Illustration of a catapult that would hurl stones and other projectiles at the enemy during the Middle Ages. These machines were used during the Crusades. They were especially useful during sieges when they could be used to hurl heavy stones at and over the walls of a city.

A Catapult Used to Hurl Projectiles in the Middle Ages

Illustration of a catapult that would hurl stones and other projectiles at the enemy during the Middle…

"A variety of quartz which is peculiar in consisting of bands or layers of various colors blended together."-Whitney, 1902

Agate

"A variety of quartz which is peculiar in consisting of bands or layers of various colors blended together."-Whitney,…

"Igneous rocks or lavas of various composition."-Whitney, 1902

Amygdaloid

"Igneous rocks or lavas of various composition."-Whitney, 1902

The Arabian mosaic circle pattern is inlaid pieces of stucco on stone.

Arabian Mosaic Square Pattern

The Arabian mosaic circle pattern is inlaid pieces of stucco on stone.

The Arabian mosaic circle pattern is made out of stucco on stone.

Arabian Mosaic Stucco on Stone

The Arabian mosaic circle pattern is made out of stucco on stone.

"Footprints resembling those birds are found on red argillaceous sandstones in the valley of Connecticut river, North America. These sandstones, though long considered of a much older date, were referred by the brothers Rogers to the oolitic period." — Chambers, 1881

Bird-Tracks

"Footprints resembling those birds are found on red argillaceous sandstones in the valley of Connecticut…

"Sepulchral or monumental, large plates of brass inlaid in polished slabs of stone, and usually exhibiting the figure of the person intended to be commemorated, either in a carved outline on the plate or in the form of the plate itself. In place of the figure we sometimes find an ornamented cross. The earliest example of these monumental slabs now existing in England is that on the tomb of Sir John D'Abernon at Stoke D'Abernon Surrey." — Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Brasses

"Sepulchral or monumental, large plates of brass inlaid in polished slabs of stone, and usually exhibiting…

"Ancient bridge in Laconia." — Smith, 1882

Bridge

"Ancient bridge in Laconia." — Smith, 1882

An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side. A viaduct (a long bridge) may be made from a series of arches, although other more economical structures are typically used today.

Arch Bridge

An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by…

An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side. A viaduct (a long bridge) may be made from a series of arches, although other more economical structures are typically used today.

Arch Bridge

An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by…

"An external brick or stone support to the wall of a building, or to a simple wall." — Williams, 1889

Buttress

"An external brick or stone support to the wall of a building, or to a simple wall." — Williams,…

"When a line of direction falls within the base, a body stands when not, it falls... On the same principle, a load of stone may pass safely over a hillside, on which a load of hay would be overturned [as shown by the line of direction in this illustration]." —Quackenbos 1859

Line of Direction from the Center of Gravity of an Object

"When a line of direction falls within the base, a body stands when not, it falls... On the same principle,…

"Let any irregularly shpaed body, as a stone or chair, be suspended so as to move freely. Drop a plumb line from the point of the suspendsion, and make it fast or mark its direction. The center of mass will lie in this line. From a second point, not in the line already determined, suspend the body; let it fall a plumb line as before. The center of mass will lie in this line also. But to lie in both lines, it must lie at their intersection." -Avery 1895

Finding the Center of Mass

"Let any irregularly shpaed body, as a stone or chair, be suspended so as to move freely. Drop a plumb…

Chopping tools used as hand axes in the Chellean age.

Chellean Age Chopping tools

Chopping tools used as hand axes in the Chellean age.

The marble mosaic circle pattern is inlaid pieces of stone, wood, glass, leather or straw to make a picture or pattern. This design is found in the San Vitale church in Ravenna, Italy.

Marble Mosaic Circle Pattern

The marble mosaic circle pattern is inlaid pieces of stone, wood, glass, leather or straw to make a…

Clay-iron stone concretion, Connecticut valley.

Clay-iron Stone Concretion

Clay-iron stone concretion, Connecticut valley.

This illustration shows a Clermont Gargoyle in France. Gargoyles, in Gothic architecture, are spouts projecting from the gutters of a building which carry the rain-water clear of the walls. Gargoyles are usually carved into different forms  (animal, human, demonic, grotesque) and serve as a distinguishing feature of ecclesiastical architecture.

Clermont Gargoyle

This illustration shows a Clermont Gargoyle in France. Gargoyles, in Gothic architecture, are spouts…

Illustration of the various layers of a Roman road. This is a section of the Appian Way, built across marsh-land. Pictured are the large flat stones topped with gradually smaller stones and capped with large, hard, stone blocks. A milestone is visible on the road, as well as archways beneath the road.

Construction Layers of a Section of the Appian Way

Illustration of the various layers of a Roman road. This is a section of the Appian Way, built across…

This modern French cross is made out of stone. It is the most important symbol of Christian art.

Modern French Cross

This modern French cross is made out of stone. It is the most important symbol of Christian art.

"A block of stone perforated by the pholus dactylus." — Goodrich, 1859

Pholas dactylus

"A block of stone perforated by the pholus dactylus." — Goodrich, 1859

"Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, of the race of Prometheus." —Bulfinch, 1897

Deucalion and Pyrrha

"Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, of the race of Prometheus." —Bulfinch, 1897

"Cromlechs, table-stones, generally consisting of one large flat stone supported by others which are upright. The cromlech is also named Dolmen, from Taal, or Dual, a table, and Maen, a stone." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Dolmen

"Cromlechs, table-stones, generally consisting of one large flat stone supported by others which are…

The early gothic finial is a three dimensional cross made out of stone. It serves to decorate Spires, Pinnacles and tombs.

Early Gothic Finial

The early gothic finial is a three dimensional cross made out of stone. It serves to decorate Spires,…

This early gothic finial is a 13th century three dimensional cross. Made out of stone, it decorates the top of a cathedral found in Chatres, a town in north-central France.

Early Gothic Finial

This early gothic finial is a 13th century three dimensional cross. Made out of stone, it decorates…

The french gothic finial is a three dimensional cross, made out of stone. It serves to decorate Spires, Pinnacles and tombs.

French Gothic Finial

The french gothic finial is a three dimensional cross, made out of stone. It serves to decorate Spires,…

The modern finial is three dimensional cross made of stone. It serves to decorate Spires, Pinnacles and tombs.

Modern Finial

The modern finial is three dimensional cross made of stone. It serves to decorate Spires, Pinnacles…

The modern finial is three dimensional cross made of stone. It serves to decorate Spires, Pinnacles and tombs.

Modern Finial

The modern finial is three dimensional cross made of stone. It serves to decorate Spires, Pinnacles…

The modern finial is three dimensional cross made of stone. It serves to decorate Spires, Pinnacles and tombs.

Modern Finial

The modern finial is three dimensional cross made of stone. It serves to decorate Spires, Pinnacles…

The modern gothic finial is a three dimensional cross made out of stone. It serves to decorate Spires, Pinnacles and tombs.

Modern Gothic Finial

The modern gothic finial is a three dimensional cross made out of stone. It serves to decorate Spires,…

"A concretionary stone or pebble, hollow inside, and often having the walls of the cavity lined with crystals." -Whitney, 1911

Quartz Geode

"A concretionary stone or pebble, hollow inside, and often having the walls of the cavity lined with…

"Block of Stone containing Graptolites. GRAPTOLITE. A specimen or a species of Paleozoic coelenterate organisms, commonly supposed to be hydrozoans, resembling the living sertularians." -Whitney, 1911

Graptolites in Stone

"Block of Stone containing Graptolites. GRAPTOLITE. A specimen or a species of Paleozoic coelenterate…

This illustration shows the gems worn on the breast plate of the high priest of the Hebrews. Each of these gems is mentioned in the Bible.
1) Cornelian (Reuben)
2) Topaz (Simeon)
3) Emerald (Levi)
4) Ruby (Judah)
5) Sapphire (Issachar)
6) Diamond (Zebulon)
7) Hyacinth (Dan)
8) Agate (Naphtali)
9) Amethyst (Gad)
10) Chrysolite (Asher)
11) Sardonyx (Joseph)
12) Jasper (Benjamin)

Hebrew Breastplate

This illustration shows the gems worn on the breast plate of the high priest of the Hebrews. Each of…

A 68-foot stone pillar located at Al-Matariyyah part of Heliopolis. It is considered to be the earlier obelisk built that is still in its original position.

Obelisk of Heliopolis

A 68-foot stone pillar located at Al-Matariyyah part of Heliopolis. It is considered to be the earlier…

"Horizontally-coursed Arch." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Horizontal Arch

"Horizontally-coursed Arch." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Illustration of the High Priest, most likely Aaron, in the Holy of Holies, holding the Ten Commandments. The Ark of the Covenant sits in the back.The Table of Showbread sits on the right with twelve loaves of bread on top. The Golden Candlestick is on the left with its seven lit flames. The Altar of Perfumes is in the center and incense is burning on it.

Inside the Holy of Holies in the Tabernacle

Illustration of the High Priest, most likely Aaron, in the Holy of Holies, holding the Ten Commandments.…

"The engraving shows a large, powerful man, of giant size and strength, endeavoring to move a large stone, or rock, which obstructs a passage way. His brute force is, however, unavailing, as with all his great strength he cannot move the stone one inch. But see the superiority of head work, or wisdom. A small, weak man approaches: he has not got half the bodily strength of his companion, but he has a larger and more powerful mind, and by it he can do what the other cannot; he can lift a weight which the other cannot move. His wisdom teaches him the power of the lever, and by one arm he can move a house, showing that 'Knowledge is Power.'"—Barber, 1857

Knowledge is Power

"The engraving shows a large, powerful man, of giant size and strength, endeavoring to move a large…

"The color is yellowish marked with brown. Like the sharks and rays is it without an air bladder; to prevent itself from being carried about by currents of water it prefquently attackes itself to stones by the mouth, whence it is called the <em>Stone-sucker</em>." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

European lamprey

"The color is yellowish marked with brown. Like the sharks and rays is it without an air bladder; to…

"Monoliths or single upright stones. The best example is at Carnac, in Brittany. This huge stone when perfect, was 63 feet high, and 14 feet in diameter at its widest part. It is rudely shaped to a circular form, and weighs about 260 tons." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Maenhir and Trillithon

"Monoliths or single upright stones. The best example is at Carnac, in Brittany. This huge stone when…

The Moorish mosaic circle pattern is made out of stone and glazed terracotta. This design is found in the Alhambra palace in Granada, Spain.

Moorish Mosaic Pattern

The Moorish mosaic circle pattern is made out of stone and glazed terracotta. This design is found in…

"And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf and the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount." Exodus 32:19 ASV
<p>Illustration of Moses throwing down the stone tablets and breaking them after finding the Israelites worshiping an idol in the shape of a golden calf. One tablet lies broken on the ground and he is raising the second one, ready to smash it. Aaron stands next to him, distressed and trying to stop him. The people can be seen in the background, crowded around the golden calf. The tents are behind them.

Moses Breaks the Stone Tablets on Which the Ten Commandments are Written

"And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf and the dancing: and…

"Temple in Palmyra." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Temple in Palmyra

"Temple in Palmyra." — Goodrich, 1844

The modern Gothic parapet is a stone design of a wall-like barrier found on the edge of a roof or structure. This style includes tracery, a series of intersecting ribbed lines.

Modern Gothic Parapet

The modern Gothic parapet is a stone design of a wall-like barrier found on the edge of a roof or structure.…

The modern Gothic parapet is a stone design of a wall-like barrier found on the edge of a roof or structure. This style includes tracery, a series of intersecting ribbed lines.

Modern Gothic Parapet

The modern Gothic parapet is a stone design of a wall-like barrier found on the edge of a roof or structure.…

The stone parapet is a German Renaissance design of scrolls found on the Dagobert tower, a castle in Baden-Baden, Germany.

Stone Parapet

The stone parapet is a German Renaissance design of scrolls found on the Dagobert tower, a castle in…

A species of pine native to southern Europe. It is widely known for its edible pine nuts since prehistoric times.

Parasol Pine

A species of pine native to southern Europe. It is widely known for its edible pine nuts since prehistoric…

"[This illustration] shows the path of a stone thrown obliquely from the hand. The propelling force sends it in a straight line to A, and would take it on in the same direction to B, were it not that, as soon as its velocity becomes sufficiently diminished, gravity and the air's resistance give it a circular motion to C, and finally bring it to the earth at D." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Projectile Motion of a Stone

"[This illustration] shows the path of a stone thrown obliquely from the hand. The propelling force…

Exterior of the Pylon of the Temple of Edfu.

Pylon of the Temple of Edfu

Exterior of the Pylon of the Temple of Edfu.

"The Pyrenean forge essentially consists of a silicious stone bottom (covered over with a "brasque" of charcoal powder rammed down), with a tuyere inclining downward." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pyrenean Forge

"The Pyrenean forge essentially consists of a silicious stone bottom (covered over with a "brasque"…

"A primitive mill for grinding corn, the stone of which was turned by the hand before the invention of windmills or water-mills. It is a contrivance of great antiquity, and so well adapted for the wants of a primitive people, that we find it perpetuated to the present day in remote districts of Ireland, and some parts of the Western Islands of Scotland." — Chambers, 1881

Quern

"A primitive mill for grinding corn, the stone of which was turned by the hand before the invention…

"And behold, there was a great earthquake; for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled away the stone, and sat upon it. His appearance was as lightning, and his raiment white as snow: and for fear of him the watchers did quake, and became as dead men." Matthew 28:2-4 ASV
<p>Illustration of Jesus emerging from his tomb. He hovers above the ground and appears to glow. He holds a banner in his left hand. An angel (left) holds the stone that once covered the entrance. Two soldiers lie on the ground, one covers his face and turns away. One soldier stands to Christ's left, leaning against a wall with his eyes closed.

The Resurrection of Jesus after the Angel Removed the Stone from the Tomb Entrance

"And behold, there was a great earthquake; for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came…

"And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.

4 And it came to pass, while they were perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling apparel:

5 and as they were affrighted and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead?" Luke 24:3-5 ASV
<p>Illustration of three women finding an empty tomb when they come to see Jesus. One woman carries a jar. Another leans slightly over the empty tomb. Two angels stand at the end of the tomb, one holding an olive branch. The opening to the cave is uncovered and the lid to the tomb is off.

Mary Magdalene, Mary the Mother of James, and Salome Find Jesus' Empty Tomb

"And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus. 4 And it came to pass, while they were…

Illustration of the Norman-built Rochester castle. The architect of the castle was Gundulf, a Norman monk, and the castle protected England's southeast coast. It is a view of the castle from the northwest and two of its towers are visible. There is a road leading away from the castle. A woman and a child holding hands, walk down the road. Trees line the road.

Rochester Castle as Seen from the Northwest

Illustration of the Norman-built Rochester castle. The architect of the castle was Gundulf, a Norman…

A simple conical roof.

Conical Style Roof Type

A simple conical roof.

A simple hip roof.

Hip Style Roof Type

A simple hip roof.

A simple king-post roof.

King-post Roof

A simple king-post roof.

A simple m-roof.

Style M-Roof Type

A simple m-roof.

A simple queen-post roof.

Queen-post Roof

A simple queen-post roof.

A rose cut is a cut of gemstone. In this cut, the upper surface is shaped into triangular facets of nearly equal size throughout.

Rose Cut

A rose cut is a cut of gemstone. In this cut, the upper surface is shaped into triangular facets of…

"Sand Blast is one of the most wonderful uses of sand, by means of which glass, stone, metals, or any other hard substance may be cut or engraved. If a stream of sharp sand be let fall from a high box (as high as the ceiling of a room) through a tube on to a plate of glass held under it, the sand will cut away little grains of the glass till at length the whole surface will be cut or scratched and it will look like ground glass. If, instead of cutting the glass all over, it is wanted to engrave a pattern or figure on it, the workman has only to cover the parts of the glass which he does not want cut with a stencil plate made of leather, rubber, paper, wax, etc., for the sand will not cut any soft substance. Metals and stones may also be cut by means of the sand blast, which will not only scratch the surface, but will cut it away to any depth."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Sand Blast Apparatus

"Sand Blast is one of the most wonderful uses of sand, by means of which glass, stone, metals, or any…

The scamillus is the piece of stone sitting directly underneath a column.

Scamillus

The scamillus is the piece of stone sitting directly underneath a column.