An airplane wing free body diagram illustrating forces acting on the wing.

Airplane Wing Free Body Diagram

An airplane wing free body diagram illustrating forces acting on the wing.

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the radius of curvature of the inner face of an annular lens. The outer face is the same as that of an ordinary annular lens, which the other face, though straight in the vertical, is ground to the required curve in the horizontal plane. The rays f'fc falling upon the lens x converge to the vertical focal plane ff and afterwards diverge through the smaller horizontal angle x'f'x', and so for any other case." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Differential Lens

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the…

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the radius of curvature of the inner face of an annular lens. The outer face is the same as that of an ordinary annular lens, which the other face, though straight in the vertical, is ground to the required curve in the horizontal plane. The rays f'fc falling upon the lens x converge to the vertical focal plane ff and afterwards diverge through the smaller horizontal angle x'f'x', and so for any other case." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Differential Lens

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the…

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the radius of curvature of the inner face of an annular lens. The outer face is the same as that of an ordinary annular lens, which the other face, though straight in the vertical, is ground to the required curve in the horizontal plane. The rays f'fc falling upon the lens x converge to the vertical focal plane ff and afterwards diverge through the smaller horizontal angle x'f'x', and so for any other case." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Differential Lens

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the…

An illustration of stabilizing the plane by setting the back wing at less angle of incidence than the front main wings creating a dihedral angle.

Stabilizing Aeroplane using Dihedral Angle

An illustration of stabilizing the plane by setting the back wing at less angle of incidence than the…

"The dovetail saw or tenon saw." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Dovetail Saw

"The dovetail saw or tenon saw." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"The earth shown as it would be if its axis were perpendicular to the plane of the orbit." -Wiswell, 1913

Earth's Axis Perpendicular to Plane of Orbit

"The earth shown as it would be if its axis were perpendicular to the plane of the orbit." -Wiswell,…

A propellor engine illustrating of the motion of the propellor when in flight.

Aeroplane Engine

A propellor engine illustrating of the motion of the propellor when in flight.

"If two equal ellipses, each turning about one of its foci, are placed in contact in such a way that the distance between the axes O<SUB>1</SUB> and O<SUB>2</SUB> is equal to the major axis of the ellipses, we shall find that they will be in contact on the line of centres and that the rolling arcs are of equal length."

Rolling of Equal Ellipses

"If two equal ellipses, each turning about one of its foci, are placed in contact in such a way that…

Illustration of the rolling of equal hyperbolas. If two equal hyperbolas are placed so that the distances between their foci O<SUB>1</SUB> and O<SUB>2</SUB>, and d and e, are each equal to fg=hk, they will make contact at some point c.

Rolling of Equal Hyperbolas

Illustration of the rolling of equal hyperbolas. If two equal hyperbolas are placed so that the distances…

Illustration of the rolling of equal parabolas. "The two parabolas may be considered as two ellipses with one focus of each removed to infinity."

Rolling of Equal Parabolas

Illustration of the rolling of equal parabolas. "The two parabolas may be considered as two ellipses…

The illustration shows the airplane's fin, or keel surface. The fin of the airplane is located on the tail to create an efficient vertical turning.

Airplane Fin

The illustration shows the airplane's fin, or keel surface. The fin of the airplane is located on the…

A flashcard featuring an illustration of a Plane

Flashcard of a Plane

A flashcard featuring an illustration of a Plane

A woodworking tool used to cut, flatten, and smooth areas of wood by abrasion.

Wooden Float

A woodworking tool used to cut, flatten, and smooth areas of wood by abrasion.

A plane flying above land illustrating the use of ailerons to adjust the angle of incidence to adjust the lift. Ailerons are located at the wing tips and controlled by the pilot.

Airplane Flying Above Land

A plane flying above land illustrating the use of ailerons to adjust the angle of incidence to adjust…

An airplane flying above the show illustrating the aerodynamics of the plane with the tail wing at the same angle as the main body. This reduces the lift of the plane by decreasing the angle of incidence.

Airplane Flying Above Shore

An airplane flying above the show illustrating the aerodynamics of the plane with the tail wing at the…

An illustration of the plane flying over land from point A to B by flying the plane with the direction of the plane. Then, flying to point D by creating a diagonal line at 100 mph onto destination point B.

Aeroplane Flying Over Plane

An illustration of the plane flying over land from point A to B by flying the plane with the direction…

The diagram illustrating an approximate angle of flying an aeroplane, or airplane, flying upside down and in a loop by adjusting the throttle of the engine.

Aeroplane Looping and Upside Down Flying

The diagram illustrating an approximate angle of flying an aeroplane, or airplane, flying upside down…

The illustration of the plane descending while spiraling down. The radius of the spiral spin is getting smaller. A nose spin drive happens when the pilot intentionally or unintentionally stalls the plane and control the plane side to side in air.

Aeroplane Nose Spin Dive Flying

The illustration of the plane descending while spiraling down. The radius of the spiral spin is getting…

Airplane flying almost sideway, called sideslip. The plane enters sideslip by lowering the wing and rudder while increasing speed.

Airplane Sideslip Flying

Airplane flying almost sideway, called sideslip. The plane enters sideslip by lowering the wing and…

An illustration of the plane recovered from sideslipping in air.

Airplane Sideslip Recovery Flying

An illustration of the plane recovered from sideslipping in air.

A sideslip of the plane with the rudder turned left so that the plane flying sideways with the nose pointing down.

Airplane Sideslip Rudder Turned Flying

A sideslip of the plane with the rudder turned left so that the plane flying sideways with the nose…

The airplane is flying with the elevator depressed and rudder turned to recover the plane to the upright position.

Airplane Sideslip Rudder Turned and Elevator Depressing Flying

The airplane is flying with the elevator depressed and rudder turned to recover the plane to the upright…

The illustration of the plane creating wash in and washout to reduce the lift distribution across the wing span.

Airplane Wash In and Out Flying

The illustration of the plane creating wash in and washout to reduce the lift distribution across the…

"An inclined plane is a slope, or a flat surface, making an angle with a horizontal line...the force acts at an angle to the plane or to the base." &mdash;Hallock 1905

Inclined Plane with Force at an Angle to Plane and Base

"An inclined plane is a slope, or a flat surface, making an angle with a horizontal line...the force…

"An inclined plane is a slope, or flat surface, making an angle with a horizontal line...the force acts parallel to the base." &mdash;Hallock 1905

Inclined Plane with the Force Acting Parallel to the Base

"An inclined plane is a slope, or flat surface, making an angle with a horizontal line...the force acts…

"An inclined plane is a slope, or flat surface, making an angle with a horizontal line...the force acts parallel to the plane." &mdash;Hallock 1905

Inclined Plane with the Force Acting Parallel to the Plane

"An inclined plane is a slope, or flat surface, making an angle with a horizontal line...the force acts…

"The part of any solid between two planes, which may be either parallel or inclined to each other: as, the frustum of a cone ... In the figure the dotted line, c, indicates the part of the cone cut off to form the frustum, f." -Whitney, 1911

Frustum of a Cone

"The part of any solid between two planes, which may be either parallel or inclined to each other: as,…

"The distance of A and B below H is indicated on the V projection. Thus if to A&and;h B&and;h the perpendiculars A&and;h A;and;r and B&and;h B&and;r be drawn, A&and;r B&and;r will be the true length of A B." &mdash;French, 1911

Construction of Geometric Revolution

"The distance of A and B below H is indicated on the V projection. Thus if to A∧h B∧h the perpendiculars…

"The H projection of the line AB in the space is a line connecting the feet of all the perpendiculars from AB to the plane. These perpendiculars form what is known as the projecting plane. If this projecting plane to be revolved about its H trace, which is the H projection of the line, until it coincides with H, the line will be seen in its true length." &mdash;French, 1911

Revolutions into the Plane of Geometric Shapes

"The H projection of the line AB in the space is a line connecting the feet of all the perpendiculars…

Geometrical plane.

Geometrical Plane

Geometrical plane.

"The Gimlet." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gimlet

"The Gimlet." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"The Gimlet." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gimlet

"The Gimlet." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"The hand saw." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hand Saw

"The hand saw." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

A flying machine invented by William Henson in the mid-19th century. Although numerous attempts were made to fly the machine, all were unsuccessful.

Henson's Flying Machine

A flying machine invented by William Henson in the mid-19th century. Although numerous attempts were…

Illustration of a right hexagonal pyramid that has been cut by a plane parallel to the base. The lower part is known as the frustum.

Hexagonal Pyramid Cut By Plane

Illustration of a right hexagonal pyramid that has been cut by a plane parallel to the base. The lower…

Illustration of a right hexagonal pyramid that has been cut by a plane parallel to the base. The top section has been removed and the remaining section is known as the frustum of the pyramid. The hidden edges are shown in this illustration.

Frustum Of A Hexagonal Pyramid

Illustration of a right hexagonal pyramid that has been cut by a plane parallel to the base. The top…

Illustration of a right hexagonal pyramid that has been cut by a plane parallel to the base. The top section has been removed and the remaining section is known as the frustum of the pyramid.

Frustum Of A Hexagonal Pyramid

Illustration of a right hexagonal pyramid that has been cut by a plane parallel to the base. The top…

Illustration of a right hexagonal pyramid that has been cut by a plane parallel to the base. The top section has been removed and the remaining section is known as the frustum of the pyramid.

Frustum Of A Hexagonal Pyramid

Illustration of a right hexagonal pyramid that has been cut by a plane parallel to the base. The top…

Illustration of a skewed hexagonal pyramid that has been cut by a plane parallel to the base. The top section has been removed and the remaining section is known as the frustum of the pyramid. The hidden edges are shown in this illustration.

Frustum Of A Skewed Hexagonal Pyramid

Illustration of a skewed hexagonal pyramid that has been cut by a plane parallel to the base. The top…

Illustration of the intersection of a hexagonal pyramid and a plane.

Intersection of Hexagonal Pyramid and a Plane

Illustration of the intersection of a hexagonal pyramid and a plane.

Diagram depicting a cone with both nappes intersected by plane J to form a hyperbola.

Cone Intersected by a Plane to Form a Hyperbola

Diagram depicting a cone with both nappes intersected by plane J to form a hyperbola.

"Suppose the inclined plane, to be two feet from A to B, and one foot from C to B, then, as we have already seen, a power of one pound at P, would balance a weight of two pounds at W." -Comstock 1850

Inclined Plane

"Suppose the inclined plane, to be two feet from A to B, and one foot from C to B, then, as we have…

"A force pushing a weight from C to D, only raises it through the perpendicular height, E D, by acting along the whole length of the plane, C D; and if the plane be twice as it is high, one pound at B, acting over the pulley, D, would balance two pounds at A, or any where on the plane; and so of all other quantities and proportions." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Inclined plane

"A force pushing a weight from C to D, only raises it through the perpendicular height, E D, by acting…

"This power, the most simple of all machines, consists of a hard, smooth, plane, inclined to the horizon in various degrees." -Comstock 1850

Inclined Plane

"This power, the most simple of all machines, consists of a hard, smooth, plane, inclined to the horizon…

"The power required to force a given weight up an inclined plane, is in proportion to its height, and the length of its base, or in other words, the force must be in proportion to the rapidity of its inclination." -Comstock 1850'

Inlined Plane with Weight

"The power required to force a given weight up an inclined plane, is in proportion to its height, and…

"An inclined plane is a smooth, hard, inflexible surface, inclined so as to make an oblique angle with the horizon." -Avery 1895

Inclined Plane

"An inclined plane is a smooth, hard, inflexible surface, inclined so as to make an oblique angle with…

"One of the primary simple mechanical powers. The plane's surface is inclined to the horizon at any angle." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Inclined Plane

"One of the primary simple mechanical powers. The plane's surface is inclined to the horizon at any…

Illustration of an irregular surface abdc projected upon the flat surface ABCD.

Projection Of An Irregular Surface

Illustration of an irregular surface abdc projected upon the flat surface ABCD.

"Planes are to be met with in great variety, the most usual for ordinary carpentry being the jack plane." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Jack Plane

"Planes are to be met with in great variety, the most usual for ordinary carpentry being the jack plane."…

"In the ordinary pattern of a lapidary's bench the handle turns in a horizontal plane, where W is the driving-wheel turned by the handle A, and working the pulley P by means of a strap. The pulley is fixed on a vertical spindle, which carries M the disk for slitting or the leaden lap for roughing or polishing. The upper end of this spindle is conical, and rotates in a socket drilled in a horizontal arm of iron which projects from a vertical wooden rod D. A block of wood C fits on to the end of an iron support termed the gim-peg or germ-peg. This support is used to steady the operator's arm when grinding the edges of small stones, and the wooden block, which is fixed by a wedge, is employed for cutting facets at any desired angle, the stone being cemented to the end of a stik S, which is fixed at the requisite angle in one of the holes or notches made in the sides of the socket C." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lapidary's Mill

"In the ordinary pattern of a lapidary's bench the handle turns in a horizontal plane, where W is the…

This illustration shows three different views of the Lawson Type C-1 Twin Liberty Motored Aerial Transport.

Lawson Type C-1 Twin Liberty Motored Aerial Transport

This illustration shows three different views of the Lawson Type C-1 Twin Liberty Motored Aerial Transport.

"A lens is a transparent body the two refracting surfaces of which are curved, or one of which is curved and the other plane.(1) Double convex(2) Plano convex(3) Meniscus(4)Double concave(5) Plano concave(6) Concavo concave." -Avery 1895

Lens

"A lens is a transparent body the two refracting surfaces of which are curved, or one of which is curved…

"The shape of the double convex lens, d, c, is that of two plano-convex lenses, placed with their plane surfaces in contact, and consequently the focal distance of this lens is nearly the centre of the sphere of which one of its surfaces is a part." -Comstock 1850

Double Convex Lens

"The shape of the double convex lens, d, c, is that of two plano-convex lenses, placed with their plane…

"a, prism; b, plane glass; c, spherical lens; d, double-convex; e, plano-convex, f, double-concave; g, plano-concave; h, meniscus; i, concavo-convex lenses." -Comstock 1850

Lenses of Various Forms

"a, prism; b, plane glass; c, spherical lens; d, double-convex; e, plano-convex, f, double-concave;…

To find the projections of a line which joins two points, A, B given by their projections.

Line Projection

To find the projections of a line which joins two points, A, B given by their projections.

Illustration of straight line AB projected upon HK.

Projection Of A Line

Illustration of straight line AB projected upon HK.

Illustration of curved line AB projected upon a flat surface.

Projection Of A Line

Illustration of curved line AB projected upon a flat surface.

Projections of a line parallel to a plane.

Projections of a Line

Projections of a line parallel to a plane.

Projections of a line perpendicular to a plane.

Projections of a Line

Projections of a line perpendicular to a plane.