Lit2Go

Symbolic Logic

by Lewis Carroll

“Book 1: Chapter 4”

• Year Published: 1896
• Language: English
• Country of Origin: United States of America
• Source: Carroll, L. (1896). Symbolic Logic. New York; Macmillan & Co.
• Flesch–Kincaid Level: 10.5
• Word Count: 610
• Genre: Informational
• Keywords: math history, mathematics

CHAPTER IV.

NAMES.

The word “Thing”, which conveys the idea of a Thing, without any idea of an Adjunct, represents any single Thing. Any other word (or phrase), which conveys the idea of a Thing, with the idea of an Adjunct represents any Thing which possesses that Adjunct; i.e., it represents any Member of the Class to which that Adjunct is peculiar.

Such a word (or phrase is called a ‘Name’; and, if there be an existing Thing which it represents, it is said to be a Name of that Thing.

[For example, the words “Thing,” “Treasure,” “Town,” and the phrases “valuable Thing,” “material artificial Thing consisting of houses and streets,” “Town lit with gas,” “Town paved with gold,” “old English Book.”]

Just as a Class is said to be Real, or Unreal, according as there is, or is not, an existing Thing in it, so also a Name is said to be Real, or Unreal, according as there is, or is not, an existing Thing represented by it.

[Thus, “Town lit with gas” is a Real Name: “Town paved with gold” is an Unreal Name.]

Every Name is either a Substantive only, or else a phrase consisting of a Substantive and one or more Adjectives (or phrases used as Adjectives).

Every Name, except “Thing”, may usually be expressed in three different forms:-

(a) The Substantive “Thing”, and one or more Adjectives (or phrases used as Adjectives) convey ing the ideas of the Attributes; (b) A Substantive, conveying the idea of a Thing with the ideas of some of the Attributes, and one or more Adjectives (or phrases used as Adjectives) conveying the ideas of the other Attributes; (c) A Substantive conveying the idea of a Thing with the ideas of all the Attributes.

[Thus, the phrase “material living Thing, belonging to the Animal Kingdom, having two hands and two feet” is a Name expressed in Form (a). If we choose to roll up together the Substantive “Thing” and the Adjectives “material, living, belonging to the Animal Kingdom,” so as to make the new Substantive “Animal,” we get the phrase “Animal having two hands and two feet,” which is a Name (representing the same Thing as before) expressed in Form (b). And, if we choose to roll up the whole phrase into one word, so as to make the new Substantive “Man,” we get a Name (still representing the very same Thing) expressed in Form (c).]

A Name, whose Substantive is in the plural number, may be used to represent either

(1) Members of a Class, regarded as separate Things; or (2) a whole Class, regarded as one single Thing.

[Thus, when I say “Some soldiers of the Tenth Regiment are tall,” or “The soldiers of the Tenth Regiment are brave,” I an using the Name “soldiers of the Tenth Regiment” in the first sense; and it is just the same as if I were to point to each of them separately, and to say “This soldier of the Tenth Regiment is tall,” “That soldier of the Tenth Regiment is tall,” and so on. But, when I say “The soldiers of the Tenth Regiment are formed in square,” I am using the phrase in the second sense; and it is just the same as if I were to say “The Tenth Regiment is formed in square.”]