"This was invented in 1865 by H. Sprengel. The instrument, in its original (simplest) form, consists of a vertical capillary glass tube a of about 1 mm. bore, provided with a lateral branch b near its upper end, which latter, by an india-rubber join governable by a screw-clamp, communicates with a funnel. The lower end is bent into the shape of a hook, and dips into a pneumatic trough. The vessel to be exhausted is attached to b, and, in order to extract its gas contents, a properly regulated stream of mercury is allowed to fall through the vertical tube." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Air-Pump

"This was invented in 1865 by H. Sprengel. The instrument, in its original (simplest) form, consists…

"Heathen Deities: Apollo"-Willson, 1859.

Apollo

"Heathen Deities: Apollo"-Willson, 1859.

An apparatus used by Lavoisier to heat mercury (Hg) so that mercury oxide (HgO) could be obtained.

Lavoisier's Apparatus

An apparatus used by Lavoisier to heat mercury (Hg) so that mercury oxide (HgO) could be obtained.

"A current is caused to pass from the mercury through C along the radius of the disc A through the field of magnetic force due to the horse-shoe magnet NO. The result is that the wheel rotates in the direction indicated by the arrow." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Barlow Apparatus

"A current is caused to pass from the mercury through C along the radius of the disc A through the field…

The simplest form of the weather barometer made with mercury.

Barometer

The simplest form of the weather barometer made with mercury.

"A Torricellian tube, firmly fixed to an upright support and properly graduated, constitutes a mercurial barometer. The zero of the scale is at the surface of the mercury in the cistern." — Avery, 1895

Barometer

"A Torricellian tube, firmly fixed to an upright support and properly graduated, constitutes a mercurial…

"A glass tube about 33 inches in length, open at one end, is completely filled with mercury, and being firmly closed by the thumb, is inverted and placed vertically in a cup containing mercury. When the thumb is removed, the mercury sinks in the tube till it stands, generally, about 30 inches above the level of the mercury in the cup, leaving in the upper part a space free of air, which receiveds the name of the Torricellian vacuum." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Barometer

"A glass tube about 33 inches in length, open at one end, is completely filled with mercury, and being…

"A cistern barometer, being that generally seen in weather-glasses or ordinary barometers. The tube is bent at the bottom, and the cistern is merely an expansion of the lower end. Very generally, the cistern is hidden from view, and protected from injury by a wooden cover in front." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Barometer

"A cistern barometer, being that generally seen in weather-glasses or ordinary barometers. The tube…

"...being merely a tube of glass, nearly filled with mercury, with its lower end placed in a dish of the same fluid, and the upper end furnished with a scale, to measure the height of the mercury." -Comstock 1850

Barometer

"...being merely a tube of glass, nearly filled with mercury, with its lower end placed in a dish of…

"Measures atmospheric pressure. Pressure from the atmosphere compresses the mercury in the tray forcing the mercury accordingly into the graduated tube." —Quackenbos 1859

Barometer

"Measures atmospheric pressure. Pressure from the atmosphere compresses the mercury in the tray forcing…

"Mercury enclosed in a tube inverted and inserted into a bath of mercury can serve as a measurement of the atmospheric pressure, as the height of the mercury in the tube must directly correspond to the weight of the air pressing down on the bath of mercury underneath it." —Hallock 1905

Mercury Barometer

"Mercury enclosed in a tube inverted and inserted into a bath of mercury can serve as a measurement…

"The degree to which the air has been exhausted from a closed vessel in which there is a partial vacuum is measured by the height to which a mercurial column in a vertical tube, whose top is connected to the vessel, will rise under the pressure of the atmosphere." —Hallock 1905

Barometer Measuring Pressure of a Partially Evacuated Vessel

"The degree to which the air has been exhausted from a closed vessel in which there is a partial vacuum…

Capillarity. On the left, water is higher in the smaller tubes due to adhesion. On the right, mercury has the opposite effect because of its cohesive properties.

Capillarity

Capillarity. On the left, water is higher in the smaller tubes due to adhesion. On the right, mercury…

"b is a glass tube in water and c is a glass tube in mercury. The surface of the water in the tube b is concave, while the surface of the mercury in the tube c is convex." — Hallock, 1905

Capillary Attraction

"b is a glass tube in water and c is a glass tube in mercury. The surface of the water in the tube b…

"Heathen Deities: Ceres"-Willson, 1859.

Ceres

"Heathen Deities: Ceres"-Willson, 1859.

A coin of Hostilianus, with a figure standing with a blunt spear in his right hand and a human head in his left. The caduceus behind him, as well as his character, denotes him as Mercury.

Coin of Hostilianus

A coin of Hostilianus, with a figure standing with a blunt spear in his right hand and a human head…

"The compressed air manometer consists of a strong graduated glass tube of uniform narrow bore, closed at the top and fixed hermetically into the neck of a wide iron cylinder. The tube contains dry air, and its lower end dips below the surface of mercury contained in the cylinder. Attached to the side of the cylinder is a tube A, with a stop-cock, to afford communication with the vessel the pressure in which is to be measured. When the manometer is attached to the vessel containing compressed gas the mercury rises in the glass tube till the pressure of the air confined in the tube plus the height of the mercury column above the level of the mercury in the cylinder is equal to the pressure on the surface of mercury in the cylinder." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Compressed Air Manometer

"The compressed air manometer consists of a strong graduated glass tube of uniform narrow bore, closed…

"Take the zinc from the tumbler of acid and, while it is yet wet, rub thereon a few drops of mercury...replace the zinc in the acid, and notice that no bubbles are given off. Place a copper strip in the solution...bring the strips together at their upper ends as shown. Connect the metals and observe the result." -Avery 1895

Current Electricity

"Take the zinc from the tumbler of acid and, while it is yet wet, rub thereon a few drops of mercury...replace…

"Heathen Deities: Diana"-Willson, 1859.

Diana

"Heathen Deities: Diana"-Willson, 1859.

"ABC is a horizontal coil of wire terminating at the binding screws a, b. FG is a ring-shaped trough of mercury for the sliding contacts. A wire connects the mercury with the binding screw d. DE is an upright support screwed into a metal base D in connection with the binding screw c, and terminating above in a mercury cup E. When required, DE can be replaced by the shorter supports D'E' and D"E". HLK is a support for a screw L, which carries an adjustible center." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Electric Apparatus

"ABC is a horizontal coil of wire terminating at the binding screws a, b. FG is a ring-shaped trough…

F, fixed coil; D, movable coil; S, spiral spring; T, Torsion head; MM, Mercury cups; I, Index needle.

Siemens Electrodynamometer

F, fixed coil; D, movable coil; S, spiral spring; T, Torsion head; MM, Mercury cups; I, Index needle.

"The elliptical circle being supposed to be the Earth's orbit, with the Sun, S, in one of the foci. Now the spaces, 1, 2, 3, etc., though of different shapes, are of the same dimensions, or contain the same quantity of surface. The Earth, we have already seen, in its journey round the Sun, describes an ellipse, and moves more rapidly in one part of its orbit than in another. But whatever may be its actual velocity, its comparative motion is through equal areas in equal times. Thus its center passes from E to C, and from C to A, in the same period of time, and so of all the other divisions marked in the figure." —Comstock, 1850

Elliptical Orbit

"The elliptical circle being supposed to be the Earth's orbit, with the Sun, S, in one of the foci.…

"This apparatus shows the rotation at once of a magnet and of a movable conductor. The rotating pieces are the magnet sn, which is tied to the copper peg at the bottom of G by means of a piece of string, and swims round the vertical current buoyed up by the mercury in G, and the wire DE, which is hinged to D by a thin flexible wire, and swims round the pole of the vertical magnet n's'." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Faraday Apparatus

"This apparatus shows the rotation at once of a magnet and of a movable conductor. The rotating pieces…

"Flying Mercury" — Gayley, 1893

Flying Mercury

"Flying Mercury" — Gayley, 1893

"Pass the tube of an air thermometer or of an inverted mercury thermometer through a cork in the neck of a funnel. Cover the thermometer bulb to the depth of about half an inch with water. Upon the water, pour a little sulphuric ether and ignite it. The thermometer below will scarcely be affected, although the water above may be boiling. Stir the water and note the prompt movement of the thermometer index..." -Avery 1895

Funnel with Inverted Mercury Thermometer

"Pass the tube of an air thermometer or of an inverted mercury thermometer through a cork in the neck…

A hand holding up a tube from a larger, mercury-filled tube.

Hand and barometer

A hand holding up a tube from a larger, mercury-filled tube.

Messenger of the gods

Hermes

Messenger of the gods

Statue of Hermes (Mercury).

Hermes

Statue of Hermes (Mercury).

"Hermes Psychopompos" — Gayley, 1893

Hermes

"Hermes Psychopompos" — Gayley, 1893

"As generally made, a hydrometer of constant weight consists of a glass tube near the bottom of which are two bulbs. The lower and smaller bulb is loaded with mercury or shot. The tube and upper bulb contain air. The point to which it sinks when placed in water is marked zero. The tube is graduated, the scale being arbitrary, and varying with the purpose for which the instrument is intended." — Avery, 1895

Hydrometer of constant weight

"As generally made, a hydrometer of constant weight consists of a glass tube near the bottom of which…

"Io, Argus, and Mercury" — Gayley, 1893

Io Argus

"Io, Argus, and Mercury" — Gayley, 1893

"Heathen Deities: Juno"-Willson, 1859.

Juno

"Heathen Deities: Juno"-Willson, 1859.

"Heathen Deities: Jupiter"-Willson, 1859.

Jupiter

"Heathen Deities: Jupiter"-Willson, 1859.

"Alternating current self starting Cooper-Hewit mercury-vapor lamp." —Croft 1917

Cooper-Hewit Mercury Vapor Lamp

"Alternating current self starting Cooper-Hewit mercury-vapor lamp." —Croft 1917

"Direct current self starting Cooper-Hewit mercury-vapor lamp." —Croft 1917

Cooper-Hewit Mercury Vapor Lamp

"Direct current self starting Cooper-Hewit mercury-vapor lamp." —Croft 1917

"Mercury manometer for recording blood-pressure. d g, glass U-tube partly filled with mercury. In one limb is borne a float, e, bearing a recording device f; the other limb is filled with a suitable liquid and connected water-tight with the heart end of a divided artery b, by means of glass connection a. Changes in the mercury level indicated changes of arterial pressure." —Martin, 1917

Manometer

"Mercury manometer for recording blood-pressure. d g, glass U-tube partly filled with mercury. In one…

"Heathen Deities: Mars"-Willson, 1859.

Mars

"Heathen Deities: Mars"-Willson, 1859.

"Mercury." —Bulfinch, 1897

Mercury

"Mercury." —Bulfinch, 1897

"Heathen Deities: Mercury"-Willson, 1859.

Mercury

"Heathen Deities: Mercury"-Willson, 1859.

"Mercury made haste, put his winged slippers on his feet, and cap on his head, took his sleep-producing want, and leaped down from the heavenly towers to the earth." —Bulfinch, 1897

Mercury (Hermes)

"Mercury made haste, put his winged slippers on his feet, and cap on his head, took his sleep-producing…

Illustration of a tube inverted over mercury, with the mercury rising inside the test tube 114 millimeters above the level of the mercury in the beaker.

Mecury Barometer

Illustration of a tube inverted over mercury, with the mercury rising inside the test tube 114 millimeters…

"Mercury carrying a Ram. By Calamis. At Wilton House." —D'Anvers, 1895

Mercury carrying a Ram

"Mercury carrying a Ram. By Calamis. At Wilton House." —D'Anvers, 1895

This illustration shows the proportions of volume in which hydrogen and oxygen combine by introducing the two gases into a tube, filled with mercury and inverted within a cylinder of mercury.

Mercury Tube

This illustration shows the proportions of volume in which hydrogen and oxygen combine by introducing…

"Mercury, with his caduceus, summons the souls of the departed from Orcus, or the low world, as in the case of Protesilaus, for example, who obtained permission from Pluto and Proserpina to visit for a short period the regions of light." — Anthon, 1891

Mercury with caduceus

"Mercury, with his caduceus, summons the souls of the departed from Orcus, or the low world, as in the…

"Heathen Deities: Minerva"-Willson, 1859.

Minerva

"Heathen Deities: Minerva"-Willson, 1859.

"Heathen Deities: Neptune"-Willson, 1859.

Neptune

"Heathen Deities: Neptune"-Willson, 1859.

"The orbits of Mars, Earth, Venus, and Mercury." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Orbits

"The orbits of Mars, Earth, Venus, and Mercury." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Mercury, water, and oil are poured into a glass jar. The mercury goes to the bottom, the oil floats at the top, the surfaces of contact are seen to be horizontal.

Phial of the Four Elements

Mercury, water, and oil are poured into a glass jar. The mercury goes to the bottom, the oil floats…

"Relative distance of the Planets. Having now given a short account of each planet composing the solar system, the relative situation of their several orbits, with the exception of those of the Asteroids, are shown in this figure. The orbits are marked by the signs of each planet, of which the first, or that nearest the Sun, is Mercury, the next Venus, the third the Earth, the fourth Mars then come those of the Asteroids, then Jupiter, then Saturn and lastly Herschel." —Comstock, 1850

Planet Distance

"Relative distance of the Planets. Having now given a short account of each planet composing the solar…

"Circular Motion of the Planets." —Comstock, 1850

Planet Motion

"Circular Motion of the Planets." —Comstock, 1850

"Elliptical Orbits.—It has been supposed that the Sun's attraction, which constitutes the Earth's gravity, was at all times equal, or that the Earth was at an equal distance from the Sun, in all parts of its orbit." —Comstock, 1850

Planet Motion

"Elliptical Orbits.—It has been supposed that the Sun's attraction, which constitutes the Earth's…

"The comparative dimensions of the planets." —Comstock, 1850

Planet Sizes

"The comparative dimensions of the planets." —Comstock, 1850

"Heathen Deities: Pluto"-Willson, 1859.

Pluto

"Heathen Deities: Pluto"-Willson, 1859.

"Mercury was sent, accompanied by Spring, to demand Persephone of Pluto. The wily monarch consented, but, alas! the maiden had taken a pomegranate which Pluto offered her, and had sucked the sweet pulp from a few of the seeds. This was enough to prevent her complete release, by which she was to pass half the time with her mother, and the rest with her husband Pluto." —Bulfinch, 1897

Pluto, Persephone, and Mercury

"Mercury was sent, accompanied by Spring, to demand Persephone of Pluto. The wily monarch consented,…

Scene from the story, "The Poplar Tree."

Poplar Tree

Scene from the story, "The Poplar Tree."

"After pouring mercury into the U-tube, the level of mercury is marked by a. c and e refer to the positions of the mercury after water has been added so that the water fills one side of the U-tube." -Avery 1895

Effects of Water on Mercury in a U-tube

"After pouring mercury into the U-tube, the level of mercury is marked by a. c and e refer to the positions…

Winged sandals.

Winged sandals

Winged sandals.

"A variation of the telegraph sounder that uses a pool of mercury to close the circuit to produce the sound when a click is received." -Avery 1895

Telegraph Sounder

"A variation of the telegraph sounder that uses a pool of mercury to close the circuit to produce the…

This experiment showed that every surface exposed to the atmosphere sustains a normal pressure equal to the weight of a column of mercury whose base is this surface and whose height is 30 inches.

Torricellian Experiment

This experiment showed that every surface exposed to the atmosphere sustains a normal pressure equal…

"Heathen Deities: Vesta"-Willson, 1859.

Vesta

"Heathen Deities: Vesta"-Willson, 1859.