the tunnel of Corti. Labels: i, inner, and e, outer rods;, b, basilar membrane; r, reticular membrane.

The Rods of Corti

The rods of Corti of the ear. Shown hear is a bit of the basilar membrane with several rods on it, showing…

Ear on foreleg of locust

Sensory Organs of Insects

Ear on foreleg of locust

Ear found on the basal segment of grasshopper abdomen.

Sensory Organs of Insects

Ear found on the basal segment of grasshopper abdomen.

A sonometer is an apparatus by which the transverse vibrations of strings can be studied. It is also called the monocord because it often has only one string. On the box are two fixed bridges, near the ends, and at one end is a pulley. A string, often a steel wire, is fastened at one end, run over the bridges and the pulley, and attached to a weight holder hanging below the pulley. Weights can be added to the holder to produce tension in the wire, and a third, movable bridge, can be placed under it to change the length of the vibrating section of the string. A Sonometer demonstrates the relationship between the frequency of the sound produced by a plucked string, and the tension, length and mass per unit length of the string.

Sonometer

A sonometer is an apparatus by which the transverse vibrations of strings can be studied. It is also…

An example of how to produce a tone. This illustration shows one end of a string fixed to a hook and suspending a weight from the other end. When you pluck the string it causes it to make a musical note, also known as a tone.

Tone

An example of how to produce a tone. This illustration shows one end of a string fixed to a hook and…

"A glass bell is fixed to stand, and beside it is a stand carrying a small ivory ball. This is so arranged that the ball shall just rest against the rim of the glass, Now let the violin bow be rubbed with a lump of rosin, and then drawn steadily over the edge of the glass. A clear musical note will be produced, but the vibrations of the glass will scarcely be perceptible to the eye." -New, 1891

Tone

"A glass bell is fixed to stand, and beside it is a stand carrying a small ivory ball. This is so arranged…

"If a light strip of steel is firmly gripped at one end in a vice and the other end plucked aside, it will, when let go, vibrate backwards and forwards as shown; and if the vibrations are sufficiently rapid, a musical note will be produced." -New, 1891

Tone

"If a light strip of steel is firmly gripped at one end in a vice and the other end plucked aside, it…

An illustration of various sound waves.

Sound Waves

An illustration of various sound waves.

An illustration of various sound waves.

Sound Waves

An illustration of various sound waves.