"Diagram showing an amoeba in successive stages of division." — Blaisedell, 1904

Amoeba

"Diagram showing an amoeba in successive stages of division." — Blaisedell, 1904

"Fig. 1, Monads; 2, Forms assumed by the Ameoba; 3, Flask Animalcules, Enchelis; 4, Actinophrys sol; 5, Euglena viridis ; 6, Gonium pectorale; 7, Trachelias anas ; 8, Paramecium aurelia ; 9, Navicula; 10, Vibrie Spirillum; 11, Vorticella Stentor" — Goodrich, 1859

Forms of the animalcules, magnified

"Fig. 1, Monads; 2, Forms assumed by the Ameoba; 3, Flask Animalcules, Enchelis; 4, Actinophrys sol;…

An apparatus used to photograph images in a light microscope. The long camera is connected to the eye piece while the microscope uses a mirror to light the specimen. The image is captured on the photographic plate.

Micrographic Apparatus with Camera and Microscope

An apparatus used to photograph images in a light microscope. The long camera is connected to the eye…

"Bacilli, or Rod-Shaped Bacteria. From a culture obtained in antharax, or malignant pustule, of the face. Diseased hides carry this micro-organism and thus may occaision this fatal disease among those who handle hides and wool." — Blaisedell, 1904

Bacilli

"Bacilli, or Rod-Shaped Bacteria. From a culture obtained in antharax, or malignant pustule, of the…

The point of the finest cambric needle, with a particle of dust (above) and bacteria (below) for scale.

bacteria and cambric needle

The point of the finest cambric needle, with a particle of dust (above) and bacteria (below) for scale.

"Different Kinds of Milk Bacteria. It is not uncommon for a large number of person to be poisoned from eating ice cream at some public gathering. This is caused by a change in the milk brought about by the presence of bacteria. The poisonous product of their action called "tyrotoxicon", may also be found in other foods which have milk as their basis, such as cheese, custard, and so on. There are vomiting and purging within a few hours after eating the food, succeeded by a great nervous prostration, from which recovery follows slowly." — Blaisedell, 1904

Milk bacteria

"Different Kinds of Milk Bacteria. It is not uncommon for a large number of person to be poisoned from…

Binocular telescopes, or binoculars (also known as field glasses), are two identical or mirror-symmetrical telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point accurately in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.

Binocular Telescope

Binocular telescopes, or binoculars (also known as field glasses), are two identical or mirror-symmetrical…

Boulanger succeeded in producing a binocular of an entirely new type in 1859.

Binoculars

Boulanger succeeded in producing a binocular of an entirely new type in 1859.

The model of binoculars invented by E. Abbe.

Binoculars

The model of binoculars invented by E. Abbe.

"Canna Starch." -Bergen, 1896

Canna Starch

"Canna Starch." -Bergen, 1896

"In a general what we may describe a cell as a tiny mass of jelly in which floats another still smaller mass of slightly different composition, called the <em>nucleus</em> of the larger one."

Cell

"In a general what we may describe a cell as a tiny mass of jelly in which floats another still smaller…

"A, columnar cells found lining various parts of the intestines (called <em>columnar epthelium</em>); B, cells of a fusiform or spindle shape found in the loose tissue under the skin and in other parts (called <em>connective-tissue cells</em>); C, cell having many processes or projections - such are found in some kinds of connective tissue; D, primitive cells composed of protoplasm with nucleus, and having no cell wall." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Various forms of cells

"A, columnar cells found lining various parts of the intestines (called columnar epthelium);…

Thin sections of chalk, as they appear under the microscope.

Chalk

Thin sections of chalk, as they appear under the microscope.

Thin sections of chalk as seen under the microscope.

Sections of Chalk

Thin sections of chalk as seen under the microscope.

"Spiral Form of the Bacteria found in Cholera." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Cholera

"Spiral Form of the Bacteria found in Cholera." — Blaisedell, 1904

"Nachet's Combined Simple and Compound Microscope." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Compound Microscope

"Nachet's Combined Simple and Compound Microscope." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

"Ross's Jackson-Zentmayer Compound Microscope." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Compound Microscope

"Ross's Jackson-Zentmayer Compound Microscope." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

"A Piece of Hair from the Scalp infested with a Mold which produces Ringworm. Ringworm may occur anywhere on the body, but is perhaps most common on the scalp and face." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Hair with ringworm

"A Piece of Hair from the Scalp infested with a Mold which produces Ringworm. Ringworm may occur anywhere…

"Longitudinal section of a Hydra; <em>b</em>, bud which will form a young one; <em>ba</em>, base by which it is attached when not creeping." &mdash; Davison, 1906

Section of a hydra

"Longitudinal section of a Hydra; b, bud which will form a young one; ba, base by…

"The branch vascular bundles will be distinctly seen, resembling in some respects the arteries and veins of the human body. A careful examination will show that these are also covered with a very fine lace-work of cells under and over them, and interspersed among the latter will be seen a vast assemblage of translucent dottings, each having an opening across it corresponding to those of the stomates under which they were situated before dissection." -Watts, 1874

Microscopic view of a leaf

"The branch vascular bundles will be distinctly seen, resembling in some respects the arteries and veins…

"They have also a shorter focus for red, and a longer one for blue, and thus magnify the red image more than the blue; and as the objective gives a large blue and small red image, the two cancel one another and a colourless image is produced." &mdash;Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Huyegenian Eyepiece Diagram Showing Lens Refraction

"They have also a shorter focus for red, and a longer one for blue, and thus magnify the red image more…

"If the real image produced by the objective coincides with the collective lens, only the inclination of the principal rays is altered. The lens nearer to the eye is distant from it about its focal length. The eye&mdash;lens converts diverging pencils into parallels. Both lenses together form the exit pupil of the objective behind the eye&mdash;lens." &mdash;Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Ramsden Eyepiece Lens Refraction Diagram

"If the real image produced by the objective coincides with the collective lens, only the inclination…

"The circles for position angle and declination are read by micrometer microscopes illuminated by the lamp L; the scales are illuminated by the lamp l. T is part of the tube proper and turns with the head. The tube V, on the contrary, is attached to the cradle, and merely forms a support for the finder Q, the handles at f and p, and the moving ring P. The latter gives quick motion in position angle; the handles a p clamp and give slow motion in position angle, those at f clamp and give slow motion in right ascension and declination." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Micrometer

"The circles for position angle and declination are read by micrometer microscopes illuminated by the…

"A microscope consists of a lens or a combination of lenses used to observe small objects, often so minute as to be invisible to the unaided eye." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Microscope

"A microscope consists of a lens or a combination of lenses used to observe small objects, often so…

A microscope used to see very small things.

Microscope

A microscope used to see very small things.

An optical instrument designed to eamine minute objects or parts of objects, and which so magnifies otherwise invisible or indistinct details that their structure or texture may be seen clearly.

Microscope

An optical instrument designed to eamine minute objects or parts of objects, and which so magnifies…

"For a laboratory microscope, the pattern represented here has been found very convienient, &mdash;the framework being of mahogany or other hard wood, the stage being large enough to admit a dissection or carry a water-trough of considerable size, and the bent armthat carries the "powers" being made capable of reversion, so as to permit the use of lenses of very long as well as of very short focus." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Microscope

"For a laboratory microscope, the pattern represented here has been found very convienient, —the…

A man looking into a microscope.

Microscope

A man looking into a microscope.

A Baker demonstration light microscope illustrating the different parts of the microscope. The eyepiece is adjusted at knob F. The mirror J reflects light from a light source to shine light through the sample.

Baker Demonstration Light Microscope with Mirror Reflecting Light Source

A Baker demonstration light microscope illustrating the different parts of the microscope. The eyepiece…

An illustration of a binocular microscope.

Binocular Microscope

An illustration of a binocular microscope.

A swift Stephenson's Binocular Microscope with a mirror reflecting light source. The microscope has an adjustable slits to monitor how much light is coming through the sample. Two eyepieces focuses and magnify the sample by adjusting both lenses.

Swift Stephen's Binocular Microscope with Mirror Reflecting Light Source

A swift Stephenson's Binocular Microscope with a mirror reflecting light source. The microscope has…

"A Compound Microscope. The appearance of the various structures and tissues of the human body as revealed by the microscope possesses a curious fascination for every observer, especially for young students. No one ever forgets the first look at a drop of blood, or the circulation of blood in the web of a frog's foot as revealed by the microscope." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Compound microscope

"A Compound Microscope. The appearance of the various structures and tissues of the human body as revealed…

"This consists of two convex lenses, by one of which the image is formed within the tube of the instrument, and by the other this image is magnified as seen by the eye; so that by this instrument the object itself is not seen, as with the single microscope, bu we see only its magnified image." -Comstock 1850

Compound Microscope

"This consists of two convex lenses, by one of which the image is formed within the tube of the instrument,…

An illustration of entocentric transmission of a compound microscope. The series of light refracted by the lens causes a projection to make near objects appear larger, and farther objects smaller.

Entocentric Transmission in Compound Microscope Appear Images Larger or Smaller

An illustration of entocentric transmission of a compound microscope. The series of light refracted…

A Greenough's binocular light microscope. The microscope has two eyepieces to view the sample with both eyes. The mirror is used to provide a light source for the microscope by reflecting light.

Greenough's Binocular Light Compound Microscope with Mirror Reflecting Light Source

A Greenough's binocular light microscope. The microscope has two eyepieces to view the sample with both…

"The intersection of the principal rays lies in front of the object, and consequently objects in front of the plane focused for will be projected on E magnified and the objects lying behind it diminished ("hypercentric" transmission). It produces a perspective representation entirely opposed to ordinary vision." &mdash;Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Hypercentric Transmission in Microscopic Objective

"The intersection of the principal rays lies in front of the object, and consequently objects in front…

An illustration of a petrographical microscope. A petrographic microscope is a type of optical microscope used in petrology and optical mineralogy to identify rocks and minerals in thin sections. The microscope is used in optical mineralogy and petrography, a branch of petrology which focuses on detailed descriptions of rocks.

Petrographical Microscope

An illustration of a petrographical microscope. A petrographic microscope is a type of optical microscope…

A petrographic light microscope used to identify thin layered rocks and minerals. The microscope have two polarizer filter beneath the sample, with circular rotating stage.

Petrographical Light Microscope with Mirror and Eyepieces

A petrographic light microscope used to identify thin layered rocks and minerals. The microscope have…

"The image produced by a microscope formed of two positive systems is inverted, the objective L1 tracing from the object OO1 a real inverted image O'O'1, and the eyepiece L2L2 maintaining this arrangement." &mdash;Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Ray Transmission in Compound Microscope with a Positive Ocular

"The image produced by a microscope formed of two positive systems is inverted, the objective L1 tracing…

An illustration of a compound microscope that produces upright image using negative eyepiece. The image is focused onto a concave lens, instead of convex lens, to diverging light.

Ray Transmission in Compound Microscope with a Negative Eyepiece

An illustration of a compound microscope that produces upright image using negative eyepiece. The image…

"This consists of two lenses, one of which is called the condesner, because it is employed to concentrate the rays of the sun...The other is a double convex lens, of considerable magnifing power, by which the image is magnified." -Comstock 1850

Solar Microscope

"This consists of two lenses, one of which is called the condesner, because it is employed to concentrate…

A light reflection diagram of a light microscope using a mirror. The mirror is used in a microscope to provide light for the sample. The light source hits the mirror, then gets reflected onto the small condenser lens on the stage.

Microscope Mirror Illumination by Light Reflection

A light reflection diagram of a light microscope using a mirror. The mirror is used in a microscope…

Illustration showing Abbe illuminating apparatus with condenser. The mirror, m, reflects light from the light source to provide light for viewing the specimen. The reflected light is passed through the condenser then onto the specimen.

Abbe Microscope Mirror Illumination by Light Reflection with Condenser

Illustration showing Abbe illuminating apparatus with condenser. The mirror, m, reflects light from…

An adult yellow fever mosquito, magnified nine times.

Adult Yellow Fever Mosquito

An adult yellow fever mosquito, magnified nine times.

"This picture is based upon a photograph of a painting which has won great fame during recent years. The artist has represented Pasteur, the celebrated scientist, busily at work in his laboratory, recording the results of his microscopal study of bacteria. As the great master of modern science rests for a moment from his midnight researches, he appears to see in a vision the victims of pestilence, famine, and infectious diseases imploring relief from the good angel who symbolizes the wonderful victories won by Pasteur in combating disease." — Blaisedell, 1904

Louis Pasteur

"This picture is based upon a photograph of a painting which has won great fame during recent years.…

Perlite. Thin section under the microscope, enlarged 30 diameters.

Perlite

Perlite. Thin section under the microscope, enlarged 30 diameters.

An optical instrument, various forms of which have been contrived for exhibiting the polarization of light.

Polariscope

An optical instrument, various forms of which have been contrived for exhibiting the polarization of…

"Nachet's Portable Compound Microscope." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Portable Microscope

"Nachet's Portable Compound Microscope." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

"Nachet's Portable Compound and Dissecting Microscope, as packed in case." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Portable Microscope

"Nachet's Portable Compound and Dissecting Microscope, as packed in case." —The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"Their bodies consist either of aa simple elementary cell, with its contents, or of an aggregation of several of these cells; each, however, still appearing to retain its independent existence. They are generally of a very minute size, and only to be observed with the microscope." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Protozoans

"Their bodies consist either of aa simple elementary cell, with its contents, or of an aggregation of…

"Organisms found upon the Skin o a Grape and concerned in the Fermentation of Wine." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Fermentation of wine

"Organisms found upon the Skin o a Grape and concerned in the Fermentation of Wine." — Blaisedell,…

"Yeast Cells, found in the Juice of Apples, which cause the fermentation of Cider." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Yeast cells

"Yeast Cells, found in the Juice of Apples, which cause the fermentation of Cider." — Blaisedell,…