"The Abdominal Viscera <em>in situ</em>, as seen when the abdomin is laid open and the great omentum removed. The ribs on the right side are indicated by Roman numerals; it will be observed that the eighth costal cartilage articulated with the sternum on both sides." &mdash;Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Abdomen

"The Abdominal Viscera in situ, as seen when the abdomin is laid open and the great omentum…

Abdomen of female showing displacement resulting from tight lacing. The liver is much enlarged, and extends on the left side to the ribs, where it was folded back on itself for over an inch. The pyloric end of the stomach and the beginning of the duodenum are quite superficial below the liver, and all the viscera are displaced downwards.

Abdomen Showing Displacement Caused by Corset

Abdomen of female showing displacement resulting from tight lacing. The liver is much enlarged, and…

Horizontal section through upper part of abdomen. Labels: a, liver; b, stomach; c, transverse colon; d, spleen; e, kidneys; f, pancreas; g, inferior vena cava; h, aorta with thoracic duct behind it.

Horizontal Section Through Abdomen

Horizontal section through upper part of abdomen. Labels: a, liver; b, stomach; c, transverse colon;…

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, stomach; 4, large intestine; 5, small intestine.

Abdominal Organs

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, stomach; 4, large intestine; 5, small…

"ailmentary canal of a honey bee. at, honey stomach; s, true stomach; nt, intestine; o, esophagus; sg, salivary glands; k, kidneys." &mdash;Davison, 1906

Ailmentary Canal

"ailmentary canal of a honey bee. at, honey stomach; s, true stomach; nt, intestine; o, esophagus; sg,…

Diagram of the abdominal part of the alimentary canal (digestive system). Labels: C, the cardiac, and P, the pyloric end of the stomach; D, the duodenum; J, I, the convolutions of the small intestine; CC, the caecum with the vermiform appendix; AC, ascending, TC, transverse, and DC, descending colon; R, the rectum.

Alimentary Canal

Diagram of the abdominal part of the alimentary canal (digestive system). Labels: C, the cardiac, and…

Labels: O, esophagus; S, stomach; SI, small intestine; LI, large intestine, Sp spleen; L, liver (raised up); G, gall bladder; Pa, pancreas.

General View of the Alimentary Canal

Labels: O, esophagus; S, stomach; SI, small intestine; LI, large intestine, Sp spleen; L, liver (raised…

"<em>A</em>, a portion of the colon laid open to show the valve between the large and small intestine; <em>B</em>, the caecum." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Vermiform appendix

"A, a portion of the colon laid open to show the valve between the large and small intestine;…

"The spinal column below the twelfth dorsal vertebra at <em>A</em> has been removed, as well as the various layers of the great muscles of the back. The two kidneys with the renal arteries and veins are plainly shown, in their normal positions. The relative positions of adjacent vessels and organs with their names printed upon them are also shown. <em>B</em>, portion of the diaphragm on the left side; <em>C</em>, receptaculum chyli; <em>D</em>, a part of the small intestine on the left side." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Vertical section of the back

"The spinal column below the twelfth dorsal vertebra at A has been removed, as well as the…

"Ovaries of Queen and Workers (Apis). A, Abdomen of queen, under side. P, Petiole. o, o, Ovaries. hs, Position filled by honey-sack. ds, Position through which digestive system passes. od, Oviduct. co.d, Vagina. E, Egg-passing oviduct. s, Spermatheca. i, Intestine. pb, Poison bag. pg, Poison gland. st, Sting. p, "Palps" or "feelers" of sting. B, Rudimentary ovaries of ordinary worker. sp, Rudimentary spermatheca. C, Partially developed ovaries of fertile worker. sp, Rudimentary spermatheca." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Bee Ovaries

"Ovaries of Queen and Workers (Apis). A, Abdomen of queen, under side. P, Petiole. o, o, Ovaries. hs,…

"a, tentacula; b, mouth; c, termination of intestine." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Beroe

"a, tentacula; b, mouth; c, termination of intestine." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Portions of liver, duodenum, and pancreas, showing biliary and pancreatic ducts, head of pancreas turned back.

Biliary Apparatus

Portions of liver, duodenum, and pancreas, showing biliary and pancreatic ducts, head of pancreas turned…

"Organs in the body cavity viewed from the front." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Organs of the body cavity

"Organs in the body cavity viewed from the front." —Davison, 1910

Caecum and colon of a dog-inflated. Labels: a, ileum; b, caecum; c, colon.

Caecum and Colon of a Dog

Caecum and colon of a dog-inflated. Labels: a, ileum; b, caecum; c, colon.

Caecum and colon of a hog-inflated. Labels: a, ileum; b, caecum; c, colon; d, rectum.

Caecum and Colon of a Hog

Caecum and colon of a hog-inflated. Labels: a, ileum; b, caecum; c, colon; d, rectum.

Caecum and great colon of a horse. Labels: a, caecum; b, c, its muscular bands; d, termination of the ileum; e, first; e', second; f, third; f', fourth division of colon; g, pelvic flexure; h, origin of floating colon. The arrows indicate the course of the food through the colon.

Caecum and Colon of Horse

Caecum and great colon of a horse. Labels: a, caecum; b, c, its muscular bands; d, termination of the…

Caecum and origin of colon of an ox- inflated. Labels: a, terminal portion of the ileum; b, caecum; c, origin of colon.

Caecum of an Ox

Caecum and origin of colon of an ox- inflated. Labels: a, terminal portion of the ileum; b, caecum;…

Intestinal tract of <em>Canis vulpes</em>. S, cut end of duodenum; C, caecum; R, cut end of rectum.

Intestinal Tract from Canis Vulpes

Intestinal tract of Canis vulpes. S, cut end of duodenum; C, caecum; R, cut end of rectum.

cc. Colic caeca, d. Duodenum. g. Glandular patch, l.l. Meckel's tract, l.i. Hind-gut, p.v. Cut root of portal vein, r.v. Rectal vein, s. Proventriculus, y. Meckel's diverticulum.

Intestinal Tract of Chauna Chavaria

cc. Colic caeca, d. Duodenum. g. Glandular patch, l.l. Meckel's tract, l.i. Hind-gut, p.v. Cut root…

"In the stomach, intestines and elsewhere the epithelial cell is obling in profile and is called columnar epithelium." &mdash; Richardson, 1906

Columnar Epithelium

"In the stomach, intestines and elsewhere the epithelial cell is obling in profile and is called columnar…

The digestive apparatus of the horse. Labels: a, mouth; 2, pharynx; 3, esophagus; 4, diaphragm; 5, spleen; 6, stomach (left sac); 7, duodenum; 8, liver (upper extremity); 9, great colon; 10, caecum; 11, small intestine; 12, floating colon; 13, rectum; 14, anus; 15, left kidney and ureter; 16, bladder; 17, urethra; a, hard palate; b, tongue; c, soft palate; d, trachea; e, pulmonary artery (divided); f, heart; g, posterior aorta.

Digestive Apparatus of the Horse

The digestive apparatus of the horse. Labels: a, mouth; 2, pharynx; 3, esophagus; 4, diaphragm; 5, spleen;…

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery; the stomach and liver have been turned up so as to expose the pancreas. Labels: V, stomach; D, D', D', duodenum; L, spleen P, pancreas; R, right kidney; T, jejunum; Vf, gallbladder; h, hepatic duct; c, cystic duct; ch, common bile-duct; 1, aorta, 2, an artery (left coronary) of the stomach; 3, hepatic artery; splenic artery; , superior mesenteric artery; 6, superior mesenteric vein; 7, splenic vein; Vp, portal vein.

Digestive Organs

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery;…

A diagram of the digestive system.

Digestive System

A diagram of the digestive system.

A diagram showing the path food takes through the digestive system.

Digestive System

A diagram showing the path food takes through the digestive system.

A diagram of the organs of digestion. Labels:1, The upper jaw. 2, The lower jaw. 3, The tongue. 4, The roof of the mouth. 5, The esophagus. 6, The trachea. 7, The parotid gland. 8, The sublingual gland. 9, The stomach. 10, The liver. 11, The gall cyst. 12, The duct that conveys the bile to the duodenum (13). 14, The pancreas. 15, The small intestine. 16, The opening of the small intestine into the large intestine. 17, 18, 19, 20, The large intestine. 21, The spleen. 22, The upper part of the spinal column.

Digestive System

A diagram of the organs of digestion. Labels:1, The upper jaw. 2, The lower jaw. 3, The tongue. 4, The…

Organs of the digestive system.

Organs of the Digestive System

Organs of the digestive system.

To show Meckel's diverticulum, the remains of he vitello-intestinal duct, and of the artery to the yolk sac.

Meckel's Diverticulum

To show Meckel's diverticulum, the remains of he vitello-intestinal duct, and of the artery to the yolk…

The interior of the duodenum.

Interior of Duodenum

The interior of the duodenum.

Longitudinal section of duodenum; valvulae conniventes cut across, showing relation of these folds to villi.

Longitudinal Section of Duodenum

Longitudinal section of duodenum; valvulae conniventes cut across, showing relation of these folds to…

A vertical section of the duodenum, highly magnified. Labels: 1, a fold-like villus; 2, epithelium, or cuticle; 3, orifices of intestinal glands; 5, orifices of duodenal glands; 4, 7, more highly magnified sections of the cells of the duodenal gland.

A Magnified Section of the Duodenum

A vertical section of the duodenum, highly magnified. Labels: 1, a fold-like villus; 2, epithelium,…

"Transverse section of the intestine of the Earthworm. ty, typhlosole, an infolded longitudinal ridge in the gut in which the fland cells (gl.) are especially aggregated." &mdash; Galloway

Earthworm

"Transverse section of the intestine of the Earthworm. ty, typhlosole, an infolded longitudinal ridge…

"A, columnar cells of intestine; B, polyhedral cells of the conjuctiva; C, ciliated conical cells of the trachea; D, ciliated cell of frog's mothl E, inverted conical cell of the trachea; F, squamous cell of the cavity of the mouth, seen on its broad surface; G, squamous cell, seen edgeways." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Various kinds of epithelial cells

"A, columnar cells of intestine; B, polyhedral cells of the conjuctiva; C, ciliated conical cells of…

"Diagram of the principal vessels in the circulation of a fish, ventral view. a, aorta; au., auricle; br.a., afferent branchial arteries; br.e., efferent branchial arteries; bu., bulbus (or conus) arteriosus; c, carotid; c.a., caudal artery; c.v.r., right cardinal vein; c.v.l., left cardinal vein; d.a., dorsal artery; d.c., ductus Cuvieri; g, gills; h.v., hepatic vein; h.p., hepatic portal vein; i, intestine; j, jugular vein; k, kidney; l, liver; r.p., renal portal vein; s.v., sinus venosus; v, ventricle." &mdash; Galloway

Fish Circulation

"Diagram of the principal vessels in the circulation of a fish, ventral view. a, aorta; au., auricle;…

"Digestive system of the common Fowl. o, Gullet; c, Crop; p, Proventriculus; g, Gizzard; sm, Small intestine; k, Intestinal caeca; l, Large intestine; cl, Cloaca." &mdash; Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Fowl Digestive System

"Digestive system of the common Fowl. o, Gullet; c, Crop; p, Proventriculus; g, Gizzard; sm, Small intestine;…

S, cut end of duodenum; R, cut end of rectum; C, caecum; P.C.L., post-caecal loop; S.P., spiral loop; SF, third loop of hind-gut.

Intestinal Tract of Giraffe

S, cut end of duodenum; R, cut end of rectum; C, caecum; P.C.L., post-caecal loop; S.P., spiral loop;…

"The heart and blood-vessels diagrammatically represented. L, lung; M, intestine; P, liver; dotted lines represent lymphatic vessels." &mdash;Martin, 1917

Heart

"The heart and blood-vessels diagrammatically represented. L, lung; M, intestine; P, liver; dotted lines…

The mucous membrane of the ileum. Labels: 1, cellular structure of the epithelium, or outer layer; 2, a vein; 3, fibrous layer; 4, villi covered with epithelium; 5, a villus partially uncovered; 7, a villus stripped of its epithelium; 8, lymphatics or lacteals; 9, orifices of the glands opening between the villi; 10, 11, 12, glands; 13, capillaries surrounding the orifices of the gland.

Mucous Membrane of the Ileum

The mucous membrane of the ileum. Labels: 1, cellular structure of the epithelium, or outer layer; 2,…

"a, head, antennae, &c; b, pharynx; c, crop; d, gizzard; e, chyle-forming stomach; f, biliary vessels; g, small intestine; h, secreting organs" &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Digestive Apparatus of an Insect

"a, head, antennae, &c; b, pharynx; c, crop; d, gizzard; e, chyle-forming stomach; f, biliary vessels;…

"<em>A</em>, a fold of peritoneum; <em>B</em>, lacteals and lymphatic glands; <em>C</em>, veins of intestines; <em>R.C.,</em>, receptacle of the chyle (receptaculum chyli); <em>P.V.</em>, portal vein; <em>H.V.</em>, hepatic veins; <em>S.V.C.</em>, superior vena cava; <em>R.A.</em>, right auricle of the heart; <em>I.V.C.</em>, inferior vena cava." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Intestinal absorption

"A, a fold of peritoneum; B, lacteals and lymphatic glands; C, veins of intestines;…

Two diagrams to illustrate the development of the intestinal canal. The figure to the right shows the rotation of the intestinal loop round the superior mesenteric artery. In both figures the parts are supposed to be viewed from the left side.

Development of the Intestinal Canal

Two diagrams to illustrate the development of the intestinal canal. The figure to the right shows the…

Rudiments of the liver on the intestines of a chick at the fifth day of incubation. Labels: 1, heart; 2, intestine; 3, diverticulum of the intestine in which the liver (4) is developed; 5, part of the mucous layer of the germinal membrane.

Intestine of a Chick

Rudiments of the liver on the intestines of a chick at the fifth day of incubation. Labels: 1, heart;…

"A tiny block cut from the wall of the intestine showing villi and the mouths of glands at a; b, villus cut open to show the lacteal e and blood tubes m for absorbing food." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Section of intestine wall

"A tiny block cut from the wall of the intestine showing villi and the mouths of glands at a; b, villus…

A portion of the intestine, with mesentery and vessels. The peritoneal coat has been removed from the right half, and the two layers of the muscular coat exposed.

Small Intestine with Mesentery and Vessels

A portion of the intestine, with mesentery and vessels. The peritoneal coat has been removed from the…

A piece of transverse colon from a child two years old. The three chief characteristics of the large intestine- sacculatiousm, taeniaem and appendices epiploicae- are shown.

Large Intestine

A piece of transverse colon from a child two years old. The three chief characteristics of the large…

Diagram to show the structure of the small and large intestine and duodenum.

Structure of the Intestine

Diagram to show the structure of the small and large intestine and duodenum.

Transverse section of small intestine (lower part of duodenum), showing general arrangement of coats.

Transverse Section of Small Intestine

Transverse section of small intestine (lower part of duodenum), showing general arrangement of coats.

Mesentery and intestines of an ox. Labels: 1, duodenum; 2, small intestines; 3, caecum; 4, colon; 5, rectum; 6, mesentery.

Intestines of an Ox

Mesentery and intestines of an ox. Labels: 1, duodenum; 2, small intestines; 3, caecum; 4, colon; 5,…

Two diagrams to illustrate the development of the mesenteries. In the first figure the rotation of the intestinal loop and the continuous primitive mesentery is shown. In the second figure (to the right), which shows a more advances stage, the portions of the primitive mesentery (going to the ascending and descending colons) which disappear through their adhesion to the posterior abdominal wall, are shaded dark, the portions which persist are lightly shaded.

Development of the Mesenteries

Two diagrams to illustrate the development of the mesenteries. In the first figure the rotation of the…

Portion of the mucous membrane from the small intestine, magnified, showing the villi on its free surface, and between them the orifices of the tubular glands. Labels: 1, Portion of a clustered gland. 2, A solitary gland. 3, Fibrous tissue.

A Portion of the Mucous Membrane from the Small Intestine

Portion of the mucous membrane from the small intestine, magnified, showing the villi on its free surface,…

Free surface of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, showing villi, solitary glands, and opening of the intestinal glands.

Mucous Membrane of the Small Intestine

Free surface of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, showing villi, solitary glands, and opening…

"Diagram showing the muscular system. M, ventral, N, dorsal valve; l, loop; V, mouth; Z, extremity of intestine; a, adductor; c, divaricators; c', accessory divaricators; b, ventral adjustors; c, peduncular muscles; b''', dorsal adjustors; P, peduncle." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Muscular System

"Diagram showing the muscular system. M, ventral, N, dorsal valve; l, loop; V, mouth; Z, extremity of…

Diagram to illustrate the development of the great omentum. A, shows the beginning of the great omentum and its independence of the transverse mesocolon; in B, the two come in contact; and in C, they have fused along the line of contact. Labels: A, stomach; B, transverse colon; C, small intestine; D, duodenum; E, pancreas; F, great omentum; G, placed in great sac; H, in small sac of peritoneum.

Development of the Great Omentum

Diagram to illustrate the development of the great omentum. A, shows the beginning of the great omentum…

Vertical section of the intestinal mucous membrane of the rabbit. Two villi are represented, in one of which the dilated lacteal alone is shown, in the other the blood vessels and lacteal are both seen injected, the lacteal white, the blood vessels dark; a, the lacteal vessels of the villi; a', horizontal lacteal, which they join; b, capillary blood vessels in one of the villi; c, small artery; d, vein; e, the epithelium covering the villi; g, tubular glands or crypts of Lieberkuhn, some divided down the middle, others cut more irregularly; i, the submucous layer. A, cross-section of three tubular glands more highly magnified.

Rabbit's Intestinal Mucous Membrane

Vertical section of the intestinal mucous membrane of the rabbit. Two villi are represented, in one…

A portion of the small intestine opened to show the valvulae conniventes (folds).

Small Intestine

A portion of the small intestine opened to show the valvulae conniventes (folds).

Villi of the small intestine, magnified about 80 diameters. In the left-hand figure the lacteals, a,b,c, are filled with white injection; d, blood-vessels. In the right-hand figure the lacteals alone are represented, filled with a dark injection. The epithelium covering the villi, and their muscular fibers are omitted.

Small Intestine Villi

Villi of the small intestine, magnified about 80 diameters. In the left-hand figure the lacteals, a,b,c,…

"<em>A, B,</em> glands seen in vertical section with their orifices at <em>C</em> opening upon the membrane between the villi; <em>D</em>, villus." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Glands and villi of the small intestine

"A, B, glands seen in vertical section with their orifices at C opening upon the membrane…

"Piece of small intestine cut open to show wrinkling of inner coat bearing villi." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Piece of small intestine

"Piece of small intestine cut open to show wrinkling of inner coat bearing villi." —Davison, 1910

"In the figure on the left are seen the artery and vein of a villus. In the right figure are represented the central lacteal of the villus, with the plexus of lymph vessels at the base. The mucous, submucuous, muscular, and serous coats are indicated at the base of the right-hand figure.  The epithelium of each villus is well shown." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Transverse section of the small intestine

"In the figure on the left are seen the artery and vein of a villus. In the right figure are represented…

"Anatomy of the Snail: a, the mouth; bb, foot; c, anus; dd, lung; e, stomach, covered above by the salivary glands; ff, intestine; g, liver; h, heart; i, aorta; j, gastric artery; l, hepatic artery; k, artery of the foot; mm, abdominal cavity, supplying the place of a cenous sinus; nn, irregular canal in communication with the abdominal cavaty, and carrying the blood to the lung; oo, vessel carrying the blood from the lung to the heart." &mdash; Chambers, 1881

Snail Anatomy

"Anatomy of the Snail: a, the mouth; bb, foot; c, anus; dd, lung; e, stomach, covered above by the salivary…

The stomach and intestines. Labels: 1, stomach; 2, duodenum; 3, small intestine; 4, termination of the ileum; 5, caecum; 6, vermiform appendix; 7, ascending colon; 8, transverse colon; 9, descending colon; 10, sigmoid flexure of the colon; 11, rectum; 12, spleen.

The Stomach and Intestines

The stomach and intestines. Labels: 1, stomach; 2, duodenum; 3, small intestine; 4, termination of the…