"A machine for raising water, said to have been invented by Archimedes, during his stay in Egypt for draining and irrigating the land." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Archimedes Screw

"A machine for raising water, said to have been invented by Archimedes, during his stay in Egypt for…

"Invented to raise water. A hollow tube wound spirally around a solid cylinder. As the cylinder is turned, water is fed up through the hollow tube and discharged at the top of the tube." —Quackenbos 1859

Archimedes' Screw

"Invented to raise water. A hollow tube wound spirally around a solid cylinder. As the cylinder is turned,…

"It consists of a tube, made of lead, or strong leather, coiled round a cylinder of wood or iron, as represented..." -Comstock 1850

Archimedes' Water Screw

"It consists of a tube, made of lead, or strong leather, coiled round a cylinder of wood or iron, as…

"Atwood's Machine. This difficulty has however been overcome by a curious piece of machinery invented by Mr. Atwood. This consists of an upright pillar, with a wheel on the top. The weights A and B are of the same size and are made to balance each other, exactly, being connected by a thread passing over the wheel. The ring R admits the weight A, to fall through it in its passage to the stage S, on which it rests. The right and stage slide up and down, and are fastened by a thumb screw. The pillar is a graduated scale, and M is a small bent wire, weighing a quarter of an ounce, and longer than the diameter of the ring." —Comstock, 1850

Atwood's Machine

"Atwood's Machine. This difficulty has however been overcome by a curious piece of machinery invented…

This illustration shows an example of a bevel gear.

Bevel (gear)

This illustration shows an example of a bevel gear.

"Shows how the bones of the arm (a), forearm (b), and hand (c), are twisted, and form a conical screw."—Pettigrew, 1874

Wing of Bird

"Shows how the bones of the arm (a), forearm (b), and hand (c), are twisted, and form a conical screw."—Pettigrew,…

Common boring tool used with a bit brace. The cutting end has a tapered lead screw, two cutters, and two scoring nickers. The shank is surrounded by a spiral that carries away shavings. The traditional shank end, for use with a bit brace, is a tapered square lug.

Auger Bit

Common boring tool used with a bit brace. The cutting end has a tapered lead screw, two cutters, and…

An illustration of the hexagonal bolt head showing measurements. The measurement of diameter, D, is used to calculate the dimensions. The diameter of the head and the nut, H, is 1 ½D ₌ ⅛, and the distance of T is half the diameter.

U.S. Standard Hexagonal Bolt Head

An illustration of the hexagonal bolt head showing measurements. The measurement of diameter, D, is…

Carriage bolt is a fastener with a round head with a square head, and tightened by using a nut and wrench. The bolt is commonly used in furniture making.

Carriage Bolt

Carriage bolt is a fastener with a round head with a square head, and tightened by using a nut and wrench.…

A screw with a domed head and square section under the head.

Carriage Bolt

A screw with a domed head and square section under the head.

Expansion bolt is used to fasten lightweight objects. The bolt has an expansion jacket, where the mechanism expands when tighten.

Expansion Bolt

Expansion bolt is used to fasten lightweight objects. The bolt has an expansion jacket, where the mechanism…

A bolt that has an attachment that expands as the bolt is driven into a surface

Expansion Bolt

A bolt that has an attachment that expands as the bolt is driven into a surface

Eye bolt has a looped end with threads at the opposite end. The bolt is primarily used in attaching cables to objects.

Eye Bolt

Eye bolt has a looped end with threads at the opposite end. The bolt is primarily used in attaching…

Hanger bolt is a fastener used in wood working with two different sized threads and some have no center threads.

Hanger Bolt

Hanger bolt is a fastener used in wood working with two different sized threads and some have no center…

A screw used with nuts, driven into tapped holes.

Machine Bolt

A screw used with nuts, driven into tapped holes.

"Central-fire Gun. C, central-fire cartridge; L, lever; W, washer; S, screw." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Central-fire Gun

"Central-fire Gun. C, central-fire cartridge; L, lever; W, washer; S, screw." — Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"The Chica Ballapura engine consists of two upright rollers, A, the heads of which are formed into double spiral screws, B, which work in one another, so that when an ox is yoked to the long curved lever C, and goes round, one of the upright rollers, being connected with the lever, is made to revolve, and its screw carries the other one round but in the opposite direction." — Chambers, 1881

Chica Ballapure engine

"The Chica Ballapura engine consists of two upright rollers, A, the heads of which are formed into double…

A kind of screw used for drawing corks from bottles.

Corkscrew

A kind of screw used for drawing corks from bottles.

A fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together. Fasteners can also be used to close a container such as a bag, a box, or an envelope; or they may involve keeping together the sides of an opening of flexible material, attaching a lid to a container, etc.

Fastening Device

A fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together. Fasteners…

A representation of the square threaded nut and screw. The left image shows the threaded screw with a continuous helix drawn. The nut is cut in half to show how the threads are drawn with respect to the screw.

Diagram of Square Thread Nut and Screw

A representation of the square threaded nut and screw. The left image shows the threaded screw with…

A representation of the square threaded nut and screw. The left image shows the threaded screw with a continuous helix drawn. The nut is cut in half to show how the threads are drawn with respect to the screw.

Diagram of Square Thread Nut and Screw

A representation of the square threaded nut and screw. The left image shows the threaded screw with…

Double threaded screw.

Double Threaded Screw

Double threaded screw.

"Three drill bits. The first the old, bad, but not yet quite superseded pattern, which is incapable of making a straight or clean hole of any considerable depth, and which loses its original diameter both in wear and in sharpening; the second the twist drill, which compares favourably with it in every one of these respects; and the third a pin drill, for enlarging a hole already existing." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Drill Bits

"Three drill bits. The first the old, bad, but not yet quite superseded pattern, which is incapable…

A portable drill having a cutting and a feeding motion.

Clamp Drill

A portable drill having a cutting and a feeding motion.

"Shows how the bones of the arm (q), forearm (q'x), and foot (o), are twisted to form an osseous screw."—Pettigrew, 1875

Anterior Extremity of Elephant

"Shows how the bones of the arm (q), forearm (q'x), and foot (o), are twisted to form an osseous screw."—Pettigrew,…

"The threads of the screw act upon the teeth cut into the wheel. As the screw turns, each thread catches a tooth on the wheel to rotate the wheel indefinitely." —Quackenbos 1859

Endless Screw

"The threads of the screw act upon the teeth cut into the wheel. As the screw turns, each thread catches…

"Files. a, cotter-file when large, and verge- or pivot-file when small; b, square file (parallel or taper); c, banking or watch-pinion file when parallel, and knife-file when tape; d, half-round, nicking, piercing, or round-off file; e, round, gulleting, or rat-tail file; f, triangular, three-square, or saw file; g, equaling, clock-pinion, or endless-screw file when parallel, and slitting, entering, warding, or barrel-hole file when tape; h, cross- or double-half-round file; i, screw-head, feather-edge, or slitting file." -Whitney, 1911

Types of Files

"Files. a, cotter-file when large, and verge- or pivot-file when small; b, square file (parallel or…

"Gun-lock. a, hammer or cock; b, tumbler; c, bridle; d, bridle-screw; e, sear; f, sear-screw; g, sear-spring; h, sear spring screw; i, main-spring; k, swivel; l, l, side-screws." -Whitney, 1911

Gun Lock

"Gun-lock. a, hammer or cock; b, tumbler; c, bridle; d, bridle-screw; e, sear; f, sear-screw; g, sear-spring;…

A screw head with detailed measurements for accurate drawing. These measurements are based off the diameter of the overall screw and the head.

Diagram of Screw Head

A screw head with detailed measurements for accurate drawing. These measurements are based off the diameter…

Helical gearing is a modification of ordinary toothed gearing in which the pitch surfaces may be cylinders or cones (as in spur or bevel gearing); but the teeth intersect the pitch surfaces in helical lines. These wheels work much more smoothly and provide more resilience than ordinary gearing.

Helical Gearing

Helical gearing is a modification of ordinary toothed gearing in which the pitch surfaces may be cylinders…

"Under intense pressure, the smaller threads on the screw may break. Therefore a larger screw with a threaded bottom is used for strength. As the larger screw turns, the smaller screw ascends tightly into the larger." —Quackenbos 1859

Hunter's Screw

"Under intense pressure, the smaller threads on the screw may break. Therefore a larger screw with a…

A convenient screw cutting using a lathe to create threads on the metal rod.

Screw Cutting Device using Lathe

A convenient screw cutting using a lathe to create threads on the metal rod.

Machine screw

Machine Screw

Machine screw

Machine screw

Machine Screw

Machine screw

Machine screw

Machine Screw

Machine screw

Machine screw

Machine Screw

Machine screw

Machine screw diagram

Machine Screw

Machine screw diagram

Machine screw diagram

Machine Screw

Machine screw diagram

Machine screw diagram

Machine Screw

Machine screw diagram

Machine screw diagram

Machine Screw

Machine screw diagram

A screw is a cylinder with a groove wrapped helically around its circumference. The groove is called a thread and the distance that the thread is drawn is the pitch.

Simple Machine

A screw is a cylinder with a groove wrapped helically around its circumference. The groove is called…

"A plan of this slide; the divided drum of the screw is omitted for sale of clearness. The screw S has a shoulder at k, carefully fitted and ground to a bearing so as to work sweetly in a hole in the very strong spring o o; the other extremity of the screw is formed into a pivot, which fits a hole in the brass piece B B. The end of this pivot—hrdened, polished, and slightly rounded—rests on the flat surface of an agate a, which is imbedded in the end of the slide, and kept firmly in its place by the brass piece B B." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Micrometer

"A plan of this slide; the divided drum of the screw is omitted for sale of clearness. The screw S has…

Micrometer

Micrometer

Micrometer

"The nut, N, through which the screw passes, answers also for one of the beams of the press. If the screw be turned to the right, it wil advance downwards, while the nut stands still." -Comstock 1850

Nut Fixed Screw

"The nut, N, through which the screw passes, answers also for one of the beams of the press. If the…

Wing nut is a fastener with a threaded hole used to keep objects in place. Wing nut can be loosen or tighten by hand.

Wing Nut

Wing nut is a fastener with a threaded hole used to keep objects in place. Wing nut can be loosen or…

"A set of stocks, dies, and taps for cutting threads on bolts and inside of nuts."—The Federal Digest, 1921

Screw Plate

"A set of stocks, dies, and taps for cutting threads on bolts and inside of nuts."—The Federal…

"When force is applied at bar P which turns the screw. The plate B moves vertically with the screw, but does not turn. This allows the books to be compressed as the plate descends." —Quackenbos 1859

Bookbinder Press

"When force is applied at bar P which turns the screw. The plate B moves vertically with the screw,…

Griffith's Propeller, a common form of screw-propeller.

Griffith's Propeller

Griffith's Propeller, a common form of screw-propeller.

"Reversing rod inside hollow propeller shaft: by twisting the blades round, the motion of the boat is reversed without changing the rotation of the screw."—Finley, 1917

Reversible propeller

"Reversing rod inside hollow propeller shaft: by twisting the blades round, the motion of the boat is…

A propeller is a type of fan which transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and rear surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blade, and air or water is accelerated behind the blade.

Screw Propeller

A propeller is a type of fan which transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust. A pressure…

Thornycroft's propeller, a common form of screw propeller.

Thornycroft's propeller

Thornycroft's propeller, a common form of screw propeller.

"A screw is a cylinder with a helical proection winding around its circumference. This helix is called the thread of the screw. The distance that a point of the helix is drawn back or advanced in the direction of the length of the screw during one turn is called the pitch of the screw." —Hallock 1905

Using a Screw to Raise Weight

"A screw is a cylinder with a helical proection winding around its circumference. This helix is called…

Diagram of a rifle.

Diagram of a rifle

Diagram of a rifle.

Righthand spiral gears

Righthand Spiral Gears

Righthand spiral gears

A mechanical fastener.

Rivet

A mechanical fastener.

A screw made of iron, and furnished with a sharp thread, for insertion in wood.

Screw

A screw made of iron, and furnished with a sharp thread, for insertion in wood.

"The screw may be considered as a winding wedge; for it has the same relation to a straight wedge that a road, winding up a hill or town, has to a straight road of the same length and activity." — Goodrich, 1844

Screw

"The screw may be considered as a winding wedge; for it has the same relation to a straight wedge that…

"The screw is the sixth and last simple mechanical power. It may be consdered as a modification of the inclined plane, of as a winding wedge." -Comstock 1850

Screw

"The screw is the sixth and last simple mechanical power. It may be consdered as a modification of the…

"Cylinder with a spiral of winding parallel ridges called Threads. If the Threads were unwound from the cylinder, it would be one continuous wedge." —Quackenbos 1859

Screw

"Cylinder with a spiral of winding parallel ridges called Threads. If the Threads were unwound from…

Screw with lead and pitch.

Screw

Screw with lead and pitch.