"represents a section of an island, from the ocean (o) to the lagoon (l). On the ocean side, from o to a, there is shallow water for some distance out; and where not too deep, the bottom is covered here and there with growing corals. Between a and b there is a platform of coral rock, mostly bare at low tide, but covered at high ... b to d is the wooded portion of the island. The whole width (is) from the beach (b) to the lagoon (c)." -Dana, 1880

Section of Coral Island of an Atoll

"represents a section of an island, from the ocean (o) to the lagoon (l). On the ocean side, from o…

An illustration looking seaward from a country road near Mobile, Alabama.

Beach

An illustration looking seaward from a country road near Mobile, Alabama.

A decorative divider of a beach scene and a lighthouse.

Beach Divider

A decorative divider of a beach scene and a lighthouse.

Three girls on the beach with buckets and shovels. A sailboat passes by in the background.

Girls on the Beach

Three girls on the beach with buckets and shovels. A sailboat passes by in the background.

Two young people sitting on the beach. Others are walking along the shore. There is a sailboat in the distance.

Relaxing on the Beach

Two young people sitting on the beach. Others are walking along the shore. There is a sailboat in the…

Abandoned boat with a boy in it.

Boat

Abandoned boat with a boy in it.

"The Burnside Expedition- melancholy deaths of Colonel J. W. Allen, Surgeon Waller and the Second Mate of the <em>Ann E. Thompson</em>, on January 15th, 1862, near Hatteras Inlet." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Burnside Expedition

"The Burnside Expedition- melancholy deaths of Colonel J. W. Allen, Surgeon Waller and the Second Mate…

This image depicts a woman catching live sardines in San Sebastian, Spain.

Woman Catching Live Sardines

This image depicts a woman catching live sardines in San Sebastian, Spain.

A conch shell.

Chank

A conch shell.

Flabellifera are a type of isopod. Their bodies end in a tail fan, made by the last pair of appendages and the telson (end piece). This species is parasitic, sharing the title of 'fish lice' with other certain parasitic copepods.

Cirolana Microphthalmia

Flabellifera are a type of isopod. Their bodies end in a tail fan, made by the last pair of appendages…

A type of shell.

Clymenia

A type of shell.

A family of irregular sea urchins, flattened into a discoidal or shield like shape, with a mouth central and furnished with a masticatory apparatus.

Clypeastrid

A family of irregular sea urchins, flattened into a discoidal or shield like shape, with a mouth central…

A piece of coral reef.

Coral

A piece of coral reef.

The reef forming the island is of limestone, derived form countless skeletons of minute polyps that once lived beneath the surface of the waters.

Coral Island

The reef forming the island is of limestone, derived form countless skeletons of minute polyps that…

"The map cowry, <em>C. mappa</em>, foud in the Indian Ocean, is handsomely marked." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Map Cowry

"The map cowry, C. mappa, foud in the Indian Ocean, is handsomely marked." — Goodrich,…

A kind of surf fish. Usually silver&mdashgray on the back and sides.

Croaker

A kind of surf fish. Usually silver&mdashgray on the back and sides.

Rubber suit worn over a diver's body, doesn't include helmet.

Diving-dress

Rubber suit worn over a diver's body, doesn't include helmet.

"Encrinus." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Encrinus

"Encrinus." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

The inner workings of the Carmania. A description of how the ship gets power in order to move on the ocean.

Turbine Engine

The inner workings of the Carmania. A description of how the ship gets power in order to move on the…

A seaside community with small boats on the shore and a large ship out to sea.

Fishing Community

A seaside community with small boats on the shore and a large ship out to sea.

Five ships coming over the horizon.

Five Ships

Five ships coming over the horizon.

This illustration shows the basic parts and construction of a flying boat.

Flying Boat

This illustration shows the basic parts and construction of a flying boat.

"Fort Taylor, Key West, Fla. Key West, the most western of the Pine Islands, is about sixty miles southwest of Cape Sable, Florida. Its length is four miles, and its width is one mile. Its elevation from the sea does not exceed twenty feet. Its formation is of coral. The name is a corruption of Cago Hueso, or Bone Key, and has no relation to the position of the island, which is not the most western of the reef. On Whitehead's Point, the southwest extemity of the island, is a fixed light, eighty-three and a half feet above the level of the sea. Fort Taylor is a large, first-class fortification, commanding the harbor of Key West at its entrance. The foritication forms an irregular quadrangle, having three channel curtains. It is three hundred yards off the beach and on the southwest point of the island, and stands in a depth of seven or twelve feet of water. The foundation is granite, and the upper works are of brick. The scrap walls have a solidity of eight feet, rising forty feet above the water level. It is proyided with three tiers- two of casemate and one of barbette- and mounts one hundred and twenty-eight 10-inch Columbiad guns on the seaward front, and forty-five heavy pieces toward the beach."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Fort Taylor

"Fort Taylor, Key West, Fla. Key West, the most western of the Pine Islands, is about sixty miles southwest…

Fucus is the generic name of various species of brown seaweed which form the main vegetation of rocky shores between tide marks. Most common of all is F. vesiculosus (Rockweed, Bladderweed, sea wave, etc.), easily distinguished by its entire edges and paired air vesicles. On account of the large proportion of ash it forms a valuable manure. Besides manure, the only direct chemical utilization of of the Fuci is for the preparation of Iodine. The vegetative body of Fucus is usually a thallus; the branching is dichotomous in one plane. Of the inner, or medullary, cells of the thallus, the outer wall becomes mucilaginous, while the less superficial of the rind cells develop filaments which grow inward, thus surrounding the inner cells within a network of filaments. The ladders are formed by the simple separation of portions of the tissue, the cavities becoming distended by air. Fertilization takes place when the ripe, fertile fronds are left bare by the tide. The fertilized ovum soon develops a wall, becomes attached, and proceeds to divide and lengthen, forming a root-like attachment at one end, a growing point at the other. This illustration shows a Fucus, 1) a cross-section of a fertile frond, 2) a female conceptacle, 3) a male conceptacle, and 4) Zoospores and Antheridia.

Fucus

Fucus is the generic name of various species of brown seaweed which form the main vegetation of rocky…

A Galley is a low, flat-built vessel furnished with one deck.It was primarily employed by the Romans, Genoese, Pisans, and Venetians.

The Venetian galley was generally three-masted, and was usually around 160 feet long, 32 feet broad, and supplied with sixty-four oars, to each of which were chained six or seven slaves. Such galleys were equipped with powerful rams used for boarding and sinking enemy ships. Criminals in France and elsewhere were frequently condemned to serve at the oars in these craft. In modern speech, the term "galley" refers the common kitchen of a ship.

Galley (ship)

A Galley is a low, flat-built vessel furnished with one deck.It was primarily employed by the Romans,…

A gimbals is a contrivance designed to keep a marine compass, chronometer, lamp, or other instrument in the horizontal position on board ship, notwithstanding the rolling and pitching of the vessel. The instrument is suspended in the diametral axis of a ring, which is again suspended in the diametral axis of another ring, the two axes being at right angles to one another.

This illustration shows a diagram of a gimbals, showing the angle of the ship (A), the perpendicular axes of the rings, and the compass suspended horizontally in the gimbals (B).

Gimbals (Diagram)

A gimbals is a contrivance designed to keep a marine compass, chronometer, lamp, or other instrument…

A gimbals is a contrivance designed to keep a marine compass, chronometer, lamp, or other instrument in the horizontal position on board ship, notwithstanding the rolling and pitching of the vessel. The instrument is suspended in the diametral axis of a ring, which is again suspended in the diametral axis of another ring, the two axes being at right angles to one another.
This illustration shows a gimbal joint.

Gimbals (Joint)

A gimbals is a contrivance designed to keep a marine compass, chronometer, lamp, or other instrument…

A girl standing in the ocean crying while a crab looks at her.

Girl in Ocean

A girl standing in the ocean crying while a crab looks at her.

The Great Crested Grebe (Lophæthyia cristata) is a fresh-water, migratory, diving bird of the family Podicipidæ. It has a duck-like body, brownish and white plumage, long neck, short wings, no tail, and large, flattened toes furnished with lobate membranes serving the purpose of webs. Most of its life is spent in fresh water  lakes and ponds, but in winter and during migration, it often resorts to the sea. It is an excellent diver. The nest is made of rushes and other aquatic plants and usually floats on the water, being loosely anchored to weeds and grass. It is found in nearly all parts of Europe and Asia.

Great Crested Grebe

The Great Crested Grebe (Lophæthyia cristata) is a fresh-water, migratory, diving bird of the family…

Grenadiers or rattails (less commonly whiptails) are generally large, brown to black gadiform marine fish of the family Macrouridae. Found at great depths from the Arctic to Antarctic, members of this family are among the most abundant of the deep-sea fishes.

Grenadier

Grenadiers or rattails (less commonly whiptails) are generally large, brown to black gadiform marine…

"Shows the twisted levers or screws formed by the wings of the gull."&mdash;Pettigrew, 1874

Sea Gull

"Shows the twisted levers or screws formed by the wings of the gull."—Pettigrew, 1874

Large homes fringed by palm trees on a Florida shoreline.

Coastal homes

Large homes fringed by palm trees on a Florida shoreline.

The Imperial Hotel in Lynton.

Imperial Hotel

The Imperial Hotel in Lynton.

As part of a mutiny, Henry Hudson is seized and set adrift along with the loyal carpenter and the sick crew members.

Henry Hudson

As part of a mutiny, Henry Hudson is seized and set adrift along with the loyal carpenter and the sick…

A boy riding a seagull with a staff in hand.

King of the Gulls

A boy riding a seagull with a staff in hand.

Flabellifera are a tribe of isopods. Their bodies end in a tail fan, made by the last pair of appendages and the telson (end piece). While some species of this tribe are parasitic, this particular species, Limnoria Lignorum, is non-parasitic, and has a destructive action on submerged wood. It is commonly referred to as the 'gribble'.

Limnoria Lignorum (Flabellifera)

Flabellifera are a tribe of isopods. Their bodies end in a tail fan, made by the last pair of appendages…

The Carmania was a ship built in 1905 built in Britain by John Brown & Company. She was designed by Leonard Peskett. She was used during World War I as a armed merchant vessel. She was later scraped in 1932

Ocean Liner

The Carmania was a ship built in 1905 built in Britain by John Brown & Company. She was designed by…

An illustration of a Galapagos sea lizard.

Galapagos sea lizard

An illustration of a Galapagos sea lizard.

An illustration of a man and woman looking over the deck of a ship.

Man And Woman Looking Over Deck

An illustration of a man and woman looking over the deck of a ship.

A man with a hat standing and facing the ocean.

Man Facing the Ocean

A man with a hat standing and facing the ocean.

An illustration of a man sitting on the shore of a lake and a child standing behind him pointing into to the water.

Man Sitting & Child Standing Near Lake

An illustration of a man sitting on the shore of a lake and a child standing behind him pointing into…

"The following cut from an antique in the British Museum, represents the head of Neptune. The hair rises from the forehead, and then falls down in flakes, as if wet." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Head of Neptune

"The following cut from an antique in the British Museum, represents the head of Neptune. The hair rises…

"Nereid." &mdash;Bulfinch, 1897

Nereid

"Nereid." —Bulfinch, 1897

Diagram showing the circulation in an ideal ocean extending from pole to pole and covering one fourth the circumference of the earth.

Ideal Ocean Circulation

Diagram showing the circulation in an ideal ocean extending from pole to pole and covering one fourth…

Waves are swimming motions of the water, caused by the action of the wind. Their height and velocity deepen on the forces of the wind, and depth of the basin in which they occur. The stronger the wind, and the deeper the ocean, the higher the waves and the greater their velocity.

Ocean Wave

Waves are swimming motions of the water, caused by the action of the wind. Their height and velocity…

Diagram illustrating the development, migration, and complete destruction of an offshore bar and the lagoon deposits behind it.

Offshore Bar

Diagram illustrating the development, migration, and complete destruction of an offshore bar and the…

"See here a man who doth true courage lack, / He flies apace - a wolf is on his track: / Nearer he comes - the man doth swifter flee; / The verge he gains; he leaps into the sea: / Out of one danger into one more great, / The foolish creature finds his certain fate."—Barber, 1857

Out of the Frying-Pan into the Fire

"See here a man who doth true courage lack, / He flies apace - a wolf is on his track: / Nearer he comes…

"Phrinxus and Helle." &mdash;Bulfinch, 1897

Phrixus and Helle

"Phrinxus and Helle." —Bulfinch, 1897

A small cetacean that is related to whales and dolphins.

The Porpoise

A small cetacean that is related to whales and dolphins.

A 'purse' seine is a form of fishing net that is paid out around a school of fish, like a cylinder with no top or bottom. When drawn in, the bottom closes, forming a bag from which the fish cannot escape. Figure 1 in this illustration shows the separate parts of the purse seine: A and J, arms of the net; B and I, wings; C, D, K, and L, border of stout twine; F, bailing piece (or bunt); E and G, sides; H, under.
Figure 2 shows a diagram of the form a a purse seine spread in the water.

Purse-seine

A 'purse' seine is a form of fishing net that is paid out around a school of fish, like a cylinder with…

In this age the animals and plants begin to resemble existing species. The age is characterized mainly by the preponderance of reptiles, many of which were very large, as, for example, the <em>plesiosaurus</em>, an animal with a long, snake-like neck and a huge body, or the <em>ichthyosaurus</em>, with a head like a crocodile and short neck and large body. Both of these animals were furnished with fin-like paddles, and lived in water.

Reptiles

In this age the animals and plants begin to resemble existing species. The age is characterized mainly…

Diagram illustrating the forms of ripple marks and of the reverse impressions of the same.

Ripple Marks

Diagram illustrating the forms of ripple marks and of the reverse impressions of the same.

A double mast vessel known as a ketch. Meant to be used as a fishing boat but could also be used for luxury as well.

Fishing Sailboat

A double mast vessel known as a ketch. Meant to be used as a fishing boat but could also be used for…

A small sailboat with "square-rigged" masts known as a brig.

Wind-Powered Sailboat

A small sailboat with "square-rigged" masts known as a brig.

"The salmon swimming leisurely. The body, it will be observed, is bent in two curves, one occurring towards the head, the other towards the tail. The shape of the salmon is admirably adapted for cleaving the water."&mdash;Pettigrew, 1857

Salmon

"The salmon swimming leisurely. The body, it will be observed, is bent in two curves, one occurring…

A small seagull standing on a piece of wood.

Seagull

A small seagull standing on a piece of wood.

A black-headed Gull standing on one leg on the beach.

Black-headed Seagull

A black-headed Gull standing on one leg on the beach.

"The seal, adapted principally for water. The extremities are larger than in the porpoise and manatee."&mdash;Pettigrew, 1874

The Seal

"The seal, adapted principally for water. The extremities are larger than in the porpoise and manatee."—Pettigrew,…

An illustration of a large wind powered ship.

Large Ship with Sails

An illustration of a large wind powered ship.

Two ships on the horizon in the ocean.

Ships

Two ships on the horizon in the ocean.