The Miscellaneous Optics ClipArt gallery offers 79 illustrations related to general optics.

"Diagram of inclined carbon-flame arc lamp." —Croft 1917

Carbon Flame Arc Lamp

"Diagram of inclined carbon-flame arc lamp." —Croft 1917

"A positive biaxial interference figure with the principal sections nearly corresponding to those of the nicols. The arrows indicate the movement taking place upon inserting a quartz wedge above the section." -Johannsen, 1908

Biaxial Interference

"A positive biaxial interference figure with the principal sections nearly corresponding to those of…

"A biaxial interference figure showing the emergence of an optic axis. The arrow indicates the movement taking place upon inserting a quartz wedge above the section. The mineral is augite. (+)." -Johannsen, 1908

Biaxial Interference

"A biaxial interference figure showing the emergence of an optic axis. The arrow indicates the movement…

"A negative biaxial interference figure. The arrows indicate the movement taking place upon inserting a quartz wedge above the section. Epidote. (-)." -Johannsen, 1908

Negative Biaxial Interference

"A negative biaxial interference figure. The arrows indicate the movement taking place upon inserting…

"A positive biaxial interference figure. The arrows indicate the movement taking place upon inserting a quartz wedge above the section. Olivine. (+)." -Johannsen, 1908

Positive Biaxial Interference

"A positive biaxial interference figure. The arrows indicate the movement taking place upon inserting…

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric cylindric refractor with zones of silvered mirror above and below similar in profile to Bordier Marcet's reflector. By the adoption of the refractor the whole of the wasteful divergence which occurs in Marcet's reflector is prevented. We have here a geometrically perfect combination, but it is not so physically, because metallic reflexion is used. This physical defect Fresnel obviated in his next design." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadiopteric Light

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric…

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric cylindric refractor with zones of silvered mirror above and below similar in profile to Bordier Marcet's reflector. By the adoption of the refractor the whole of the wasteful divergence which occurs in Marcet's reflector is prevented. We have here a geometrically perfect combination, but it is not so physically, because metallic reflexion is used. This physical defect Fresnel obviated in his next design." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadiopteric Light

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric…

"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized by the lens L, whose principal focus (i.e., for parallel rays) is in the center of the flame, while the remainder is intercepted and made parallel by the paraboloid a, and thus the double agents in Fresnel's design are dispensed with. The rays of the posterior hemisphere are reflected by the spherical mirror b back again through the foxus, whence passing onwards one portion of them falls on the lens and the rest on the paraboloid, so as finally to emerge in union with and parallel to the front rays." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadioptric Holophote

"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized…

"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized by the lens L, whose principal focus (i.e., for parallel rays) is in the center of the flame, while the remainder is intercepted and made parallel by the paraboloid a, and thus the double agents in Fresnel's design are dispensed with. The rays of the posterior hemisphere are reflected by the spherical mirror b back again through the foxus, whence passing onwards one portion of them falls on the lens and the rest on the paraboloid, so as finally to emerge in union with and parallel to the front rays." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadioptric Holophote

"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized…

"Any two colors standing opposite each other are complementary to each other. If such colors are blended, the resultant is white light; if any two alternate color are blended, the resultant will be the color that appears between them in the figure." — Avery, 1895

Complementary color wheel

"Any two colors standing opposite each other are complementary to each other. If such colors are blended,…

"Condensing Apparatus for Steamer's Side Lights.—By means of this application of the condensing principle all the light can be distributed with strict equality over 112 degrees, which is the arc prescribed for steamers by the Board of Trade. Several of the Transatlantic and other steamers have adopted this kind of apparatus, which is hung on gimbals and placed in iron towers, having an entry from below the deck, which can be made use of in bad weather." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Apparatus

"Condensing Apparatus for Steamer's Side Lights.—By means of this application of the condensing…

"Condensing Apparatus for Steamer's Side Lights.—By means of this application of the condensing principle all the light can be distributed with strict equality over 112 degrees, which is the arc prescribed for steamers by the Board of Trade. Several of the Transatlantic and other steamers have adopted this kind of apparatus, which is hung on gimbals and placed in iron towers, having an entry from below the deck, which can be made use of in bad weather." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Apparatus

"Condensing Apparatus for Steamer's Side Lights.—By means of this application of the condensing…

"Fixed Conensing Light for a Single Sector, 1850.—The holophote Light pLp throws its whole light on straight condensing prisms c, each of which distributes the rays over the required sector." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Light

"Fixed Conensing Light for a Single Sector, 1850.—The holophote Light pLp throws its whole light…

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly over the angle of 45 degrees pgp, while the supplemental rays fall upon the straight condensing prisms p, each of which spreads the incident rays parallel to the corresponding rays in the central angle pgp. In this way the whole of the front hemisphere of rays is parallelized in the vertical plane and spread equally over the 45 degree in azimuth." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Octant

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly…

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly over the angle of 45 degrees pgp, while the supplemental rays fall upon the straight condensing prisms p, each of which spreads the incident rays parallel to the corresponding rays in the central angle pgp. In this way the whole of the front hemisphere of rays is parallelized in the vertical plane and spread equally over the 45 degree in azimuth." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Octant

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly…

"Condensing Quadrant.—The fixed apparatus bbb, with spherical mirror behind, throws its rays directly through the angle of 90 degrees afa', while the supplementary rays falling on the straight condensing prisms p, p, p', p' are sent out parallel to the corresponding rays in the unobstructed central quadrant of the main apparatus. The whole light will therefore be condensed equally over 90 degrees." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Quadrant

"Condensing Quadrant.—The fixed apparatus bbb, with spherical mirror behind, throws its rays directly…

"Movement of the left bar...upon rotating the stage to the right, and movement of the colored rings upon inserting a quartz wedge." -Johannsen, 1908

Crystal Movement

"Movement of the left bar...upon rotating the stage to the right, and movement of the colored rings…

"Throw a sunbeam through a very small opening in the shutter of a darkened room. Receive the beam upon a convex lens of short focal length, placing a pieve of red glass between the aperture and the lens. Place and opaque screen with a sharp edge beyond the focal distance of the lens, as at a, so as to cut off the lower part of the cone of homogeneous light, and project the upper part thereof upon a screen at b." -Avery 1895

Diffraction

"Throw a sunbeam through a very small opening in the shutter of a darkened room. Receive the beam upon…

A diagram of action of diffraction grating.

Diffraction grating

A diagram of action of diffraction grating.

"Since A is producing light and larger than object B, the shadow of B continuously shrinks to a single point at C." —Quackenbos 1859

Diminish Shadow

"Since A is producing light and larger than object B, the shadow of B continuously shrinks to a single…

"Perfect Form of Dioptric Holophote for an Oil Flame.—By combining the back prisms ga, hc just described with a semi-holophote abc subtending 180 degrees and a portion of the dioptric spherical mirror ijk, no light is lost on the burner, and all the rays are parallelized, so that this apparatus, being all of glass, is both geometrically and physically perfect." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Dioptric Holophote

"Perfect Form of Dioptric Holophote for an Oil Flame.—By combining the back prisms ga, hc just…

"Crossed dispersion in a monoclinic crystal p>v." -Johannsen, 1908

Crossed Dispersion

"Crossed dispersion in a monoclinic crystal p>v." -Johannsen, 1908

"Horizontal dispersion in a monoclinic crystal. p<v." -Johannsen, 1908

Horizontal Dispersion

"Horizontal dispersion in a monoclinic crystal. p

"Inclined dispersion in a monoclinic crystal. Diopside, p>v." -Johannsen, 1908

Inclined Dispersion

"Inclined dispersion in a monoclinic crystal. Diopside, p>v." -Johannsen, 1908

"Maximum extinction angles in the Pyroxene and Amphibole groups. Solid lines indicate extinction angles from c to c; broken lines from c to a. The extinction angle in an amphibole is generally less than 23 degrees; in a pyroxene it is generally greater. " -Johannsen, 1908

Extinction Angles

"Maximum extinction angles in the Pyroxene and Amphibole groups. Solid lines indicate extinction angles…

"Extinction angles on the (001) faces of the lime-soda feldspars." -Johannsen, 1908

Extinction Angles

"Extinction angles on the (001) faces of the lime-soda feldspars." -Johannsen, 1908

"Extinction angles on the (010) faces of the lime-soda feldspars." -Johannsen, 1908

Extinction Angles

"Extinction angles on the (010) faces of the lime-soda feldspars." -Johannsen, 1908

Instrument made of convex glass, used to magnify

Magnifying Glass

Instrument made of convex glass, used to magnify

"Holophotal Catadioptric Apparatus Revolving round a Central Flame." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Holophotal Catadioptric

"Holophotal Catadioptric Apparatus Revolving round a Central Flame." —The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"Another illustration of how luminous density varies inversely as the square of the distance." &mdash;Croft 1917

Light Intensity Versus Distance

"Another illustration of how luminous density varies inversely as the square of the distance." —Croft…

"The intensity of light from a candle decreases proportionally with an increase in distance from the candle." -Comstock 1850

Dispersion of Light

"The intensity of light from a candle decreases proportionally with an increase in distance from the…

"Rays of light are said to diverge, when they proceed from the same point, and constantly recede from each other, as from the same point a. Rays of light are said to converge, when they approach each other in such a drection as finaly to meet at a point, as at b." -Comstock 1850

Rays of Light

"Rays of light are said to diverge, when they proceed from the same point, and constantly recede from…

"Make a 'Newton disk', painting the prismatic colors in proper proportion as indicated." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Newton disk

"Make a 'Newton disk', painting the prismatic colors in proper proportion as indicated." — Avery,…

"Section through an orthorhombic crystal with p>v." -Johannsen, 1908

Orthorhombic Crystal

"Section through an orthorhombic crystal with p>v." -Johannsen, 1908

"In order strictly to equalize a fixed light over the whole horizon, which could not possibly be done with separate reflectors, Marcet proposed this ingenious instrument, which is generated by the revolution of the parabolic profile pp' round its parameter as a vertical axis, instead of round a horizontal axis, as in all former reflectors." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Parabolic Profile

"In order strictly to equalize a fixed light over the whole horizon, which could not possibly be done…

"In 1763, or at latest before 1777, parabolic reflectors were first used for lighthouse illumination by Mr. Hutchinson, dockmaster of Liverpool. In his work on Practica Scamanship, published in 1777, he states that the Mersey lights were fitted with reflectors formed of small fucets of silvered glass, and made, as he says "as nearly as they can be to the parabolic curve." This is unquestionably the earliest published notice of the use of parabolic reflectors for lighthouse illumination." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Parabolic Reflector

"In 1763, or at latest before 1777, parabolic reflectors were first used for lighthouse illumination…

"In 1763, or at latest before 1777, parabolic reflectors were first used for lighthouse illumination by Mr. Hutchinson, dockmaster of Liverpool. In his work on Practica Scamanship, published in 1777, he states that the Mersey lights were fitted with reflectors formed of small fucets of silvered glass, and made, as he says "as nearly as they can be to the parabolic curve." This is unquestionably the earliest published notice of the use of parabolic reflectors for lighthouse illumination." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Parabolic Reflector

"In 1763, or at latest before 1777, parabolic reflectors were first used for lighthouse illumination…

"It will be seen that the parabolic mirror a is at best but a very imperfect instrument, for even if the radiant were strictly a mathematical point, the cone of rays (shown undotted) escaping past the lips of the mirror must be lost." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Paraboloid

"It will be seen that the parabolic mirror a is at best but a very imperfect instrument, for even if…

An optical instrument which the representatin of actual motion, as in leaping, walking, flying, etc.

Phanakistoscope

An optical instrument which the representatin of actual motion, as in leaping, walking, flying, etc.

A diagram of how photometry works. The light from each object is measured by comparing the intensity of their shadows on a screen behind a standing rod.

Photometry

A diagram of how photometry works. The light from each object is measured by comparing the intensity…

"Determination of the optical character of a uniaxial crystal with the gypsum plate. Quartz (+)." -Johannsen, 1908

Gypsum Plate

"Determination of the optical character of a uniaxial crystal with the gypsum plate. Quartz (+)." -Johannsen,…

"Determination of the optical character of a uniaxial crystal with the gypsum plate when the center of the cross is beyond the field of the microscope. Quartz (+)." -Johannsen, 1908

Gypsum Plate

"Determination of the optical character of a uniaxial crystal with the gypsum plate when the center…

"Determination of the optical character of a biaxial crystal in a section cut perpendicular to the acute bisectrix by means of the gypsum plate (+)." -Johannsen, 1908

Gypsum Plate

"Determination of the optical character of a biaxial crystal in a section cut perpendicular to the acute…

"Determination of the optical character of biaxial crystals in sections showing the emergence of an optic axis by means of the gypsum plate." -Johannsen, 1908

Gypsum Plate

"Determination of the optical character of biaxial crystals in sections showing the emergence of an…

"Determination of the optical character of a uniaxial crystal with the mica plate. (a) Positive. (b) Negative." -Johannsen, 1908

Mica Plate

"Determination of the optical character of a uniaxial crystal with the mica plate. (a) Positive. (b)…

This is an illustration of a polariscope. Polariscopes are tools used to measure the polarisation of light.

Polariscope

This is an illustration of a polariscope. Polariscopes are tools used to measure the polarisation of…

An optical instrument, various forms of which have been contrived for exhibiting the polarization of light.

Polariscope

An optical instrument, various forms of which have been contrived for exhibiting the polarization of…

"The effect of holding polarizing lenses at right angles to each other." -Avery 1895

Polarization of Light

"The effect of holding polarizing lenses at right angles to each other." -Avery 1895

"Another form is called the polyangular kaleidoscope. The only essential difference in it is that the mirrors are so arranged that the angle between them can be varied at pleasure. This, being very useful for illustrating the theory of the instrument, is the form usually found in collections of philosophical apparatus." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Polyangular Kaleidoscope

"Another form is called the polyangular kaleidoscope. The only essential difference in it is that the…

"A prism is a piece of glass, having for its sides three plane surfaces and for its ends two equal and parallel triangles." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Prism

"A prism is a piece of glass, having for its sides three plane surfaces and for its ends two equal and…

"...a tube with a slit at the further end through which the light enters, and at the other end a collimating lens which brings the rays into a parallel beam (the slit is formed between two parallel edges the distance between which can be varied at will)..." —Whitney, 1889

Prism Spectroscope from the Late 19th Century

"...a tube with a slit at the further end through which the light enters, and at the other end a collimating…

"Cathetal prisms readily yield the phenomena of total reflection as shown, and are often used when light is to be turned through a right angle." -Avery 1895

Cathetal Prism

"Cathetal prisms readily yield the phenomena of total reflection as shown, and are often used when light…

A bow of prismatic colors formed from the reflection and refraction of the sun and water. In the diagram, S is the sun's rays, E is the eye. There are two bows: the primary is the inner brighter rainbow, and the secondary is dimmer and sometimes unseen.

Rainbow Diagram

A bow of prismatic colors formed from the reflection and refraction of the sun and water. In the diagram,…

"The inner or primary bow is much brighter than the other; the outer or secondary bow has the order of colors revered, as indicated." -Avery 1895

Secondary Rainbow

"The inner or primary bow is much brighter than the other; the outer or secondary bow has the order…

"These pencils of rays not only flow from the points designated in the figure, but in the same manner from every other point on the surface of a visible object." -Comstock 1850

Pencils of Rays

"These pencils of rays not only flow from the points designated in the figure, but in the same manner…

"From the surface of a plane mirror, parallel rays are reflected parallel; but the convex mirror causes parallel rays falling on its surface to diverge, by reflection." -Comstock 1850

Divergent Rays

"From the surface of a plane mirror, parallel rays are reflected parallel; but the convex mirror causes…

"Fresnel next conceived the admirable improvement of employing the principle of "total" or internal reflexion by glass prisms. The ray Fi falling on a prismoidal ring, ABC, is refracted and bent in the direction iR, and falling on the side AC, at an angle of incidence greater than the critical, is totally relfected in the direction Re, and, impinging on the side BC at e, it undergoes a second refraction, and emerges horizontally. The highest ray FA after refraction by AB and reflexion by AC must (in order to avoid superfluous glass) pass along AB, and after a second refraction at B emerge horizontally. The lowest ray FB after refraction by AC and a second refraction by BC also emerge horizontally." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Reflecting Prism

"Fresnel next conceived the admirable improvement of employing the principle of "total" or internal…

"Light projected by a parabolic reflector." &mdash;Croft 1917

Parabolic Reflector

"Light projected by a parabolic reflector." —Croft 1917

"Enlarged view of prism of prismatic reflector." &mdash;Croft 1917

Prismatic Reflector

"Enlarged view of prism of prismatic reflector." —Croft 1917

"Cross-section of prismatic reflector, showing how light rays are refracted and dispersed." &mdash;Croft 1917

Prismatic Reflector

"Cross-section of prismatic reflector, showing how light rays are refracted and dispersed." —Croft…