This science ClipArt gallery offers 202 illustrations of equipment and apparatus used in chemistry experiments and procedures, and includes images of full apparatus as well as parts, such as lab beakers and flasks. See also the Balances gallery in the Simple Machines collection.

Distillation is used to create pure water for chemical purposes.

Distillation

Distillation is used to create pure water for chemical purposes.

Apparatus used for distillation, separating liquid from the impurities contained in it. A, reservoir; B, light for heating; C, connecting tube; D, steam passes into; E, pipe where cold water is supplied; F, discharged liquid; H, pure water.

Distillation

Apparatus used for distillation, separating liquid from the impurities contained in it. A, reservoir;…

An apparatus used for continuous distillation.

Distillation

An apparatus used for continuous distillation.

An illustration of various fractional distillation devices. fractional distillation must be used in order to separate the components well by repeated vaporization-condensation cycles within a packed fractionating column. This separation, by successive distillations, is also referred to as rectification.

Fractional Distillation

An illustration of various fractional distillation devices. fractional distillation must be used in…

In order to rid water of impurities, it is required to boil water, then condense the steam to make it fit for chemical use.

Distilling Apparatus

In order to rid water of impurities, it is required to boil water, then condense the steam to make it…

This illustration shows an apparatus used to examine the conductivity of solutions.

Electric Apparatus

This illustration shows an apparatus used to examine the conductivity of solutions.

"The electric furnace is a device by which a very high temperature is obtained by using a large arc between carbon terminals. The arc consists of carbon vapor, which conducts the current over the gap between the carbons and the resistance is so great that much heat is developed." -Brownlee 1907

Electric Furance

"The electric furnace is a device by which a very high temperature is obtained by using a large arc…

"A V-tube apparatus used for electrolysis." -Avery 1895

Electrolysis

"A V-tube apparatus used for electrolysis." -Avery 1895

"An apparatus used for electrolysis of water." -Avery 1895

Electrolysis

"An apparatus used for electrolysis of water." -Avery 1895

"Modern apparatus for decomposing water by electrolysis." -Hawkins, 1917

Electrolysis Apparatus

"Modern apparatus for decomposing water by electrolysis." -Hawkins, 1917

"Hydrochloric acid...is placed in the tubes a. The threeway stopcocks b are turned so that there is a passage from c to d and a saturated solution of sodium chloride is drawn from the dishes i into the collecting tubes e until they are filled. The stopcocks are then tunred so that there is a passage from f to d. The current is turned on, and as soon as the hydrochloric acid above the anode is saturated with chlorine, the stopcocks are turned so that the hydrogen and chlorine will pass into the collecting tubes e. When the upper surfaces of the sodium chloride solution are just above the support g, it is inclined, if need be, so as to mark the relative height of the solution in the collecting tubes. the lower support h is then made parallel with g. The solution between g and h is displaced in the same time, showing that equal volumes of hydrogen and chlorine are obtained by the electrolysis of hydrochloric acid." -Brownlee 1907

Electrolysis of Hydrochloric Acid

"Hydrochloric acid...is placed in the tubes a. The threeway stopcocks b are turned so that there is…

"A flask suited to having air contained inside pumped out." -Avery 1895

Florance Flask

"A flask suited to having air contained inside pumped out." -Avery 1895

A flask being heated over an open flame, with a tube and jar attached.

Heated flask

A flask being heated over an open flame, with a tube and jar attached.

"An apparatus setup for fractional distillation of water." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Apparatus Used for Fractional Distillation

"An apparatus setup for fractional distillation of water." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

"Pass the tube of an air thermometer or of an inverted mercury thermometer through a cork in the neck of a funnel. Cover the thermometer bulb to the depth of about half an inch with water. Upon the water, pour a little sulphuric ether and ignite it. The thermometer below will scarcely be affected, although the water above may be boiling. Stir the water and note the prompt movement of the thermometer index..." -Avery 1895

Funnel with Inverted Mercury Thermometer

"Pass the tube of an air thermometer or of an inverted mercury thermometer through a cork in the neck…

A funnel used in a chemistry lab to separate liquids.

Separating Funnel

A funnel used in a chemistry lab to separate liquids.

"For measuring the gas concentration, pressure and temperature, use may be made of an apparatus of the type shown [here]." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Apparatus for Measuring Gas Concentration Pressure and Temperature

"For measuring the gas concentration, pressure and temperature, use may be made of an apparatus of the…

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube of narrow bore. To fill this tube with gas, both ends being open, a globule of mercury is first introduced at the lower curved extremity; the tube is then placed in a nearly horizontal position, the curved extremity is connected with the holder contraining the gas, or with the apparatus in which the gas is being evolved, by means of caoutehone tubing, and a current of the pure dry gas is passed through the tube until the air is entirely expelled; this being effected, the point opposite to the curved extremity is sealed in the blowpipe flame; the tube is then brought into a vertical position, so that the globule of mercury closes the lower extremity, the caoutchouc tube is withdrawn, and the tube AA thus filled is screwed into its place in the cylinder B." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas Liquidation

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube…

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube of narrow bore. To fill this tube with gas, both ends being open, a globule of mercury is first introduced at the lower curved extremity; the tube is then placed in a nearly horizontal position, the curved extremity is connected with the holder contraining the gas, or with the apparatus in which the gas is being evolved, by means of caoutehone tubing, and a current of the pure dry gas is passed through the tube until the air is entirely expelled; this being effected, the point opposite to the curved extremity is sealed in the blowpipe flame; the tube is then brought into a vertical position, so that the globule of mercury closes the lower extremity, the caoutchouc tube is withdrawn, and the tube AA thus filled is screwed into its place in the cylinder B." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas Liquidation

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube…

"If it be required to separate the helium which is often found in the gases given off by a thermal spring, they are subjected to the action of charcoal cooled with liquid air. The result is the absoption of the less volatile constituents, i.e., all except hydrogen and helium. The gaseous residue, with the additon of oxygen is then sparked, and the water thus formed is removed together with the excess oxygen to leave only helium." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Apparatus Used to Seperate Volatile Gases

"If it be required to separate the helium which is often found in the gases given off by a thermal spring,…

A McLeod gauge isolates a sample of gas and compresses it in a modified mercury manometer until the pressure is a few mmHg. The gas must be well-behaved during its compression (it must not condense, for example). The technique is slow and unsuited to continual monitoring, but is capable of good accuracy.

McLeod Gauge

A McLeod gauge isolates a sample of gas and compresses it in a modified mercury manometer until the…

A McLeod gauge isolates a sample of gas and compresses it in a modified mercury manometer until the pressure is a few mmHg. The gas must be well-behaved during its compression (it must not condense, for example). The technique is slow and unsuited to continual monitoring, but is capable of good accuracy.

McLeod Gauge

A McLeod gauge isolates a sample of gas and compresses it in a modified mercury manometer until the…

A vacuum gauge is used to measure the pressure in a vacuum — which is further divided into two subcategories: high and low vacuum (and sometimes ultra-high vacuum). The applicable pressure range of many of the techniques used to measure vacuums have an overlap. Hence, by combining several different types of gauge, it is possible to measure system pressure continuously from 10 mbar down to 10-11 mbar.

Vacuum Gauge

A vacuum gauge is used to measure the pressure in a vacuum — which is further divided into two…

A device used to seperate heavier liquids and solids from lighter liquids.

Glass Funnel

A device used to seperate heavier liquids and solids from lighter liquids.

"Glass is made by melting together sand, an alkali, and calcium carbonate in pots of fire-clay." Brownlee 1907

Glass Furnace

"Glass is made by melting together sand, an alkali, and calcium carbonate in pots of fire-clay." Brownlee…

The goniometer is an instrument for measuring the angles of crystals. Nicolaus Stena in 1669 determined the interfacial angles of quartz crystals by cutting sections perpendicular to the edges, he plane angles of the sections being then the angles between faces which are perpendicular to the sections.

Horizontal-Circle Goniometer

The goniometer is an instrument for measuring the angles of crystals. Nicolaus Stena in 1669 determined…

The goniometer is an instrument for measuring the angles of crystals. Nicolaus Stena in 1669 determined the interfacial angles of quartz crystals by cutting sections perpendicular to the edges, he plane angles of the sections being then the angles between faces which are perpendicular to the sections.

Vertical Circle Goniometer

The goniometer is an instrument for measuring the angles of crystals. Nicolaus Stena in 1669 determined…

An image of a graduate that is used to measure chemicals.

Chemical Graduate

An image of a graduate that is used to measure chemicals.

This illustration shows a mixture of gases passing over a headed pumice to forming steam.

Heated Pumice

This illustration shows a mixture of gases passing over a headed pumice to forming steam.

A test tube stoppered and connected to an inverted beaker, that will be used to collect the gas generated by the heating of the elements and/or compounds in the test tube.

Heated Test Tube

A test tube stoppered and connected to an inverted beaker, that will be used to collect the gas generated…

A Hempel Gas Burette is an instrument used to measure gases.

Hempel Gas Burette

A Hempel Gas Burette is an instrument used to measure gases.

A chemical hood is used to hold substances with odorous or toxic fumes. The hood contains a vacuum in which the fumes are either filtered out of the air or placed outside the building. Chemical hoods are also called fume hoods.

Chemical Hood

A chemical hood is used to hold substances with odorous or toxic fumes. The hood contains a vacuum in…

Hot, expanding air bubbles through the water.

Hot air experiment

Hot, expanding air bubbles through the water.

This illustration shows a hot-air motor, used to mix certain chemicals.

Hot-air Motor

This illustration shows a hot-air motor, used to mix certain chemicals.

"Produces a jet of hydrogen." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Hydrogen Jet Apparatus

"Produces a jet of hydrogen." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

This illustration shows an apparatus used to handle hydrochloric acid.

Hydrochloric Acid

This illustration shows an apparatus used to handle hydrochloric acid.

Apparatus used to make hydrogen chloride using sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.

Volume Composition of Hydrogen Chloride

Apparatus used to make hydrogen chloride using sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.

Apparatus used to generate hydrogen.

Hydrogen Generator

Apparatus used to generate hydrogen.

"The Fahrenheit hydrometer of constant volume is made of glass, the bulb at the bottom being loaded with mercury or shot." — Avery, 1895

Hydrometer

"The Fahrenheit hydrometer of constant volume is made of glass, the bulb at the bottom being loaded…

Nicholson's Hydrometer, consists of a hollow cylinder of metal with conical ends, terminated above by a very thin rod bearing a small dish, and carrying at its lower end a kind of basket. This latter is of such weight that when the instrument is immersed in water a weight of 100 grammes must be placed in the dish above in order to sink the apparatus as far as a certain mark on the rod. By the principle of Archimedes, the weight of the instrument, together with the 100 grammes which it carries, is equal to the weight of the water displaced. Now, let the instrument be placed in another liquid, and the weights in the dish above be altered until they are just sufficient to make the instrument be placed in another liquid, and the weights in the dish above be altered until they are just sufficient to make the instrument sink to the mark on the rod.

Hydrometer

Nicholson's Hydrometer, consists of a hollow cylinder of metal with conical ends, terminated above by…

Nicholson's Hydrometer, consists of a hollow cylinder of metal with conical ends, terminated above by a very thin rod bearing a small dish, and carrying at its lower end a kind of basket. This latter is of such weight that when the instrument is immersed in water a weight of 100 grammes must be placed in the dish above in order to sink the apparatus as far as a certain mark on the rod. By the principle of Archimedes, the weight of the instrument, together with the 100 grammes which it carries, is equal to the weight of the water displaced. Now, let the instrument be placed in another liquid, and the weights in the dish above be altered until they are just sufficient to make the instrument be placed in another liquid, and the weights in the dish above be altered until they are just sufficient to make the instrument sink to the mark on the rod.

Hydrometer

Nicholson's Hydrometer, consists of a hollow cylinder of metal with conical ends, terminated above by…

Fahrenheit's Hydrometer, is generally constructed of glass, and differs from Nicholson's in having at its lower extremity a ball weighted with mercury instead of the basket. It resembles it in having a dish at the top, in which weights are to be placed sufficient to sink the instrument to a definite mark on the stem.

Hydrometer

Fahrenheit's Hydrometer, is generally constructed of glass, and differs from Nicholson's in having at…

"It is composed of a hollow ball of glass, or metal, with a graduated scale rising from its upper part, which serves to balance it in the fluid." -Comstock 1850

Hydrometer

"It is composed of a hollow ball of glass, or metal, with a graduated scale rising from its upper part,…

"Determines the specific gravity of any given liquid. A hollow ball, C, rises to a graduated scale while the solid ball, B, keeps C vertically positioned." —Quackenbos 1859

Hydrometer

"Determines the specific gravity of any given liquid. A hollow ball, C, rises to a graduated scale while…

"As generally made, a hydrometer of constant weight consists of a glass tube near the bottom of which are two bulbs. The lower and smaller bulb is loaded with mercury or shot. The tube and upper bulb contain air. The point to which it sinks when placed in water is marked zero. The tube is graduated, the scale being arbitrary, and varying with the purpose for which the instrument is intended." — Avery, 1895

Hydrometer of constant weight

"As generally made, a hydrometer of constant weight consists of a glass tube near the bottom of which…

A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water. A hydrometer is usually made of glass and consists of a cylindrical stem and a bulb weighted with mercury or lead shot to make it float upright. The liquid to be tested is poured into a tall jar, and the hydrometer is gently lowered into the liquid until it floats freely. The point at which the surface of the liquid touches the stem of the hydrometer is noted. Hydrometers usually contain a paper scale inside the stem, so that the specific gravity can be read directly.

Common Hydrometer

A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids;…

"The Nicholson hydrometer of constant volume is a hollow cylinder carrying at its lower end a basket, d, heavy enough to keep the apparatus upright in water. At the top of the cylinder is a vertical rod carrying a pan, a, for holding weights, etc. The whole apparatus must be lighter than water, so that a certain weight (W) must be put into the pan to sink the apparatus to a fixed point marked on the rod (as c). The given body, which must weigh less than W, is placed in the pan, and enought weights (w) added to sink the point c, to the water line It is evident that the weight of the given body is W-w." -Avery 1895

Nicholson Hydrometer

"The Nicholson hydrometer of constant volume is a hollow cylinder carrying at its lower end a basket,…

"Hydrometers of variable immersion are usually light hollow glass spindles weighted by shot or mercury."—Finley, 1917

Standard hydrometer

"Hydrometers of variable immersion are usually light hollow glass spindles weighted by shot or mercury."—Finley,…

"The US Treasury Dept. and its internal revenue servie uses a series of carefully adjusted hydrometers for determing the amount of alcohol in various distilled liquors."—Finley, 1917

US Internal Revenue hydrometer

"The US Treasury Dept. and its internal revenue servie uses a series of carefully adjusted hydrometers…

"Hair hygrometer." — Waldo, 1896

Hair hygrometer

"Hair hygrometer." — Waldo, 1896

"Wood is heated in cylindrical iron retorts. the volatile materials are cooled, and while a portion remains gaseous and is used as fuel, a large part is condensed to a dark, tarry liquid." -Brownlee 1907

Cylindrical Iron Retort and Condenser

"Wood is heated in cylindrical iron retorts. the volatile materials are cooled, and while a portion…

"...crude petroleum is distilled in iron retorts connected with condensers and receiving tanks." -Brownlee 1907

Iron Retorts

"...crude petroleum is distilled in iron retorts connected with condensers and receiving tanks." -Brownlee…

A device used to collect upward displacement of gas.

Kipps Generator

A device used to collect upward displacement of gas.

"Galactometer. A species of hydrometer for determining the richness of milk by its specific gravity." -Whitney, 1911

Lactometer

"Galactometer. A species of hydrometer for determining the richness of milk by its specific gravity."…

"With a lamp chimney or other large glass tube, a perforated cork, two pieces of glass tubing 4 and 15 inches long respectively, a bit of rubber tubing, a small lamp or candle, and two coverless crayon boxes, arrange apparatus as shown." — Avery, 1895

Lamp chimney and candle

"With a lamp chimney or other large glass tube, a perforated cork, two pieces of glass tubing 4 and…

"Lenz's apparatus for measuring the heat given off by an electric current." -Hawkins, 1917

Lenz's Apparatus

"Lenz's apparatus for measuring the heat given off by an electric current." -Hawkins, 1917

"Sometimes it is not convienent to use a lever sufficiently long to make a given power support a given weight. A combination of levers, called a compound lever, may then be used." -Avery 1895

Compound Lever

"Sometimes it is not convienent to use a lever sufficiently long to make a given power support a given…

a is the burner tip for an oxy-hydrogen flame, and b is the cylinder of quicklime.

Lime-Light Burner

a is the burner tip for an oxy-hydrogen flame, and b is the cylinder of quicklime.

"A labratory liquid air machine used by Thomson and Joule used to cool hydrogen from a gaseous state to a liquid state." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Liquid Air Machine

"A labratory liquid air machine used by Thomson and Joule used to cool hydrogen from a gaseous state…

A machine that spins test tubes full of liquid. Uses centripetal forces to seperate the liquid.

Centrifugal Machine

A machine that spins test tubes full of liquid. Uses centripetal forces to seperate the liquid.