An image of Julius Caesar and his army crossing the Rubicon River, which is located in northeastern Italy. The idiom "Crossing the Rubicon" refers to Julius Caesar passing this river in 49 BC, and means to pass a point of no return.

Caesar Crossing the Rubicon

An image of Julius Caesar and his army crossing the Rubicon River, which is located in northeastern…

"Interior of S. Clemente in Rome." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

S. Clemente

"Interior of S. Clemente in Rome." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"S. Francesca Romana from the Palatine." — Young, 1901

S. Francesca Romana

"S. Francesca Romana from the Palatine." — Young, 1901

S. Paolo, a cloister example, is found in Rome, Italy.

S. Paolo

S. Paolo, a cloister example, is found in Rome, Italy.

"Interior of the Basilica of San Paolo, Rome." —D'Anvers, 1895

Basilica of San Paolo

"Interior of the Basilica of San Paolo, Rome." —D'Anvers, 1895

Santa Maria in Cosmedin is a minor basilica church in Rome, Italy.

Santa Maria in Cosmedin

Santa Maria in Cosmedin is a minor basilica church in Rome, Italy.

"Sarcophagus, plural Sarcophagi, is a kind of stone used among the Greeks for making coffins, and so called because it was believed to have the property of consuming the flesh of dead bodies deposited in it within a few weeks. Hence a coffin or tomb of stone; a kind of stone chest used for containing a dead body. In modern times stone coffins are occasionally used for royal or distinguished persons."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Sarcophagus of Scipio

"Sarcophagus, plural Sarcophagi, is a kind of stone used among the Greeks for making coffins, and so…

Sarcophagus of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, an elected Roman consul in 298 BC.

Sarcophagus of Scipio Barbatus

Sarcophagus of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, an elected Roman consul in 298 BC.

"Temple of Saturn, Tabularium and Tower of Capitol." — Young, 1901

Temple of Saturn

"Temple of Saturn, Tabularium and Tower of Capitol." — Young, 1901

Scipio, from King's "Engraved Gems."

Scipio

Scipio, from King's "Engraved Gems."

"The figure in the middle of the following illustration is from a most ancient specimen of Etruscan sculpture, and represents an augur with his <em>lituus</em>, or staff. The others are Roman denarii." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Sculpture and coins

"The figure in the middle of the following illustration is from a most ancient specimen of Etruscan…

A Roman scutum shield.

Roman scutum

A Roman scutum shield.

This painting by Claude Gelle Le Lorrain happens to be one of the oldest etchings in oil. This painting is also know as 'The Ancient Port of Messina'.

Seaport

This painting by Claude Gelle Le Lorrain happens to be one of the oldest etchings in oil. This painting…

A coin of ancient Rome, the sesterce.

Sesterce

A coin of ancient Rome, the sesterce.

"Arch of Severus, Column of Phocas, and S. Martina." &mdash; Young, 1901

Arch of Severus

"Arch of Severus, Column of Phocas, and S. Martina." — Young, 1901

"The representation shows the arrangement of the tiers or oars in a two-banked ship. In just what way the lines of rowers in triremes and quinqueremes were arranged is unknown."—Myers, 1904

Prow of a Roman War Ship

"The representation shows the arrangement of the tiers or oars in a two-banked ship. In just what way…

Roman Shipbuilder at work with tool.

Roman Shipbuilder

Roman Shipbuilder at work with tool.

Various standards of military units of Rome in the Gallic War.

Signa Militaria

Various standards of military units of Rome in the Gallic War.

"Walls of Signia. The colony of Signia was said to have been founded by the last Tarquin; but its possession was lost in the early years of the republic." -Allen, 1890

Walls of Signia

"Walls of Signia. The colony of Signia was said to have been founded by the last Tarquin; but its possession…

"Arms of Sixtus IV. and Julius II. (Della Rovere)" &mdash; Young, 1901

Sixtus IV

"Arms of Sixtus IV. and Julius II. (Della Rovere)" — Young, 1901

"Arms of Sixtus V (Peretti)." &mdash; Young, 1901

Sixtus V

"Arms of Sixtus V (Peretti)." — Young, 1901

"A Skyline from the Sette Salle." &mdash; Young, 1901

Roman skyline

"A Skyline from the Sette Salle." — Young, 1901

"A runaway slave, if recaptured, was sometimes compelled to wear a metal collar riveted about his neck."&mdash;Webster, 1913

A Slave's Collar

"A runaway slave, if recaptured, was sometimes compelled to wear a metal collar riveted about his neck."—Webster,…

A soldier using a sling to cast stones as weapons, known as a funditor.

Slinger

A soldier using a sling to cast stones as weapons, known as a funditor.

A Roman soldier

Soldier

A Roman soldier

A Roman soldier

Soldier

A Roman soldier

A Roman soldier

Soldier

A Roman soldier

The armor worn by ancient Roman emperors and generals.

Roman soldier

The armor worn by ancient Roman emperors and generals.

A Roman soldier.

Roman soldier

A Roman soldier.

A Roman soldier with a shield and spear.

Roman Soldier

A Roman soldier with a shield and spear.

Soldiers standing at a gate

Soldiers

Soldiers standing at a gate

The Roman square panels is an 1879 bas-relief design found near the Tiber river in Rome, Italy. This panel is divided into eight equal spaces that are decorated with a repeated design.

Roman Square Panel

The Roman square panels is an 1879 bas-relief design found near the Tiber river in Rome, Italy. This…

"Interior of St. Clemente in Rome." &mdash; Encyclopediia Britannica, 1910

Interior of St Clemente

"Interior of St. Clemente in Rome." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1910

"Statue of St Peter in the Bascilica." &mdash; Young, 1901

Statue of St Peter

"Statue of St Peter in the Bascilica." — Young, 1901

"Section of Basilica of St. Agnes at Rome." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

St. Agnes Basilica

"Section of Basilica of St. Agnes at Rome." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

"Interior of St. Clement, Rome." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

St. Clement

"Interior of St. Clement, Rome." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

"Section of the Basilica of St. Paul, Rome." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

St. Paul Basilica

"Section of the Basilica of St. Paul, Rome." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

"Facade of old St. Peter's, Rome." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

St. Peter's

"Facade of old St. Peter's, Rome." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

A late Renaissance church located in the Vatican in Rome, Italy. By Catholic Tradition, the Basilica is the burial site of its namesake St. Peter, one of the Apostles of Jesus Christ and, also according to tradition, the first Pope and Bishop of Rome.

St. Peter's Basilica

A late Renaissance church located in the Vatican in Rome, Italy. By Catholic Tradition, the Basilica…

This is a drawing of the interior of the St. Peter's Basilica located in the Vatican city of Rome, Italy. The interior space of the church was designed by Giovanni Paolo Panini an Italian painter and architect. The interior space is the largest interior of any Christian church in the world.

Interior of St. Peter's Basilica

This is a drawing of the interior of the St. Peter's Basilica located in the Vatican city of Rome, Italy.…

"Section and Interior View of the five-aisled Basilica of S. Pietro at Rome, before its restoration. Large basilicas sometimes have as many as five aisles &mdash; namely, a main-aisle in the middle, and two lower aisles on each side."

Old St. Peter's Basilica

"Section and Interior View of the five-aisled Basilica of S. Pietro at Rome, before its restoration.…

Façade of St. Peter's Basilica, located in Rome. By Catholic Tradition, the Basilica is the burial site of its namesake St. Peter, one of the Apostles of Jesus Christ and, also according to tradition, the first Pope and Bishop of Rome.

Façade of St. Peter's Basilica

Façade of St. Peter's Basilica, located in Rome. By Catholic Tradition, the Basilica is the burial…

A view of Rome including St. Peter's and the Vatican.

View of St. Peter's

A view of Rome including St. Peter's and the Vatican.

"facade of old St Peter's, Rome." &mdash; Encyclopediia Britannica, 1910

Old Facade of St. Peter's

"facade of old St Peter's, Rome." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1910

An illustration of the exterior of both the Basilica of Saint Peter and the Vatican. The Basilica of St. Peter is one of four major basilicas of Rome, the others being the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Maria Maggiore and St. Paul outside the Walls. It is the most prominent building inside the Vatican City. Its dome is a dominant feature of the skyline of Rome. Probably the largest church in Christianity, it covers an area of 2.3 hectares (5.7 acres) and has a capacity of over 60,000 people.

St. Peters and the Vatican

An illustration of the exterior of both the Basilica of Saint Peter and the Vatican. The Basilica of…

A sculpture of the head of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Lucius Felix. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, or simply Sulla, was a Roman general and politician, holding the office of consul twice as well as the dictatorship.

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix

A sculpture of the head of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Lucius Felix. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, or simply…

"The relief pictures an ancient Italian sacrifice of a bull, a ram, and a boar, offered to Mars to secure purification from sin. Note the sacred laurel trees, the two altars, and the officiating magistrate, whose head is covered with the toga. He is sprinkling incense from a box held by an attendant. Another attendant carries a ewer with the libation. In the rear is the sacrificer with his ax."&mdash;Webster, 1913

Suovetaurilia

"The relief pictures an ancient Italian sacrifice of a bull, a ram, and a boar, offered to Mars to secure…

The ruins of the temple Aurelian built for Sol Invictus, the sun god.

Temple for Sol Invictus

The ruins of the temple Aurelian built for Sol Invictus, the sun god.

"The Temple of Janus is represented as closed." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Coin of Temple of Janus

"The Temple of Janus is represented as closed." — Anthon, 1891

The temple of Jupiter Capitolinus at Rome.

Temple of Jupiter

The temple of Jupiter Capitolinus at Rome.

"The Round temple in the Piazza Bocca Della Verita." &mdash; Young, 1901

Round temple

"The Round temple in the Piazza Bocca Della Verita." — Young, 1901

This stone terminus bust is an Italian Renascence design found in the Villa Massimi in Rome, Italy.

Stone Terminus Bust

This stone terminus bust is an Italian Renascence design found in the Villa Massimi in Rome, Italy.

"A relief from the Column of Trajan, Rome. The name testudo, a tortoise (shell), was applied to the covering made by a body of soldiers who placed their shields over their heads. The shields fitted so closely together that men could walk on them and even horses and chariots could be driven over them."&mdash;Webster, 1913

A Testudo

"A relief from the Column of Trajan, Rome. The name testudo, a tortoise (shell), was applied to the…

Teutoboch was a legendary king of the Teutons, a Germanic tribe.

The Capture of Teutoboch

Teutoboch was a legendary king of the Teutons, a Germanic tribe.

View of the Piazza del Popolo looking west from the Pincian Hill. On the left are the twin churches of Santa Maria dei Miracoli and Santa Maria in Montesanto. In the center of the plaza is an Egyptian obelisk of Sety I from Heliopolis. The twin churches were completed in 1681 and the engraving was published in 1872 and so must represent a time between those two dates.

The Piazza del Popolo in Rome

View of the Piazza del Popolo looking west from the Pincian Hill. On the left are the twin churches…

"The two-storied marble structure is capped by an enormous monolith weighing over 300 tons."&mdash;Webster, 1913

Tomb of Theodoric at Ravenna

"The two-storied marble structure is capped by an enormous monolith weighing over 300 tons."—Webster,…

"The threshold was, with the ancients, an object of superstitious reverence, and it was thought unfortunate to tread on it with the left foot. On this account, the steps leading into a temple were of an uneven number, because the worshipper, after placing his right foot on the bottom step, would then place the same foot on the threshold also." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Threshold

"The threshold was, with the ancients, an object of superstitious reverence, and it was thought unfortunate…

Emperor of Rome from 14 to 37 A.D.

Tiberius

Emperor of Rome from 14 to 37 A.D.

"In the time of Trajan, the Arch of titus and the Colossus of Nero (a gilt bronze statue 120 feet high), stood near the site now occupied by the church of S. Francesca Romana. They were removed by Hadrian to make room for the Temple of Venus and Rome, the arch being placed in its present position, and the colossus on the large square pedestal near the Colosseum, of which some remains may be still identified." &mdash; Young, 1901

Arch of titus

"In the time of Trajan, the Arch of titus and the Colossus of Nero (a gilt bronze statue 120 feet high),…

"The following cuts represent, the first more ancient, and the second the later mode of wearing the toga." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Roman Togas

"The following cuts represent, the first more ancient, and the second the later mode of wearing the…