The Miscellaneous Optics ClipArt gallery offers 106 illustrations related to general optics.

"The angle under which the rays of light, coming from the extremities of an object, cross each other at the eye, bears a proportion directly to the length, and inversely to the distance of the object." -Comstock 1850

Angle of Vision

"The angle under which the rays of light, coming from the extremities of an object, cross each other…

"Diagram of inclined carbon-flame arc lamp." —Croft 1917

Carbon Flame Arc Lamp

"Diagram of inclined carbon-flame arc lamp." —Croft 1917

"A positive biaxial interference figure with the principal sections nearly corresponding to those of the nicols. The arrows indicate the movement taking place upon inserting a quartz wedge above the section." -Johannsen, 1908

Biaxial Interference

"A positive biaxial interference figure with the principal sections nearly corresponding to those of…

"A biaxial interference figure showing the emergence of an optic axis. The arrow indicates the movement taking place upon inserting a quartz wedge above the section. The mineral is augite. (+)." -Johannsen, 1908

Biaxial Interference

"A biaxial interference figure showing the emergence of an optic axis. The arrow indicates the movement…

"A negative biaxial interference figure. The arrows indicate the movement taking place upon inserting a quartz wedge above the section. Epidote. (-)." -Johannsen, 1908

Negative Biaxial Interference

"A negative biaxial interference figure. The arrows indicate the movement taking place upon inserting…

"A positive biaxial interference figure. The arrows indicate the movement taking place upon inserting a quartz wedge above the section. Olivine. (+)." -Johannsen, 1908

Positive Biaxial Interference

"A positive biaxial interference figure. The arrows indicate the movement taking place upon inserting…

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric cylindric refractor with zones of silvered mirror above and below similar in profile to Bordier Marcet's reflector. By the adoption of the refractor the whole of the wasteful divergence which occurs in Marcet's reflector is prevented. We have here a geometrically perfect combination, but it is not so physically, because metallic reflexion is used. This physical defect Fresnel obviated in his next design." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadiopteric Light

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric…

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric cylindric refractor with zones of silvered mirror above and below similar in profile to Bordier Marcet's reflector. By the adoption of the refractor the whole of the wasteful divergence which occurs in Marcet's reflector is prevented. We have here a geometrically perfect combination, but it is not so physically, because metallic reflexion is used. This physical defect Fresnel obviated in his next design." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadiopteric Light

"Catadioptric Fixed Light.—This apparatus, in which a central burner is used, consists of a dioptric…

"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized by the lens L, whose principal focus (i.e., for parallel rays) is in the center of the flame, while the remainder is intercepted and made parallel by the paraboloid a, and thus the double agents in Fresnel's design are dispensed with. The rays of the posterior hemisphere are reflected by the spherical mirror b back again through the foxus, whence passing onwards one portion of them falls on the lens and the rest on the paraboloid, so as finally to emerge in union with and parallel to the front rays." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadioptric Holophote

"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized…

"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized by the lens L, whose principal focus (i.e., for parallel rays) is in the center of the flame, while the remainder is intercepted and made parallel by the paraboloid a, and thus the double agents in Fresnel's design are dispensed with. The rays of the posterior hemisphere are reflected by the spherical mirror b back again through the foxus, whence passing onwards one portion of them falls on the lens and the rest on the paraboloid, so as finally to emerge in union with and parallel to the front rays." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadioptric Holophote

"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized…

"Any two colors standing opposite each other are complementary to each other. If such colors are blended, the resultant is white light; if any two alternate color are blended, the resultant will be the color that appears between them in the figure." — Avery, 1895

Complementary color wheel

"Any two colors standing opposite each other are complementary to each other. If such colors are blended,…

"Condensing Apparatus for Steamer's Side Lights.—By means of this application of the condensing principle all the light can be distributed with strict equality over 112 degrees, which is the arc prescribed for steamers by the Board of Trade. Several of the Transatlantic and other steamers have adopted this kind of apparatus, which is hung on gimbals and placed in iron towers, having an entry from below the deck, which can be made use of in bad weather." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Apparatus

"Condensing Apparatus for Steamer's Side Lights.—By means of this application of the condensing…

"Condensing Apparatus for Steamer's Side Lights.—By means of this application of the condensing principle all the light can be distributed with strict equality over 112 degrees, which is the arc prescribed for steamers by the Board of Trade. Several of the Transatlantic and other steamers have adopted this kind of apparatus, which is hung on gimbals and placed in iron towers, having an entry from below the deck, which can be made use of in bad weather." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Apparatus

"Condensing Apparatus for Steamer's Side Lights.—By means of this application of the condensing…

"Fixed Conensing Light for a Single Sector, 1850.—The holophote Light pLp throws its whole light on straight condensing prisms c, each of which distributes the rays over the required sector." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Light

"Fixed Conensing Light for a Single Sector, 1850.—The holophote Light pLp throws its whole light…

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly over the angle of 45 degrees pgp, while the supplemental rays fall upon the straight condensing prisms p, each of which spreads the incident rays parallel to the corresponding rays in the central angle pgp. In this way the whole of the front hemisphere of rays is parallelized in the vertical plane and spread equally over the 45 degree in azimuth." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Octant

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly…

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly over the angle of 45 degrees pgp, while the supplemental rays fall upon the straight condensing prisms p, each of which spreads the incident rays parallel to the corresponding rays in the central angle pgp. In this way the whole of the front hemisphere of rays is parallelized in the vertical plane and spread equally over the 45 degree in azimuth." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Octant

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly…

"Condensing Quadrant.—The fixed apparatus bbb, with spherical mirror behind, throws its rays directly through the angle of 90 degrees afa', while the supplementary rays falling on the straight condensing prisms p, p, p', p' are sent out parallel to the corresponding rays in the unobstructed central quadrant of the main apparatus. The whole light will therefore be condensed equally over 90 degrees." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Quadrant

"Condensing Quadrant.—The fixed apparatus bbb, with spherical mirror behind, throws its rays directly…

"A modification of the simple kaleidoscope was introduced by Sir David Brewster, whereby the images of large and distant objects can be introduced into the picture. This is effected by removing the object box and replacing it by a tube carrying at its outer end a double convex lens, represented by LL. By a screw adjustment the lens can be so placed as to focus the distant object exactly in the plane of the sector AOB, and so bring its image into the very best position for producing symmetrical patterns. When this instrument is directed towards a tree in full bloom, a very beautiful effect is produced, which can be varied by gradually moving the instrument. This form was called by Brewster the telescopic kaleidoscope." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Convex Lens

"A modification of the simple kaleidoscope was introduced by Sir David Brewster, whereby the images…

"Movement of the left bar...upon rotating the stage to the right, and movement of the colored rings upon inserting a quartz wedge." -Johannsen, 1908

Crystal Movement

"Movement of the left bar...upon rotating the stage to the right, and movement of the colored rings…

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the radius of curvature of the inner face of an annular lens. The outer face is the same as that of an ordinary annular lens, which the other face, though straight in the vertical, is ground to the required curve in the horizontal plane. The rays f'fc falling upon the lens x converge to the vertical focal plane ff and afterwards diverge through the smaller horizontal angle x'f'x', and so for any other case." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Differential Lens

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the…

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the radius of curvature of the inner face of an annular lens. The outer face is the same as that of an ordinary annular lens, which the other face, though straight in the vertical, is ground to the required curve in the horizontal plane. The rays f'fc falling upon the lens x converge to the vertical focal plane ff and afterwards diverge through the smaller horizontal angle x'f'x', and so for any other case." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Differential Lens

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the…

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the radius of curvature of the inner face of an annular lens. The outer face is the same as that of an ordinary annular lens, which the other face, though straight in the vertical, is ground to the required curve in the horizontal plane. The rays f'fc falling upon the lens x converge to the vertical focal plane ff and afterwards diverge through the smaller horizontal angle x'f'x', and so for any other case." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Differential Lens

"Differential Lens.—Horizontal divergence may be obtained to any required amount by varying the…

"Throw a sunbeam through a very small opening in the shutter of a darkened room. Receive the beam upon a convex lens of short focal length, placing a pieve of red glass between the aperture and the lens. Place and opaque screen with a sharp edge beyond the focal distance of the lens, as at a, so as to cut off the lower part of the cone of homogeneous light, and project the upper part thereof upon a screen at b." -Avery 1895

Diffraction

"Throw a sunbeam through a very small opening in the shutter of a darkened room. Receive the beam upon…

A diagram of action of diffraction grating.

Diffraction grating

A diagram of action of diffraction grating.

"Since A is producing light and larger than object B, the shadow of B continuously shrinks to a single point at C." —Quackenbos 1859

Diminish Shadow

"Since A is producing light and larger than object B, the shadow of B continuously shrinks to a single…

"Perfect Form of Dioptric Holophote for an Oil Flame.—By combining the back prisms ga, hc just described with a semi-holophote abc subtending 180 degrees and a portion of the dioptric spherical mirror ijk, no light is lost on the burner, and all the rays are parallelized, so that this apparatus, being all of glass, is both geometrically and physically perfect." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Dioptric Holophote

"Perfect Form of Dioptric Holophote for an Oil Flame.—By combining the back prisms ga, hc just…

"Crossed dispersion in a monoclinic crystal p>v." -Johannsen, 1908

Crossed Dispersion

"Crossed dispersion in a monoclinic crystal p>v." -Johannsen, 1908

"Horizontal dispersion in a monoclinic crystal. p<v." -Johannsen, 1908

Horizontal Dispersion

"Horizontal dispersion in a monoclinic crystal. p

"Inclined dispersion in a monoclinic crystal. Diopside, p>v." -Johannsen, 1908

Inclined Dispersion

"Inclined dispersion in a monoclinic crystal. Diopside, p>v." -Johannsen, 1908

"Maximum extinction angles in the Pyroxene and Amphibole groups. Solid lines indicate extinction angles from c to c; broken lines from c to a. The extinction angle in an amphibole is generally less than 23 degrees; in a pyroxene it is generally greater. " -Johannsen, 1908

Extinction Angles

"Maximum extinction angles in the Pyroxene and Amphibole groups. Solid lines indicate extinction angles…

"Extinction angles on the (001) faces of the lime-soda feldspars." -Johannsen, 1908

Extinction Angles

"Extinction angles on the (001) faces of the lime-soda feldspars." -Johannsen, 1908

"Extinction angles on the (010) faces of the lime-soda feldspars." -Johannsen, 1908

Extinction Angles

"Extinction angles on the (010) faces of the lime-soda feldspars." -Johannsen, 1908

"a, sclerotic membrane; b, cornea; d, retina; o, optic nerve; v, vitreous humor." -Comstock 1850

Eye

"a, sclerotic membrane; b, cornea; d, retina; o, optic nerve; v, vitreous humor." -Comstock 1850

"The human eye-essential parts shown in section." &mdash;Croft 1917

Eye

"The human eye-essential parts shown in section." —Croft 1917

The illustration of putting lenses in front of the eye. The focal point of the image is reflected into the eye. The focal point in the lens will end past the eye, creating a blurry image.

Optical Position and Size of Image Through Lens in Front of Eye

The illustration of putting lenses in front of the eye. The focal point of the image is reflected into…

"...and the cornea will become too flat, or not suffciently convex, to make the rays of light meet at the proper place, and the image will therefore tend to be formed beyond the retina, instead of before it..." -Comstock 1850

Cornea too Concave on Eye

"...and the cornea will become too flat, or not suffciently convex, to make the rays of light meet at…

"If the cornea is too convex, or prominent, the image will be formed before it reaches the retina, for the same reason, that of two lenses, that which is most convex will have the least focal distance." -Comstock 1850

Cornea too Convex on Eye

"If the cornea is too convex, or prominent, the image will be formed before it reaches the retina, for…

"Showing how the image of an object which is seen is formed on the retina of the eye." &mdash;Croft 1917

Eye Focusing on Object

"Showing how the image of an object which is seen is formed on the retina of the eye." —Croft…

Instrument made of convex glass, used to magnify

Magnifying Glass

Instrument made of convex glass, used to magnify

"Holophotal Catadioptric Apparatus Revolving round a Central Flame." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Holophotal Catadioptric

"Holophotal Catadioptric Apparatus Revolving round a Central Flame." —The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"...where we suppose that the object a, is brought within an inch or two of the eye, and that the rays proceeding from it enter the pupil so obliquely as not to be refracted b the lens, so as to form a distinct image." -Comstock 1850

Indistinct Vision

"...where we suppose that the object a, is brought within an inch or two of the eye, and that the rays…

"The actual position of the vertical object a, as painted on the retina, is therefore such as is represented by the figure." -Comstock 1850

Inversion of Objects by the Eye

"The actual position of the vertical object a, as painted on the retina, is therefore such as is represented…

"The optical lantern is an instrument for projecting on a screen magnified images of transparent photographs, paintings, drawings, etc." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Optical lantern

"The optical lantern is an instrument for projecting on a screen magnified images of transparent photographs,…

"A lens is a transparent body the two refracting surfaces of which are curved, or one of which is curved and the other plane.(1) Double convex(2) Plano convex(3) Meniscus(4)Double concave(5) Plano concave(6) Concavo concave." -Avery 1895

Lens

"A lens is a transparent body the two refracting surfaces of which are curved, or one of which is curved…

"Thus the pencils of converging rays, are rendered still more convergent by their passage through the lens, and are therefore brought to a focus nearer the lens, in proportion to their previous convergency." -Comstock 1850

Converging Rays and a Double Convex Lens

"Thus the pencils of converging rays, are rendered still more convergent by their passage through the…

"If diverging rays fall on the surface of the same lens, they will, by refraction, be rendered less divergent, parallel, or convergent, according to the degrees of their divergency, and the convexity of the surface of the lens." -Comstock 1850

Diverging Rays from a Double Convex Lens

"If diverging rays fall on the surface of the same lens, they will, by refraction, be rendered less…

"Showing a system with chromatic difference of spherical aberration. O" &#8332; image of O for red light; O'" for blue. The system is under&mdash;corrected for red, and over&mdash;corrected for blue rays." &mdash;Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Light Correction of Blue and Red Lights using Spherical Lens

"Showing a system with chromatic difference of spherical aberration. O" ₌ image of O for red light;…

"If the whole circle be considered the circumfrence of a sphere, of which the plano-convex lens b, a, is a section, then the focus of parallel rays, or the principal focus, will be at the opposite side of the sphere, or at c." -Comstock 1850

Plano Convex Lens

"If the whole circle be considered the circumfrence of a sphere, of which the plano-convex lens b, a,…

"View of an arrow through a plano convex lens will have the arrow appear smaller than it actually is." -Comstock 1850

View of an Arrow Through a Plano Convex Lens

"View of an arrow through a plano convex lens will have the arrow appear smaller than it actually is."…

"a, prism; b, plane glass; c, spherical lens; d, double-convex; e, plano-convex, f, double-concave; g, plano-concave; h, meniscus; i, concavo-convex lenses." -Comstock 1850

Lenses of Various Forms

"a, prism; b, plane glass; c, spherical lens; d, double-convex; e, plano-convex, f, double-concave;…

"Another illustration of how luminous density varies inversely as the square of the distance." &mdash;Croft 1917

Light Intensity Versus Distance

"Another illustration of how luminous density varies inversely as the square of the distance." —Croft…

"The intensity of light from a candle decreases proportionally with an increase in distance from the candle." -Comstock 1850

Dispersion of Light

"The intensity of light from a candle decreases proportionally with an increase in distance from the…

"Rays of light are said to diverge, when they proceed from the same point, and constantly recede from each other, as from the same point a. Rays of light are said to converge, when they approach each other in such a drection as finaly to meet at a point, as at b." -Comstock 1850

Rays of Light

"Rays of light are said to diverge, when they proceed from the same point, and constantly recede from…

"Let a candle c, be placed on the inside of a box or tube, so that its light may pass through the plano-convex lens n, and strongly illuminate the object o. This object is generally a small transparent painting on a slip of glass, which slides through an opening in the tube. In order to show the figures in the erect position, these paintings are inverted, since their shadows are again inverted by the refraction of the convex lens m." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Magic Lantern

"Let a candle c, be placed on the inside of a box or tube, so that its light may pass through the plano-convex…

Children projecting postcards with a magic lantern.

Magic lantern

Children projecting postcards with a magic lantern.

"The lens is spherically corrected for OO', but the sinecondition is not fulfilled. Hens the different magnifications of a point O1 beyond the axis." &mdash;Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Magnification of Image Beyond Axis with Lens

"The lens is spherically corrected for OO', but the sinecondition is not fulfilled. Hens the different…

"Natural view of an arrow." -Comstock 1850

Natural Vision

"Natural view of an arrow." -Comstock 1850

"Make a 'Newton disk', painting the prismatic colors in proper proportion as indicated." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Newton disk

"Make a 'Newton disk', painting the prismatic colors in proper proportion as indicated." — Avery,…

An illustration of the position and the size of the image viewed by the eye. The eye approximates the the height of the image. The image's height is the hypotenuse of the triangle, creating an angle with the eye. This image is then reflected upside down in the eye.

Position and Size of Image for Eye Optics

An illustration of the position and the size of the image viewed by the eye. The eye approximates the…

"If y be the object the image appears to a normal eye situated behind the system L with passive accommodation at a very great distance under the angle w'. Since H' P&#61; F O, &#61; y, from the focal length of the simple microscope is the image side focal length." &mdash;Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Optical Position and Size of Image Through Magnifying Glasses

"If y be the object the image appears to a normal eye situated behind the system L with passive accommodation…