Prism with square bases.

Prism With Square Bases

Prism with square bases.

A triangular prism.

Triangular prism

A triangular prism.

Illustration of a prism used to demonstrate that the volume of any prism is equal to the product of its base by its altitude.

Prism Showing Volume

Illustration of a prism used to demonstrate that the volume of any prism is equal to the product of…

Diagram used to prove the theorem: "The volume of a prismatoid is equal to the product of one-sixth the altitude into the sum of the two bases and four times the mid-section."

Volume of Prismatoid

Diagram used to prove the theorem: "The volume of a prismatoid is equal to the product of one-sixth…

Illustration of 4 congruent rectangular prisms placed in the shape of a square. They are arranged to look like they are 3-dimensional rectangular solids coming out of the page.

4 Congruent Rectangular Prisms

Illustration of 4 congruent rectangular prisms placed in the shape of a square. They are arranged to…

Illustration showing two prisms are equal if the three faces which include a trihedral angle of the one are respectively equal to three faces which include a trihedral angle of the other, and are similarly placed.

Equal Prisms

Illustration showing two prisms are equal if the three faces which include a trihedral angle of the…

Illustration of an oblique prism constructed by the combination of three truncated prisms.

Oblique Prism Truncated Into 3 Sections

Illustration of an oblique prism constructed by the combination of three truncated prisms.

Illustration of 2 parallelopipeds/rectangular prisms.

Rectangular prisms

Illustration of 2 parallelopipeds/rectangular prisms.

Illustration of 3 parallelopipeds/rectangular prisms.

Rectangular prisms

Illustration of 3 parallelopipeds/rectangular prisms.

Illustration of 2 rectangular prism used to show volume.

Rectangular Prisms Showing Volume

Illustration of 2 rectangular prism used to show volume.

Diagram used to prove the theorem: "Two prisms are equal when the three faces about a trihedral of one are equal respectively to the three faces about a trihedral of the other, and similarly arranged."

Two Equal Prisms

Diagram used to prove the theorem: "Two prisms are equal when the three faces about a trihedral of one…

A sample exercise problem in completing the top part of the hexagonal pyramid and to create a development, or stretched out, of the image by creating edges at equal lengths, and revolving the sides.

Development Exercise of Hexagonal Pyramid

A sample exercise problem in completing the top part of the hexagonal pyramid and to create a development,…

A sample exercise problem to complete the top part and create a stretched out image of the oblique hexagonal pyramid. The stretched out image is created by drawing an arc with the perimeter of the base stepped off to create an intersection point.

Development Exercise of Oblique Hexagonal Pyramid

A sample exercise problem to complete the top part and create a stretched out image of the oblique hexagonal…

A pentagonal pyramid problem exercise to complete the top view of the image, and development, or rolled out image, of the pyramid.

Development Exercise of Pentagonal Pyramid

A pentagonal pyramid problem exercise to complete the top view of the image, and development, or rolled…

The problem exercise in completing the top view and creating the development, or rolled out, image of the pentagonal pyramid.

Development Exercise of Pentagonal Pyramid

The problem exercise in completing the top view and creating the development, or rolled out, image of…

Illustration of the isometric of an oblique pentagonal pyramid.

Isometric of Oblique Pentagonal Pyramid

Illustration of the isometric of an oblique pentagonal pyramid.

Illustration of a plan and elevation of an oblique pentagonal pyramid.

Oblique Pentagonal Pyramid

Illustration of a plan and elevation of an oblique pentagonal pyramid.

Illustration of triangular pyramid used to show that the volume is the limit of the sum of the volumes of a series of inscribed, or circumscribed prisms of equal altitude, if the number of prisms is indefinitely increased.

Triangular Pyramid For Volume

Illustration of triangular pyramid used to show that the volume is the limit of the sum of the volumes…

A bow of prismatic colors formed from the reflection and refraction of the sun and water. In the diagram, S is the sun's rays, E is the eye. There are two bows: the primary is the inner brighter rainbow, and the secondary is dimmer and sometimes unseen.

Rainbow Diagram

A bow of prismatic colors formed from the reflection and refraction of the sun and water. In the diagram,…

Illustration of a 5 in. by 3 in. by 4 in. rectangular solid with each cube in the solid representing one cubic inch. This can be used when explaining volume.

Volume Of A Rectangular Solid

Illustration of a 5 in. by 3 in. by 4 in. rectangular solid with each cube in the solid representing…

Illustration of a 1 in. by 2 in. by 1 in. rectangular solid that is similar to a 2 in. by 4 in. by 2 in. rectangular solid.

Similar Rectangular Solids

Illustration of a 1 in. by 2 in. by 1 in. rectangular solid that is similar to a 2 in. by 4 in. by 2…

"Fresnel next conceived the admirable improvement of employing the principle of "total" or internal reflexion by glass prisms. The ray Fi falling on a prismoidal ring, ABC, is refracted and bent in the direction iR, and falling on the side AC, at an angle of incidence greater than the critical, is totally relfected in the direction Re, and, impinging on the side BC at e, it undergoes a second refraction, and emerges horizontally. The highest ray FA after refraction by AB and reflexion by AC must (in order to avoid superfluous glass) pass along AB, and after a second refraction at B emerge horizontally. The lowest ray FB after refraction by AC and a second refraction by BC also emerge horizontally." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Reflecting Prism

"Fresnel next conceived the admirable improvement of employing the principle of "total" or internal…

"Enlarged view of prism of prismatic reflector." —Croft 1917

Prismatic Reflector

"Enlarged view of prism of prismatic reflector." —Croft 1917

"Cross-section of prismatic reflector, showing how light rays are refracted and dispersed." —Croft 1917

Prismatic Reflector

"Cross-section of prismatic reflector, showing how light rays are refracted and dispersed." —Croft…

"The prism will deflect the red and orange, and form a reddish colored image at n. The violet, indigo, blue, green and yellow light, not caught by the prism, will unite at f to form a greenish image. When the prism is removed, the reddish light that fell at n, and the greenish light that fell at f, unite to form white light." -Avery 1895

Refraction of Complimentary Colors

"The prism will deflect the red and orange, and form a reddish colored image at n. The violet, indigo,…

"Science has succeeded in classifying the thousands of known crystals in six systems, to each of which belongs a number of forms having some property in common. In order to classify these different crystals, the existence of certain lines within the crystal, called axes, is assumed, around which the form can be symmetrically build up. These axes are assumed to intersect in the center of the crystal, and to pass through from one side to the other." — Hallock, 1905

Rhombohedron

"Science has succeeded in classifying the thousands of known crystals in six systems, to each of which…

This figure shows a combination of forms sometimes observed on the silicate Scapolite, with the unit pyramid, (o); the prisms of the first and second orders, (M) and (b) respectively; and the pyramid of the third order, (s).

Scapolite

This figure shows a combination of forms sometimes observed on the silicate Scapolite, with the unit…

"This is a form consisting of six rectangular vertical faces, each of which intersects two of the horizontal axes equally and the immediate horizontal axis at one half this distance." — Ford, 1912

Prism of the second order

"This is a form consisting of six rectangular vertical faces, each of which intersects two of the horizontal…

"Science has succeeded in classifying the thousands of known crystals in six systems, to each of which belongs a number of forms having some property in common. In order to classify these different crystals, the existence of certain lines within the crystal, called axes, is assumed, around which the form can be symmetrically build up. These axes are assumed to intersect in the center of the crystal, and to pass through from one side to the other." — Hallock, 1905

Second Right Square Prism

"Science has succeeded in classifying the thousands of known crystals in six systems, to each of which…

Isometric of a prism with a semicircular top.

Prism With Semicircular Top

Isometric of a prism with a semicircular top.

"Science has succeeded in classifying the thousands of known crystals in six systems, to each of which belongs a number of forms having some property in common. In order to classify these different crystals, the existence of certain lines within the crystal, called axes, is assumed, around which the form can be symmetrically build up. These axes are assumed to intersect in the center of the crystal, and to pass through from one side to the other." — Hallock, 1905

Six-sided Pyramid

"Science has succeeded in classifying the thousands of known crystals in six systems, to each of which…

"Solar Spectrum.—If a ray, proceeding from the sun, be admitted into a darkened chamber, through an aperture in the window shutter, and allowed to pass through a triangular shaped piece of glass, called a prism, the light will be decomposed, and instead of a spot of white, there will be seen, on the opposite wall, a most brilliant display of colors, including all those seen in the rainbow." —Comstock, 1850

Solar Spectrum

"Solar Spectrum.—If a ray, proceeding from the sun, be admitted into a darkened chamber, through…

Illustration of an oblique view of a rectangular solid/prism at 30°.

Oblique View Of Rectangular Solid

Illustration of an oblique view of a rectangular solid/prism at 30°.

Illustration of an oblique view of a rectangular solid/prism at 45°.

Oblique View Of Rectangular Solid

Illustration of an oblique view of a rectangular solid/prism at 45°.

Illustration of an oblique view of a rectangular solid/prism at 60°.

Oblique View Of Rectangular Solid

Illustration of an oblique view of a rectangular solid/prism at 60°.

An illustration of a rectangular solid/prism.

Rectangular Solid

An illustration of a rectangular solid/prism.

Illustration of model created by combining non regular geometric solids.

Combination of Geometric Solids

Illustration of model created by combining non regular geometric solids.

"An instrument used chiefly to measure the angular deviation of light rays in passing through a prism, and hence to determine the refractive indices of the substance of which the prism is formed." &mdashWhitney;, 1889

Spectrometer

"An instrument used chiefly to measure the angular deviation of light rays in passing through a prism,…

"C. Collimator; P, center of group of prisms; T, telescope; s, slit through which the ray of light enters, R, ray on its progress through prisms to telescope."—Finley, 1917

Spectroscope

"C. Collimator; P, center of group of prisms; T, telescope; s, slit through which the ray of light enters,…

"...an instrument which gives a spectrum when the source of the light is in a straight line with the eye—that is, which gives dispersion without deviation—is called a direct vision spectroscope..." —Whitney, 1889

Direct Vision Spectroscope

"...an instrument which gives a spectrum when the source of the light is in a straight line with the…

"A prism is used to disperse ordinary light, and slits are cut in paper S to only allow yellow and blue light to pass. These two simple colors will be blended by the lens, forming a light that is nearly white. The effect of mingling any two colors may be determined in this way." -Avery 1895

Color Spectrum

"A prism is used to disperse ordinary light, and slits are cut in paper S to only allow yellow and blue…

Illustration of stairs; 3-dimensional view of 4 steps. The staircase can be created by combining/stacking various sizes of rectangular solids.

Isometric of Stairs

Illustration of stairs; 3-dimensional view of 4 steps. The staircase can be created by combining/stacking…

"Orthohombic. Habit prismatic, showing usually a combination of prism with large angle, brachypinacoid, base and macrodome." — Ford, 1912

Staurolite

"Orthohombic. Habit prismatic, showing usually a combination of prism with large angle, brachypinacoid,…

"In 1835 Mr. Stevenson, in a report to the Northern Lighthouse Board, proposed to add fixed reflecting prisms p below the lenses of Fresnel's revolving light, and he communicated this proposal to M. L. Fresnel, who approved of his suggestion, and assisted in carrying out the design in 1843. This combination added, however, but little to the power of the flash, and produced both a periodically flashing and constantly fixed light; but it must be remembered that the prism for fixed lights was the only kind of reflecting prism then known." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Stevensons Revolving Light

"In 1835 Mr. Stevenson, in a report to the Northern Lighthouse Board, proposed to add fixed reflecting…

"Condensing Straight Prisms.—These, either by reflexion or refraction or both, cause a ray fr proceeding in any compass bearing from a fixed light apparatus AA to emerge in the direction, e.g., parallel to the corresponding ray fb, which proceeds in the same compass bearing from another part of the apparatus and so of any other ray fc which is bent parallel to the ray fa." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Straight Prisms

"Condensing Straight Prisms.—These, either by reflexion or refraction or both, cause a ray fr…

"Professor Swan's Designs.—Among several ingenious arrangements and new forms of agents proposed by Professor Swan is the mode of sending rays from prisms through interstices left between other prisms placed in front, and also a form of agent which he termed the triesoptric prism, in which the rays would undergo two refractions and three reflexions. a are the front and b the triesoptric prisms. The two upper and lower prisms a are constructed of flint glass of high refractive power. It will be observed from the drawing that this ingenious arrangement is nevertheless open to objection, for cones of light of 30 degrees in front and of 65 degrees at the back are lost through the interstices." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Swans Designs

"Professor Swan's Designs.—Among several ingenious arrangements and new forms of agents proposed…

The exercise problem of creating a three piece elbow development or rolled out image of the cylinder using projections or with dividers.

Development Exercise of Cylinder using Three Piece Elbow

The exercise problem of creating a three piece elbow development or rolled out image of the cylinder…

This crystal of Tourmaline exhibits hemimorphism  in the direction of the vertical axis. Its forms are the prisms, (g), which as a result of hemimorphism, appear as a trigonal prism, and (a); the scalenohedron, (s), and the two rhombohedrons, (R) and (r), at the antilogue pole, while only (R) occurs at the analogue pole.

Tourmaline

This crystal of Tourmaline exhibits hemimorphism in the direction of the vertical axis. Its forms are…

Projections of a triangular prism or block.

Projections of Triangular Prism

Projections of a triangular prism or block.

Projections of a triangular prism or block with a square hole.

Projections of Triangular Prism With Hole

Projections of a triangular prism or block with a square hole.

Exercise problem to develop, or rolled out, image of the triangular pyramid by creating an equal length of the edges of each triangle.

Development Exercise of Triangular Pyramid

Exercise problem to develop, or rolled out, image of the triangular pyramid by creating an equal length…

Diagram used to prove the theorem: "The volume of a triangular pyramid is equal to one third of a triangular prism of the same base and altitude."

Volume of Triangular Pyramid

Diagram used to prove the theorem: "The volume of a triangular pyramid is equal to one third of a triangular…

"Condensing Twin Prism Light.—Part of the Lamiash light in the Firth of Clyde. Its action will be easily understood by the numbers shown on the diagram." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Twin Prism

"Condensing Twin Prism Light.—Part of the Lamiash light in the Firth of Clyde. Its action will…

This illustration shows the union of a pyramid and a prism of different orders.

Union of a Pyramid and a Prism of Different Orders

This illustration shows the union of a pyramid and a prism of different orders.

This illustration shows the union of a pyramid and a prism of the same order.

Union of a Pyramid and a Prism of the Same Order

This illustration shows the union of a pyramid and a prism of the same order.

"Tetragonal. Prismatic in habit. Often vertically striated. Common forms are prisms of first and second orders, pyramid of first order and base." — Ford, 1912

Vesuvianite

"Tetragonal. Prismatic in habit. Often vertically striated. Common forms are prisms of first and second…

This form shows a very complex combination of thirteen tetragonal forms occuring on the mineral Vesuvianite: the prism of the first order, (d); prism of the second order, (M); basal pinacoid, (s); three pyramids of the first order, (c), (b), and (u); the ditetragonal prism (f); and the four ditetragonal pyramids (z), (x), (e), and (a).

Vesuvianite

This form shows a very complex combination of thirteen tetragonal forms occuring on the mineral Vesuvianite:…

Also known as Fergusonite, this crystal shows the basal pinacoid, (c); the unit pyramid, (s); and the pyramid and prism of the third order, (z) and (r) respectively.

Yttrium Niobate

Also known as Fergusonite, this crystal shows the basal pinacoid, (c); the unit pyramid, (s); and the…

"A crystal of zincite with a prism terminated by a pyramid above a basal pinacoid below." — Ford, 1912

Zincite

"A crystal of zincite with a prism terminated by a pyramid above a basal pinacoid below." — Ford,…

"Zircon, a mineral composed of of zirconium silicate, sometimes used as a gem-stone... THe mineral crystallizes in the tetragonal system, generally in combinations of square prisms and square pyramids" (Britannica, 1910).

Zircon

"Zircon, a mineral composed of of zirconium silicate, sometimes used as a gem-stone... THe mineral crystallizes…