Branchi of the lungs, the heart, and blood vessels. Labels: 1, left auricle; 2, right auricle; 3, left ventricle; 5, pulmonary artery; 6, arch of the aorta; 7, superior vena cava; 8, arteria innominata; 9, left primitive carotid artery; 10, left subclavian artery; 11, trachea; 12, larynx; 13, upper lobe of right lung; 14, upper lobe of left lung; 15, trunk of right pulmonary artery; 16, lower lobes of the lungs.

Branchi and Blood Vessels

Branchi of the lungs, the heart, and blood vessels. Labels: 1, left auricle; 2, right auricle; 3, left…

A small bronchial tube. Labels: a, dividing into its terminal branches, c; these have pouched or sacculated walls and end in the sacculated infundibula, b.

A Bronchial Tube

A small bronchial tube. Labels: a, dividing into its terminal branches, c; these have pouched or sacculated…

"<em>A</em>, a muscle which aids in pushing the food down the esophagus; <em>B</em>, esophagus; <em>C</em>, section of the right bronchus; <em>D</em>, two right pulmonary veins; <em>E</em>, great azygos vein crossing the esophagus to empty into the superior vena cava, <em>F</em>, thoracic duct; <em>H</em>, thoracic aorta; <em>K</em>, lower portion of the esophagus passing through the diaphragm; <em>L</em>, diaphragm as it appears in sectional view, enveloping the heart; <em>M</em>, inferior vena cava, passing through the diaphragm and emptying into the right auricle; <em>N</em>, right auricle; <em>O</em>, section of the right branch of the pulminary artery; <em>P</em>, aorta; <em>R</em>, superior vena cava; <em>S</em>, trachea." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Lateral section of the chest

"A, a muscle which aids in pushing the food down the esophagus; B, esophagus; C,…

"A, columnar cells of intestine; B, polyhedral cells of the conjuctiva; C, ciliated conical cells of the trachea; D, ciliated cell of frog's mothl E, inverted conical cell of the trachea; F, squamous cell of the cavity of the mouth, seen on its broad surface; G, squamous cell, seen edgeways." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Various kinds of epithelial cells

"A, columnar cells of intestine; B, polyhedral cells of the conjuctiva; C, ciliated conical cells of…

Ciliated epithelium from the human trachea, highly magnified. Labels: a, large ciliated cell; d, cell, with two nuclei."In ciliated epithelium the cells, which are generally columnar in shape, bear at their free extremities little hair-like processes which are agitated incessantly with a lashing or vibrating motion. These minute and delicate processes are named cilia, and may be regarded as active prolongations of the cell-protoplasm." &mdash;Kimber, 1907

Ciliated Epithelium Cells

Ciliated epithelium from the human trachea, highly magnified. Labels: a, large ciliated cell; d, cell,…

The relationship of the esophagus, trachea and aorta in an infant.

Esophagus, Trachea, and Aorta in an Infant

The relationship of the esophagus, trachea and aorta in an infant.

"Glottis, or opening of trachea in the mouth; a, base of tongue; b, b, horns of hyoid bone; c, rima glottidis, cleft or chink of the glottis; d, a triangular vacuity; e, an elastic ligament; d, d and e represent an epiglottis; f, f, a papillose surface." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Glottis of a Rook

"Glottis, or opening of trachea in the mouth; a, base of tongue; b, b, horns of hyoid bone; c, rima…

Sagittal median section of the head and neck. The head is thrown backward into complete extension which explains the relations between the lower jaw and the hyoid bone as seen in the figure.

Sagittal Section of the Head and Neck

Sagittal median section of the head and neck. The head is thrown backward into complete extension which…

The heart and lungs. 1, right ventricle; 3, right auricle (atrium); 6, 7, pulmonary artery; 9, aorta; 10, superior vena cava; 11, innominate artery; 12, right subclavian vein; 14, innominate vein; 15, left common carotid; 17, trachea; 20, pulmonary veins; 22 to 25, lungs, partially turned back to show veins on left side.

Heart and Lungs

The heart and lungs. 1, right ventricle; 3, right auricle (atrium); 6, 7, pulmonary artery; 9, aorta;…

The heart, showing its relative position to the lungs. The heart is almost wholly covered up by the lungs and it is encased in a sack or bag (the pericardium), and around this there is considerable padding. The lungs are represented as drawn apart, so that a full view of the heart with its arteries and veins can be seen, and the sac of the heart and packing material is also removed. At <em>a</em> is the trachea or windpipe; on each side are the two arteries that go to the head; <em>c</em> is the artery that goes to the arm; <em>b, b</em> are the veins coming from the head, and <em>d, d</em> the veins from the arms, all emptying into a large vein that goes to the right auricle of the heart, <em>e</em>; <em>f</em> is the large vein that brings the blood from below to this auricle; <em>g</em> is the right ventricle, <em>i</em> the left, and <em>h</em> is the aorta as it goes down from the heart.

Heart and Lungs

The heart, showing its relative position to the lungs. The heart is almost wholly covered up by the…

"a, b, c, d, inferior laryngeal or syringeal muscles, not well made out in this figure; But typical oscine arrangement (acromyodian) is perceived, inasmuch as anterior (a) and posterior (d) intrinsic muscular masses go to ends of the first tracheal half-ring, at b and c; the extrinsic slip e passing to sternum." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Laryngeal Muscles of a Rook

"a, b, c, d, inferior laryngeal or syringeal muscles, not well made out in this figure; But typical…

External view of the left side of Larynx. 1: Front portion of hyoid bone; 2: Upper edge of larynx; 3: Lower portion of larynx; 4: Second ring of trachea.

Larynx

External view of the left side of Larynx. 1: Front portion of hyoid bone; 2: Upper edge of larynx; 3:…

Cross section of the larynx above the vocal cords. 1: Right vocal cord. 2: Left vocal cord. 3: Cartilages to which the vocal cords are attached behind; 4: Front edge of the larynx.

Larynx

Cross section of the larynx above the vocal cords. 1: Right vocal cord. 2: Left vocal cord. 3: Cartilages…

"Muscles of the larynx. - thyro-hyoids." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Larynx Muscles of a Rook

"Muscles of the larynx. - thyro-hyoids." Elliot Coues, 1884

"Muscles of the larynx. thyro-arytenoids, or openers of the glottis" Elliot Coues, 1884

The Larynx Muscles of a Rook

"Muscles of the larynx. thyro-arytenoids, or openers of the glottis" Elliot Coues, 1884

"Muscles of the larynx. Oblique arytenoids" Elliot Coues, 1884

The Larynx Muscles of a Rook

"Muscles of the larynx. Oblique arytenoids" Elliot Coues, 1884

"Muscles of the larynx. Thyro-cricoids, posterior thyro-cricoids." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Larynx Muscles of a Rook

"Muscles of the larynx. Thyro-cricoids, posterior thyro-cricoids." Elliot Coues, 1884

"Muscles of the larynx. Posterior thyro-cricoids." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Larynx Muscles of a Rook

"Muscles of the larynx. Posterior thyro-cricoids." Elliot Coues, 1884

Labels: T, thyroid cartilage: C, cricoid cartilage; Tr, trachea; H, hyoid bone; E, epiglottis; I, joint of thyroid cartilage; Ar, arytenoid cartilages.

Back View of the Larynx

Labels: T, thyroid cartilage: C, cricoid cartilage; Tr, trachea; H, hyoid bone; E, epiglottis; I, joint…

"Cartilages and Ligaments of the Larynx. (Front view.) <em>A</em>, epiglottis; <em>B</em>, thyroid cartilage; <em>C</em>, ladle-shaped cartilage; <em>E</em>, cricoid cartilage; <em>F</em>, upper ring of the windpipe." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Posterior view of the larynx

"Cartilages and Ligaments of the Larynx. (Front view.) A, epiglottis; B, thyroid cartilage;…

"Larynx viewed from before (below); a, thyroid bone or cartilage." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Larynx of a Rook

"Larynx viewed from before (below); a, thyroid bone or cartilage." Elliot Coues, 1884

"Larynx viewed from behind (above); a, thyroid bone; b, b, its appendages; c, cricoid; d, d, arytenoids; e, e, anterior border of thyroid, to which d, d, are connected by two arytenoid ligaments." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Larynx of a Rook

"Larynx viewed from behind (above); a, thyroid bone; b, b, its appendages; c, cricoid; d, d, arytenoids;…

"Larynx viewed from the right side; a, thyroid; b, appendage; c, cricoid; d, arytenoid; f, f, cartilage attached to arytenoid; g, a tracheal ring." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Larynx of a Rook

"Larynx viewed from the right side; a, thyroid; b, appendage; c, cricoid; d, arytenoid; f, f, cartilage…

"Larynx viewed from behind; a, thyroid; b, b, its appendages; c, cricoid; d, d, arytenoid." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Larynx of a Rook

"Larynx viewed from behind; a, thyroid; b, b, its appendages; c, cricoid; d, d, arytenoid." Elliot Coues,…

Labels: T, thyroid cartilage: C, cricoid cartilage; Tr, trachea; H, hyoid bone; E, epiglottis; I, joint of thyroid cartilage.

Side View of the Larynx

Labels: T, thyroid cartilage: C, cricoid cartilage; Tr, trachea; H, hyoid bone; E, epiglottis; I, joint…

The larynx as seen by means of the laryngoscope in different conditions of the glottis. Labels: A, while singing a high note; b, in quiet breathing; C, during a deep inspiration; l, base of tongue; e, upper free edge of epiglottis; e', cushion of the epiglottis; ph, part of anterior wall of pharynx; cv, the true vocal cords; cvs, the false vocal cords; tr, the trachea with its rings; b, the two bronchi at their commencement.

The Larynx in Different Conditions of the Glottis

The larynx as seen by means of the laryngoscope in different conditions of the glottis. Labels: A, while…

Front view of cartilages of larynx, trachea and Bronchi.

Front View of the Cartilages of the Larynx, Trachea and Bronchi.

Front view of cartilages of larynx, trachea and Bronchi.

"<em>A</em>, division of left bronchus to upper lobe; <em>B</em>, left branch of the pulmonary artery; <em>C</em>, left bronchus; <em>D</em>, left superior pulmonary vein; <em>E</em>, left inferior pulmonary vein; <em>F</em>, left auricle; <em>K</em>, inferior vena cava; <em>L</em>; division of the right bronchus to lower lobe; <em>M</em>, right inferior pulmonary vein; <em>N</em>, right superior pulmonary vein, <em>O</em>, right branch of the pulmonary artery; <em>P</em>, division of right bronchus to upper lobe; <em>R</em>, left ventricle; <em>S</em>, right ventricle." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Lungs

"A, division of left bronchus to upper lobe; B, left branch of the pulmonary artery;…

This is a diagram illustrating lungs or tracheae. b.c., the cavity in which the body fluids circulate; l, the walls of the lung, which are much thinned inpockedings of the body wall (w); ex., the external medium-usually the atmosphere-in which the oxygen is found.

Lungs

This is a diagram illustrating lungs or tracheae. b.c., the cavity in which the body fluids circulate;…

"The Lungs. 1, Summit of lungs. 2, Base of lungs. 3, Trachea. 4, Right bronchus. 5, Left bronchus. 6, Left aurical of heart. 7, Left superior pulmonary vein. 8, Right superior pulmonary vein. 9, Left ventricle of heart. 10, Right ventricle of heart." -Foster, 1921

Lungs

"The Lungs. 1, Summit of lungs. 2, Base of lungs. 3, Trachea. 4, Right bronchus. 5, Left bronchus. 6,…

The lungs and air passages seen from the front. On the left of the figure the pulmonary tissue has been dissected away to show the ramifications of the bronchial tubes. Labels: a, larynx; b, trachea; d, right bronchus. The left bronchus is seen entering the root of its lung.

Lungs and Air Passages

The lungs and air passages seen from the front. On the left of the figure the pulmonary tissue has been…

The lungs and air passages seen from the front. On the left of the figure the pulmonary tissue has been dissected away to show the ramifications of the bronchial tubes. Labels: a, larynx; b, trachea; d, right bronchus. The left bronchus is seen entering the root of its lung.

The Lungs and Air Passages

The lungs and air passages seen from the front. On the left of the figure the pulmonary tissue has been…

Anterior view of the lungs and heart. Labels: 1, heart; 2, inferior vena cava; 3, superior vena cava; 4, right innominate vein; 5, left innominate vein; 6, jugular vein; 7, subclavian vein; 8, arch of aorta; 8', subclavian artery; 9, left pulmonary artery; 9', 9', carotid artery; 10, trachea; 11, left bronchus; 12, ramifications of right bronchus exposed in upper lobe of right lung; 13, 14, middle lobe; 15, lower lobe; 16, upper lobe of left lung; 17, lower lobe of left lung.

Anterior View of the Lungs and Heart

Anterior view of the lungs and heart. Labels: 1, heart; 2, inferior vena cava; 3, superior vena cava;…

The lungs and windpipe (trachea). Labels: 1, larynx; 2, windpipe (trachea); 3, right lung, showing bronchi and bronchial tube.

Lungs and Trachea

The lungs and windpipe (trachea). Labels: 1, larynx; 2, windpipe (trachea); 3, right lung, showing bronchi…

Diagram showing the structure of the lungs. At <em>d</em> is the left lung, and at <em>c</em> are represented the main branch of the windpipe that go to the right lung, separated by the lung itself. At the lower part, at <em>e</em>, are represented the very minute branches as they go to the air-cells (alveoli). At <em>b</em> is the windpipe (trachea), and at <em>a</em> is the larynx (or Adam's apple). It is through a chink in this that air passes in and out as we breathe.

Structure of the Lungs

Diagram showing the structure of the lungs. At d is the left lung, and at c are represented…

"The lungs fill up most of the cavity of the chest. One lies on either side of the heart which is in the middle of the chest. The lungs in animals are called lights because they are spongy sacs and so light as to float when thrown into water." &mdash;Davison, 1910

The lungs

"The lungs fill up most of the cavity of the chest. One lies on either side of the heart which is in…

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the commencement of gullet (esophagus) and larynx, as exposed by a section a little to the left of the median plane of the head. Labels: a, vertebrae; b, gullet; c, trachea; d, larynx; e, epiglottis; f, soft palate; g, opening of Eustachian tube; k, tongue; l, hard palate; o, p, q, inferior turbinate bones of left nasal chamber.

The Mouth, Nose, and Pharynx

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the commencement of gullet (esophagus) and larynx, as exposed by…

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the larynx and commencement of gullet (esophagus), seen in section. Labels: a, vertebral column; b, gullet (esophagus); c, trachea; d, larynx; e, epiglottis; f, soft palate, between f and e is the opening at back of cavity or faces; g, opening of Eustachian tube; h, nasal cavity; k, tongue; l, hard palate; m, sphenoid bone at base of skull; n, roof of nasal cavity; o, p, q, placed in nasal cavity.

The Mouth, Nose, and Pharynx

The mouth, nose, and pharynx, with the larynx and commencement of gullet (esophagus), seen in section.…

Sagittal section of a man.

Sagittal Section of the Neck and Head

Sagittal section of a man.

"Trachea of the nightengale." Elliot Coues

Nightengale Trachea

"Trachea of the nightengale." Elliot Coues

"The respiratory mechanism consists of the lungs, a series of minute air chambers with a network of capillaries in the wall, the air passages from the air chambers of the lngs to the outer air, and the chest walls with their muscles, which act like bellows and change the ai r in the lungs. Let us begin with the air passages. There are first the nose and mouth; these join the upper part of the gullet, known as the pharynx. From the pharnyx arises the windpipe (trachea); this passes through the voice box (larynx) into the chest cavity; there it divides into two passages (the bronchi); the bronchi go on dividing again and again, generally into two; the ultimate divisions (the bronchioles) open into clusters of air chambers."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Respiratory Mechanism

"The respiratory mechanism consists of the lungs, a series of minute air chambers with a network of…

"Larynx, trachea, and bronchi, showing the manner of division, and the rings of cartilage." &mdash; Tracy, 1888

Respiratory system

"Larynx, trachea, and bronchi, showing the manner of division, and the rings of cartilage." —…

The respiratory system. Labels: 1. the larynx; 2. the trachea; 3. right bronchia; 4. left bronchia; 5. left lung divided into three lobes; 7. large bronchial tubes; 8. small bronchial tubes ending in air cells or vesicles.

Respiratory System

The respiratory system. Labels: 1. the larynx; 2. the trachea; 3. right bronchia; 4. left bronchia;…

The respiratory system. Labels: 1, larynx; 2, trachea; 3, right lung; 4, left lung; 5, heart.

Respiratory System

The respiratory system. Labels: 1, larynx; 2, trachea; 3, right lung; 4, left lung; 5, heart.

Operative approaches through the front of the neck to the larynx, pharynx, and trachea. a: Approach to pharynx between the hyoid and the thyroid cartilages. b: Approach to the larynx between the thyroid and cricoid cartilages. c: approach to the larynx below the cricoid cartilage and above the isthmus of the thyroid gland. d: Approach for low tracheotomy.

Upper Respiratory Tract

Operative approaches through the front of the neck to the larynx, pharynx, and trachea. a: Approach…

"Larynx, Trachea, and the Bronchi. (Front view.) <em>A</em>, epiglottis; <em>B</em>, thyroid cartilage; <em>C</em>, cricothyroid membrane, connecting with the cricoid cartilage below, all forming the larynx; <em>D</em>, rings of the trachea." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Trachea

"Larynx, Trachea, and the Bronchi. (Front view.) A, epiglottis; B, thyroid cartilage;…

The trachea and bronchi. The thyroid body is indicated by a dotted line.

Trachea and Bronchi

The trachea and bronchi. The thyroid body is indicated by a dotted line.

Transverse section of trachea and esophagus of child, seen from below.

Transverse Section of Trachea and Esophagus

Transverse section of trachea and esophagus of child, seen from below.

"The <em>trachea</em> has in its walls stiff rings of cartilage that hold it open so that the air can pass freely through it to and from the lungs. At its base the trachea divides and sends a great branch to each lung." &mdash; Ritchie, 1918

Trachea and lungs

"The trachea has in its walls stiff rings of cartilage that hold it open so that the air can…

Transverse section of trachea, showing general arrangement of its wall.

Transverse Section of Trachea Showing Arrangement of Walls

Transverse section of trachea, showing general arrangement of its wall.

"Bifurcation of trachea; aba, last entire tracheal ring." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Trachea of a Rook

"Bifurcation of trachea; aba, last entire tracheal ring." Elliot Coues, 1884

"Last entire tracheal ring, viewed from below, crossed by the pessulus." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Trachea of a Rook

"Last entire tracheal ring, viewed from below, crossed by the pessulus." Elliot Coues, 1884

"Bifurcation of trachea, and bronchi, viewed from below; a, pessulus, the bolt-bar, or "bone of divarication"; b, b, next succeeding tracheal half-rings.Elliot Coues, 1884

The Trachea of a Rook

"Bifurcation of trachea, and bronchi, viewed from below; a, pessulus, the bolt-bar, or "bone of divarication";…

Section of the trachea. Labels: a, columnar ciliated epithelium; b and c, proper structure of the mucous membrane, containing elastic fibers cut across transversely; d, submucous tissue containing mucous glands, e, separated from the hyaline cartilage, g, by a fine fibrous tissue, f; h, external investment of fine fibrous tissue.

Section of the Trachea

Section of the trachea. Labels: a, columnar ciliated epithelium; b and c, proper structure of the mucous…

Transverse section through the trachea and its immediate surroundings at the level of each of the upper five dorsal vertebrae.

Sections Through Trachea

Transverse section through the trachea and its immediate surroundings at the level of each of the upper…

Transverse section of the trachea, just above its bifurcation, showing the carina tracheae.

Transverse Section of the Trachea

Transverse section of the trachea, just above its bifurcation, showing the carina tracheae.

"1, 2, left, two tracheal rings, separate. b; 1, 2, right hand, the same put together." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Tracheal Rings of a Bird

"1, 2, left, two tracheal rings, separate. b; 1, 2, right hand, the same put together." Elliot Coues,…

Part of a tracheal stem and branches of an insect. Labels: Z, cellular outer wall; SP, cuticular inner wall with spiral fiber.

Tracheal Stem and Branches

Part of a tracheal stem and branches of an insect. Labels: Z, cellular outer wall; SP, cuticular inner…

Tracheal system of a fly larva. Labels: Tr, longitudinal stem of right side; St', St", anterior and posterior stigmata.

Tracheal System of Fly Larva

Tracheal system of a fly larva. Labels: Tr, longitudinal stem of right side; St', St", anterior and…

Young vascular bundle: p, primary phloem; x, primary xylem; c, first divisions of cambium cells.

Vascular Bundle

Young vascular bundle: p, primary phloem; x, primary xylem; c, first divisions of cambium cells.