"The shield carried by a mounted man-at-arms in the middle ages; especially, the triangular shield of no great length carried during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and hung around the neck by the guige, so as to cover the left arm and left side." -Whitney, 1911

Écu

"The shield carried by a mounted man-at-arms in the middle ages; especially, the triangular shield of…

Sirs John de Creke and John of Eltham wearing armor during the fourteenth century. The illustration shows the extra armor worn by knights and noblemen underneath the surcoats.

Sirs John de Creke and John of Eltham Wearing Armor

Sirs John de Creke and John of Eltham wearing armor during the fourteenth century. The illustration…

The illustration shows two knights riding on horses. The knights and noblemen wore surcoats to hide the type of armor worn.

Knights and Noblemen on Horses Wearing Armor

The illustration shows two knights riding on horses. The knights and noblemen wore surcoats to hide…

An illustration of men at arms wearing iron body armor. The illustration shows armors varied by wealth of the soldiers.

Men at Arms Wearing Armor

An illustration of men at arms wearing iron body armor. The illustration shows armors varied by wealth…

"A battle-ax used by the Franks, of which the typical form is a head long in proportion to its width, and expanding toward a convex curved edge, the general direction of which forms a considerable angle with the handle." -Whitney, 1911

Francisca, Throwing Axe

"A battle-ax used by the Franks, of which the typical form is a head long in proportion to its width,…

"The Banqueting Hall at Haddon is a good type of the baronial halls in this century. The minstrels' gallery, at the end opposite the daïs, is usually a feature; under the passage called the Screens, leading from the outer to the inner courtyard and giving access to the kitchen, pantry, and gallery." —Bargield, 1914

Gothic Architecture Banquet Hall

"The Banqueting Hall at Haddon is a good type of the baronial halls in this century. The minstrels'…

"Death of Becket. During the early years of the reign Thomas A. Becket, as the king's chancellor, had shown great zeal in his cause, but, being appointed archbishop of Canterbury in 1162, he devoted himself wholly to the interests of the church and the exaltation of his office, and became the most dangerous of the king's foes. the main point at issue between them was the trial of members of the clergy who had been guilty of crime. The civil courts had lost all authority over clerical offenders, who were tried by the church tribunals. But the latter bodies could inflict only spiritual penalties, and serious offenses often went without adequate punishment. In the Constitutions of Clarendon (1164) it was decided that ecclasiastics accused of crime must first be summoned before the king's justices, who were to determine whether the offense came within the jurisdiction of a secular or a spiritual court. Becket reluctantly agreed to this, as well as to other provisions seriously affecting the authority of the church, but soon afterwards sent to the pope and asked forgiveness for what he had done. The king's party was powerful, and Becket took refuge in France, but a few years later, through the aid of the pope and French king, was reinstated. On his return to England he angered the king by excommunicating the bishops who had taken sides against him. Henry, in a moment of rage, spoke some hasty words, which were construed by his attendants as a wish for the murder of Becket. They broke into the cathedral where the latter had taken refuge and killed him at the altar (December, 1170). Becket was now regarded as a martyr and a patron saint, and the king was finally obliged to make his submission to the papal representative and declar on oath his innocence of all complicity in the murder. Thus the apparent outcome of the struggle was unfavorable to the king, but in reality Henry gained the main object for which he had been working. The church courts no longer enjoyed such complete authority over criminal members of the clergy."—Colby, 1899

Death of Becket

"Death of Becket. During the early years of the reign Thomas A. Becket, as the king's chancellor, had…

The Medieval bedstead of the 13th century was richly decorated with turned posts and carved sides. The front was often furnished with an opening to allow of getting into the bed.

Medieval Bedstead

The Medieval bedstead of the 13th century was richly decorated with turned posts and carved sides. The…

The Medieval bedstead of the 12th century was richly decorated with turned posts and carved sides. The front was often furnished with an opening to allow of getting into the bed.

Medieval Bedstead

The Medieval bedstead of the 12th century was richly decorated with turned posts and carved sides. The…

The Medieval bench was also called a Double-bench with a back in the middle, this back was moveable. It was used in front of the fireplace.

Medieval Bench

The Medieval bench was also called a Double-bench with a back in the middle, this back was moveable.…

The Middle Ages Bench was used not only as a seat but as a table as well called a "work-bench". It was intended for everyday use, therefore, it was backless and undecorated.

Middle Ages Bench

The Middle Ages Bench was used not only as a seat but as a table as well called a "work-bench". It was…

The Middle Ages Bench was used not only as a seat but as a table as well called a "work-bench". It was intended for everyday use, therefore, it was backless and undecorated.

Middle Ages Bench

The Middle Ages Bench was used not only as a seat but as a table as well called a "work-bench". It was…

The middle ages bench.

Middle Ages Bench

The middle ages bench.

A border ornamentation used in illuminated manuscripts during the fourteenth century.

Fourteenth Century Illumination Ornaments Border

A border ornamentation used in illuminated manuscripts during the fourteenth century.

"Canterbury Cathedral, which was a key place during the contest with King John. In the quarrel with John of England the issue was not a matter of personal morality, but of Church authority. There was a dispute about the election to the Archbishopric of Canterbury, the most important church office in England. The monks of Canterbury chose one candidate and the king another, and then both parties appealed to the pope. Innocent rejected both candidates and proposed one of his own, Stephen Langton, a man in every way suitable for the office. John refused to submit, and the pope used against him the same means that had been employed to coerce Philip Augustus. He laid England under an interdict, and, though its effect was not so immediate as in France, it finally brought John to terms. Not only was John obliged to accept the pope's candidate, but he went so far as to surrender the kingdom of England to the pope and receive it back as the pope's vassal, paying in token of vassalage a sum of money each year."—Colby, 1899

Canterbury Cathedral

"Canterbury Cathedral, which was a key place during the contest with King John. In the quarrel with…

A ceremony of homage to the king in medieval times.

Ceremony of Homage

A ceremony of homage to the king in medieval times.

A section of an arch with sunk chamfer commonly found in Gothic architecture during the fourteenth century. A chamfer is a hollowed out area of the arch to create an ornamental design.

Gothic Architecture Arch Moulding Sunk Chamfer

A section of an arch with sunk chamfer commonly found in Gothic architecture during the fourteenth century.…

"Statue of Charlemagne, in Paris. At Pepin's death in 768 the kingdom of the Franks included the greater part of what is now France, together with a portion of Germany. This territory was divided between his two sons, Carloman and Charles, who ruled over it together for three years, until 771, when, by the death of Carloman, Charles became the sole ruler. Charles, or to give him the title by which he is best known, Charlemagne (that is, Charles the Great), is the greatest figure in the history of the Middle Ages, and one of the ablest rulers of all time. His reign is itself an epoch in history; for the work he did lived after him, and influenced the nations of Europe for centuries to come."—Colby, 1899

Charlemagne

"Statue of Charlemagne, in Paris. At Pepin's death in 768 the kingdom of the Franks included the greater…

Charlemagne (Charles the Great) was king of the Franks during the Middle Ages.

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (Charles the Great) was king of the Franks during the Middle Ages.

This Medieval chest is from England. It was a prismatic box without feet, with delicate iron mounts and all kinds of carving.

Medieval Chest

This Medieval chest is from England. It was a prismatic box without feet, with delicate iron mounts…

An illustration of a city gate in York during the fourteenth century illustrating Gothic architecture. The city gate was used to control access and exit of the city during the middle ages.

Gothic Architecture City Gate

An illustration of a city gate in York during the fourteenth century illustrating Gothic architecture.…

A clergy house in Alfriston, England illustrating typical Gothic architecture during the fourteenth century. The house was used by a parish priest during the fourteenth to nineteenth century.

Gothic Architecture Alfriston Clergy House

A clergy house in Alfriston, England illustrating typical Gothic architecture during the fourteenth…

The base of the column illustrating the Gothic ornamentation during the fourteenth century. The bottom part of the column has a slight slope on the bottom with the top part has a series of sunk chamfer for ornamentation.

Gothic Architecture Ornaments Column Base

The base of the column illustrating the Gothic ornamentation during the fourteenth century. The bottom…

An illustration of Gothic architectural decoration of the column. The column illustrated shows how the capital, or top, and base were decorated with series of circles ranging in size.

Gothic Architecture Column

An illustration of Gothic architectural decoration of the column. The column illustrated shows how the…

The interior view of the Fisherman's Cottage in Somersetshire. The interior of the cottage have a window with traceries and a fireplace. The Roof is supported by a series of wooden arches attached to both sides of the wall.

Interior Somersetshire Fisherman's Cottage

The interior view of the Fisherman's Cottage in Somersetshire. The interior of the cottage have a window…

An outside view of a fisherman's cottage in Somersetshire illustrating common architectural features during the fourteenth century. The two story cottage is about 32 feet long by 16 feet wide, where the ground floor is divided into three rooms.

Somersetshire Fisherman's Cottage

An outside view of a fisherman's cottage in Somersetshire illustrating common architectural features…

A Court Jester during Feudalism of the Middle Ages.

Court Jester

A Court Jester during Feudalism of the Middle Ages.

Bishop's Crosier from the Papal Power period during the Middle Ages.

Crosier

Bishop's Crosier from the Papal Power period during the Middle Ages.

A picture of the Crusades

Crusades

A picture of the Crusades

A Gothic architectural ornamentation commonly found during the fourteenth century. The crocket was a hooked shaped decoration commonly found on columns and mouldings.

Gothic Architecture Decoration

A Gothic architectural ornamentation commonly found during the fourteenth century. The crocket was a…

THis is the upper part of a medieval double-desk.

Medieval Desk

THis is the upper part of a medieval double-desk.

Costume of a Doge from the Middle Ages.

Doge

Costume of a Doge from the Middle Ages.

The Domesday or Book of Winchester was a survey or census of England completed in 1086 for William the Conqueror.

Domesday Book

The Domesday or Book of Winchester was a survey or census of England completed in 1086 for William the…

This medieval elevator shows the use of two simple machines: wheel and axle on the right, and a pulley on the left. "An elevator of the Middle Ages. History tells us this form of elevator was used in monasteries for hoisting passengers and supplies." -Hill, 1921

Early Elevator

This medieval elevator shows the use of two simple machines: wheel and axle on the right, and a pulley…

"Encaustic tile, a tile for pavement- and wall-decoration, in which the pattern is inlaid or incrusted in clay of one color in a ground of clay of another color. The manufacture and employment of encaustic tiles were brought to great excellence in connection with the architecture of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, particularly in France and England; and the art has been successfully revived in the nineteenth century." -Whitney, 1911

Encaustic Tile

"Encaustic tile, a tile for pavement- and wall-decoration, in which the pattern is inlaid or incrusted…

"Fauchard of the 15th century. A weapon of the middle ages consisting of a scythe-shaped blade with a long handle, and differing from the war-scythe in having the sharp edge convex." -Whitney, 1911

Fauchard of the 15th Century

"Fauchard of the 15th century. A weapon of the middle ages consisting of a scythe-shaped blade with…

A poster of facts and illustrations of the age of feudalism and chivalry.

Feudalism and Chivalry

A poster of facts and illustrations of the age of feudalism and chivalry.

An architectural decoration of the finial commonly found in Gothic architecture. The finial was used to decorate poles on the building and flag poles.

Gothic Architecture Finial

An architectural decoration of the finial commonly found in Gothic architecture. The finial was used…

"A Frate della Misericordia. MISERICORDIA, the name of a society (of laymen) in Florence, founded in the 13th century, who tend the poor sick, carry victims of accident or disease to the hospitals, and the dead to their burial. Members of all classes of the community, including the highest, are enrolled in this charitable association; and their somber and forbidding costume-- a dark monastic dress, with the cowl pulled down over the face so that the eyes merely peep through little holes." -Hazeltine, 1894

Frate della Misericordia

"A Frate della Misericordia. MISERICORDIA, the name of a society (of laymen) in Florence, founded in…

The German Imperial Crown, from the Middle Ages; now in the Treasury at Vienna.

German Crown

The German Imperial Crown, from the Middle Ages; now in the Treasury at Vienna.

"Tomb of Godfrey de Bouillon. During the Crusades, the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1099. The conquered lands were now formed into a little feudal kingdom, the head of which at first was Godfrey de Bouillon. He would not, however, accept the title of king, preferring to be called Defender of the Holy Sepulcher."—Colby, 1899

Godfrey de Bouillon Tomb

"Tomb of Godfrey de Bouillon. During the Crusades, the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1099. The conquered lands…

An illustration of the hall in Alfriston Clergy House. The hall illustrates typical architectural support of the house typical during the fourteenth century.

Gothic Architecture Alfriston Clergy House Hall

An illustration of the hall in Alfriston Clergy House. The hall illustrates typical architectural support…

Hand Cannon, fourteenth century

Hand Cannon

Hand Cannon, fourteenth century

A group of falconers in the Middle Ages.

Hawking party

A group of falconers in the Middle Ages.

The middle window is the tracery found on the St. John's Hospital, Northampton. The two faces on the side is a larger view of the window from the Newarke Gateway at Leicester. These features were commonly found in Gothic architecture to decorate windows.

Northampton St. John's Hospital

The middle window is the tracery found on the St. John's Hospital, Northampton. The two faces on the…

The interior view of the rectory in Market Deeping during the fourteenth century. The empty room contains a window with a curved tracery. A rectory is a house where a rector, a religious administrator, took residence.

Gothic Rectory in Market Deeping House

The interior view of the rectory in Market Deeping during the fourteenth century. The empty room contains…

An interior view of a merchant's parlour in Salisbury during the fourteenth century. The interior have a fireplace and a painting on top of the window.

Merchant's Parlour Salisbury House

An interior view of a merchant's parlour in Salisbury during the fourteenth century. The interior have…

Mediaeval Hunting Horn

Hunting Horn

Mediaeval Hunting Horn

Knight of the thirteenth century

Knight

Knight of the thirteenth century

A knight from the Middle Ages.

Knight

A knight from the Middle Ages.

"A Knight Templar. During the Crusades, there were military and religious orders. Between the first and second crusades two peculiar military and religious orders were established. These were the Knights, Hospitalers, or Knights of St. John, and the Knights Templars. The Knights of St. John were organized originally to care for the sick and wounded among the crusaders and pilgrims to Jerusalem. They took the usual vows of monks, but to these were added vows of military service. They had thus a combined religious and military character, being fighting men as well as monks. The Knights Templars wre organized on a similar plan, but their original purpose had been to protect the pilgrims to the Holy Land. At a later date there was another of these orders established under the name of the Tentonic Knights. All three played an important part in the crusades, and they continued to exist long after the crusades were over."—Colby, 1899

Knight Templar

"A Knight Templar. During the Crusades, there were military and religious orders. Between the first…

"The Lance is a weapon consisting of a long shaft with a sharp point, much used, particularly before the invention of firearms. It is a thrusting weapon used on foot, but chiefly on horseback. In the middle Ages the lance was held in the highest repute by knights and men-at-arms who formed the main strength of European armies."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Bedouin Lance Heads

"The Lance is a weapon consisting of a long shaft with a sharp point, much used, particularly before…

"The Lance is a weapon consisting of a long shaft with a sharp point, much used, particularly before the invention of firearms. It is a thrusting weapon used on foot, but chiefly on horseback. In the middle Ages the lance was held in the highest repute by knights and men-at-arms who formed the main strength of European armies."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Bedouin Lance Heads

"The Lance is a weapon consisting of a long shaft with a sharp point, much used, particularly before…

This medieval lectern is from Venice, Italy. Often with a design of an eagle, these desks were of rich workmanship.

Medieval Lectern

This medieval lectern is from Venice, Italy. Often with a design of an eagle, these desks were of rich…

A machicolation is a floor opening between the supporting corbels of a battlement, through which stones could be dropped on attackers at the base of a defensive wall. The design was developed in the Middle Ages when the Norman crusaders returned. A machicolated battlement projects outwards from the supporting wall in order to facilitate this.

Machicolation

A machicolation is a floor opening between the supporting corbels of a battlement, through which stones…

Costumes of Medieval women.

Medieval Costumes

Costumes of Medieval women.

"Water transportation in the Feudal Age." -Foster, 1921

Medieval Ship

"Water transportation in the Feudal Age." -Foster, 1921

A castle and different classes of people in Medieval Europe.

Middle Ages

A castle and different classes of people in Medieval Europe.

A poster with facts and images of France during the Middle Ages.

Middle Ages

A poster with facts and images of France during the Middle Ages.

A Gothic architecture arch moulding used during the fourteenth century. The mouldings were used to decorate the archs of the windows and doorways built in stone walls.

Gothic Architecture Arch Moulding

A Gothic architecture arch moulding used during the fourteenth century. The mouldings were used to decorate…