"The illustration gives conventions for a number of different materials. Those in the first line are accepted by practically all who use conventional cross—hatching... Those given are part of the codes of government standards of the Bureau of Steam Engineering and the Bureau of Construction U.S.N." —French, 1911

Mechanical Drawing Cross Hatching of Material Symbols

"The illustration gives conventions for a number of different materials. Those in the first line are…

Castings can be measured by laying a straight edge on top to measure the dimensions of the casting.

Measuring Castings using Straight Edge

Castings can be measured by laying a straight edge on top to measure the dimensions of the casting.

This is a mechanical drawing depict the top view of a lawn mower.

Machine, Mowing

This is a mechanical drawing depict the top view of a lawn mower.

A problem exercise creating a stretched out or developed image of the octagonal light shade by using the hexagonal pyramid development method.

Development Exercise of Octagonal Light Shade

A problem exercise creating a stretched out or developed image of the octagonal light shade by using…

Problem exercise in drawing a development or a stretchout image of the octagonal roof and finding the true shape of hip rafter by using projections or dividers.

Development Exercise of Octagonal Roof and True Shape of Rafter

Problem exercise in drawing a development or a stretchout image of the octagonal roof and finding the…

A problem exercise to construct a star overlapping square using a triangle and T square. The image is drawn by dividing the paper with dashed lines using T square. Using the 45 degree triangle, draw diagonal lines to create the star and the star.

Constructing 4 Point Star Overlapping Box Pattern using T Square and Triangle

A problem exercise to construct a star overlapping square using a triangle and T square. The image is…

The construction of a star with square overlapping each other using a triangle and T square. This image is drawn by dividing the paper with dashed lines using T square. Using the 45 degree triangle, draw diagonal lines to create the star and the star.

Constructing Star and Box Overlap Pattern using T Square and Triangle

The construction of a star with square overlapping each other using a triangle and T square. This image…

A diagonal line pattern drawing exercise in for T square and triangle. The image is constructed by dividing the paper into squares with the T square, and the diagonal lines are drawn using a 45 degree triangle.

Drawing Exercise for Drawing Diagonal Line Pattern using T Square and Triangle

A diagonal line pattern drawing exercise in for T square and triangle. The image is constructed by dividing…

"Holding the pencil in a plane perpendicular to the line of sight, marking with the thumb the length of pencil which covers a line of the model rotating the arm, with the thumb held in position, until the pencil coincides with another line, and estimating the proportion of this measurement to the second line." —French, 1911

Estimating Lines using Pencil

"Holding the pencil in a plane perpendicular to the line of sight, marking with the thumb the length…

An illustration of perspective drawing using a picture plane to create a vanishing points of the image.

Perspective Outline of Object

An illustration of perspective drawing using a picture plane to create a vanishing points of the image.

A series of illustration of the image showing the different perspectives showing vanishing points and picture plane.

Angular Perspective

A series of illustration of the image showing the different perspectives showing vanishing points and…

"An object in parallel perspective with one face in the picture plane is shown. At B is shown the top view of A with the cone of rays. C shows the picture plane detached and set forward in order that it may not interfere with the plan when revolved. D is the top view of C after the picture plane has been revolved." —French, 1911

Parallel Perspective

"An object in parallel perspective with one face in the picture plane is shown. At B is shown the top…

A shortcut drawing pipe or tubing conventional break to draw a pipes and tubes by shortening the length of the bar without the diameter cut.

Conventional Breaks Symbols of Pipe or Tubing without Cutting Diameter

A shortcut drawing pipe or tubing conventional break to draw a pipes and tubes by shortening the length…

This printing press used a rotating roller to apply ink on the chosen surface.

Printing Press

This printing press used a rotating roller to apply ink on the chosen surface.

This is a printing press attachment that is used to facilitate the process of feeding paper into a printing press.

Feeder, Printing Press

This is a printing press attachment that is used to facilitate the process of feeding paper into a printing…

An exercise developed to draw a rolled out or development of the pentagon prism in a 4" by 5" surface.

Pentagon Development Prism Exercise

An exercise developed to draw a rolled out or development of the pentagon prism in a 4" by 5" surface.

An exercise in drawing a pentagonal prism development or rolled out image in a 4" by 5" area.

Pentagonal Prism Development Exercise

An exercise in drawing a pentagonal prism development or rolled out image in a 4" by 5" area.

An illustration to exercise a stretched out, or development, image of the triangular prism using 4" by 5 " surface.

Triangular Prism Development Exercise

An illustration to exercise a stretched out, or development, image of the triangular prism using 4"…

An illustration to draw triangle prism's development, or stretched out surfaces, in a 4" by 5" surface.

Triangle Prism Exercise

An illustration to draw triangle prism's development, or stretched out surfaces, in a 4" by 5" surface.

A sample exercise problem in completing the top part of the hexagonal pyramid and to create a development, or stretched out, of the image by creating edges at equal lengths, and revolving the sides.

Development Exercise of Hexagonal Pyramid

A sample exercise problem in completing the top part of the hexagonal pyramid and to create a development,…

A sample exercise problem to complete the top part and create a stretched out image of the oblique hexagonal pyramid. The stretched out image is created by drawing an arc with the perimeter of the base stepped off to create an intersection point.

Development Exercise of Oblique Hexagonal Pyramid

A sample exercise problem to complete the top part and create a stretched out image of the oblique hexagonal…

A pentagonal pyramid problem exercise to complete the top view of the image, and development, or rolled out image, of the pyramid.

Development Exercise of Pentagonal Pyramid

A pentagonal pyramid problem exercise to complete the top view of the image, and development, or rolled…

The problem exercise in completing the top view and creating the development, or rolled out, image of the pentagonal pyramid.

Development Exercise of Pentagonal Pyramid

The problem exercise in completing the top view and creating the development, or rolled out, image of…

"A series of planes as S—S are passed perpendicular to the axis of revolution, cutting out the circles shown on the end view. The points at which these circles cut the 'flat' are projected back as points on the curve." —French, 1911

Intersection of Surface of Revolution and Plane

"A series of planes as S—S are passed perpendicular to the axis of revolution, cutting out the…

A large scale riveting illustration showing the length of the rivets for Osborn symbol for riveting.

Large View of Riveting for Drawing

A large scale riveting illustration showing the length of the rivets for Osborn symbol for riveting.

A side view of Osborn, or standard, symbol for riveting.

Side View of Standard Symbols for Shop Riveting

A side view of Osborn, or standard, symbol for riveting.

The standard standard symbol for field riveting, or Osborn symbol for field riveting.

Side View of Standard Symbols for Field Riveting

The standard standard symbol for field riveting, or Osborn symbol for field riveting.

A conventional standard symbol for shop riveting known as Osborn symbol.

Standard Symbols for Shop Riveting

A conventional standard symbol for shop riveting known as Osborn symbol.

A conventional break symbol for a round section to use as a shortcut in shortening the length of the bar.

Conventional Breaks Symbols of Round Section Cylinder

A conventional break symbol for a round section to use as a shortcut in shortening the length of the…

This drawing depicts the use of a sail where perpendicularly placed so that opposing wind provides the necessary thrust to move the vessel.

Lift Sail

This drawing depicts the use of a sail where perpendicularly placed so that opposing wind provides the…

An illustration of the V thread screw. The screw is drawn by connecting the two opposite points of the thread to create the required pitch.

Conventional V Thread Screw

An illustration of the V thread screw. The screw is drawn by connecting the two opposite points of the…

A double thread screw drawn by drawing diagonal lines in between the pitch. The double thread screw is a screw with threads bunched together between the pitch.

Double Thread Screw

A double thread screw drawn by drawing diagonal lines in between the pitch. The double thread screw…

Illustration of a common representation for square thread screw. The screw is drawn in two dimensions and used in drafting plans and mechanical drawing.

Square Thread Screw Mechanical Drawing Representation

Illustration of a common representation for square thread screw. The screw is drawn in two dimensions…

A close up of a square thread on a screw. This representation shows the correct an accurate three dimensional view of the screw.

Square Thread Screw

A close up of a square thread on a screw. This representation shows the correct an accurate three dimensional…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying Aluminum. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Aluminum

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying Aluminum. Using conventionalized patterns to identify…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying brick. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Brick

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying brick. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying cast iron. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Cast Iron

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying cast iron. Using conventionalized patterns to identify…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying cast steel. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Cast Steel

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying cast steel. Using conventionalized patterns to identify…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying composition materials. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Composition

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying composition materials. Using conventionalized patterns…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying concrete. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Concrete

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying concrete. Using conventionalized patterns to identify…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying concrete blocks. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Concrete Blocks

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying concrete blocks. Using conventionalized patterns to identify…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying copper. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Copper

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying copper. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying fire brick. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Fire Brick

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying fire brick. Using conventionalized patterns to identify…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying insulating material. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Insulating Material

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying insulating material. Using conventionalized patterns to…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying malleable iron. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Malleable Iron

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying malleable iron. Using conventionalized patterns to identify…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying water. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Water

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying water. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying wood. The left side of the illustration shows an endgrain pattern; the right side shows the figure of the wood. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Wood

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying wood. The left side of the illustration shows an endgrain…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying wrought iron. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Wrought Iron

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying wrought iron. Using conventionalized patterns to identify…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying wrought steel. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Wrought Steel

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying wrought steel. Using conventionalized patterns to identify…

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying zinc. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials is called section lining.

Zinc

Mechanical drawing convention for identifying zinc. Using conventionalized patterns to identify materials…

This seeding machine was used to facilitate the process of planting seeds into the soil.

Machine, Seeding

This seeding machine was used to facilitate the process of planting seeds into the soil.

"A conical surface may be shaded by driving a fine needle at the apex and swinging a triangle about it, as in (A). To avoid a blot at the apex of a complete cone the needle may be driven on the extension of the side as in (B), or it may be shaded by parallel line as in (C)." —French, 1911

Different Cone Shading

"A conical surface may be shaded by driving a fine needle at the apex and swinging a triangle about…

An application of shading double curved surface of a lever.

Lever Shading

An application of shading double curved surface of a lever.

Line shading of a pipe using double curved surface technique.

Piper Shading

Line shading of a pipe using double curved surface technique.

An application of shading using double curved surfaces of a screw in the socket.

Screw Shading

An application of shading using double curved surfaces of a screw in the socket.

A line shading for spheres by guessing how the surface would look when shaded.

Sphere Shading

A line shading for spheres by guessing how the surface would look when shaded.

A thumb screw shading illustrating a double curved surface line shading technique.

Thumb Screw Shading

A thumb screw shading illustrating a double curved surface line shading technique.

Shading wheel using lines by estimating how the light hit the surface.

Wheel Shading

Shading wheel using lines by estimating how the light hit the surface.

An illustration of an isometric sketch to show a three dimensional object. The sketch is useful in elevation drawing, plans, and laying out curve diagrams.

Isometric Sketch

An illustration of an isometric sketch to show a three dimensional object. The sketch is useful in elevation…

A series of illustration with conventional breaks and other symbols. The break in the bar is used as a shortcut in shortening the length of the bar.

Conventional Breaks and Other Symbols

A series of illustration with conventional breaks and other symbols. The break in the bar is used as…