Four different types of forms or shapes: right triangle, isosceles triangle, rectangle, and circle.

Shapes

Four different types of forms or shapes: right triangle, isosceles triangle, rectangle, and circle.

An example of a heraldic shield with roundels.

Shield with Roundels

An example of a heraldic shield with roundels.

"The Flanch is formed of a segment of a circle placed on the side of the shield. It is always borne double or in pairs, the one on the dexter and the other on the sinister side."—Aveling, 1891

Flanch Shield

"The Flanch is formed of a segment of a circle placed on the side of the shield. It is always borne…

"The Rustre differs from the mascle in that the perforation of the device is circular and not throughout."—Aveling, 1891

Rustre Shield

"The Rustre differs from the mascle in that the perforation of the device is circular and not throughout."—Aveling,…

An illustration in flattening the sphere using Gore method by creating cylinder sections with equal diameters.

Development of Sphere Gore Method

An illustration in flattening the sphere using Gore method by creating cylinder sections with equal…

An illustration of a development of sphere using Zone method by creating sections of rolled out cones.

Development of Sphere Zone Method

An illustration of a development of sphere using Zone method by creating sections of rolled out cones.

An 8-inch sphere cut by parallel planes, one 2 inches from center and the other 6 inches from center. This illustration can be used to find the area of the zone and the volume of the segments.

Sphere With 8-inch Diameter Cut by Planes

An 8-inch sphere cut by parallel planes, one 2 inches from center and the other 6 inches from center.…

A sphere with arcs and poles. "The distance of all points in the circumference of a circle of a sphere from its poles are equal."

Sphere With Arcs and Poles

A sphere with arcs and poles. "The distance of all points in the circumference of a circle of a sphere…

A sphere with arcs drawn.

Sphere With Arcs

A sphere with arcs drawn.

Illustration of a sphere with arcs drawn.

Arcs Drawn on Sphere

Illustration of a sphere with arcs drawn.

"Every section of a sphere made by a plane is a circle."

Circle Made by Plane Passing Through a Sphere

"Every section of a sphere made by a plane is a circle."

Diagram used to prove the theorem: "All points in the circumference of a circle of a sphere are equally distant from each of its poles."

Circumference of a Circle of a Sphere

Diagram used to prove the theorem: "All points in the circumference of a circle of a sphere are equally…

An illustration of a sphere cut into polygons as bases with their vertices at the center of sphere.

Sphere Cut Into Pyramids.

An illustration of a sphere cut into polygons as bases with their vertices at the center of sphere.

An illustration of a sphere inside of a cylinder with radius/diameter labeled. Illustration for showing how volume is found.

Sphere Inside of Cylinder.

An illustration of a sphere inside of a cylinder with radius/diameter labeled. Illustration for showing…

Illustration of a sphere inscribed in a tetrahedron.

Sphere Inscribed in Tetrahedron

Illustration of a sphere inscribed in a tetrahedron.

Illustration of a sphere inscribed in a tetrahedron.

Sphere Inscribed in Tetrahedron

Illustration of a sphere inscribed in a tetrahedron.

An illustration of a sphere showing diameter, arcs, and circles. A sphere is a solid bounded by a curved surface, every point of which is equally distant from a point within, called the center.

Sphere with arcs and circles labeled.

An illustration of a sphere showing diameter, arcs, and circles. A sphere is a solid bounded by a curved…

An illustration of a sphere showing diameter, arcs, and circles. A sphere is a solid bounded by a curved surface, every point of which is equally distant from a point within, called the center. This shows the zones of a sphere.

Sphere With Arcs, Circles, and Zones Labeled.

An illustration of a sphere showing diameter, arcs, and circles. A sphere is a solid bounded by a curved…

Illustration of a sphere generated by the revolution of a semicircle ACB about its diameter AB as an axis.

Sphere Made by Revolution of Semicircle

Illustration of a sphere generated by the revolution of a semicircle ACB about its diameter AB as an…

Illustration of a material sphere that can be used to find its diameter.

Material Sphere

Illustration of a material sphere that can be used to find its diameter.

Illustration of a plane passing through a sphere.

Plane Passing Through a Sphere

Illustration of a plane passing through a sphere.

Illustration of a sphere with a tangent plane. "A plane perpendicular to a radius at its extremity is tangent to the sphere."

Sphere With Tangent Plane

Illustration of a sphere with a tangent plane. "A plane perpendicular to a radius at its extremity is…

Illustration of a sphere with a tangent plane. "A plane perpendicular to a radius at its extremity is tangent to the sphere."

Sphere With Tangent Plane

Illustration of a sphere with a tangent plane. "A plane perpendicular to a radius at its extremity is…

Illustration of a sphere with a polyhedral angle whose vertex is at the center of the sphere and whose face angles are measured by the sides of the polygon, whose dihedral angles have the same numerical measure as the angles of the polygon.

Polyhedral Angle in a Sphere

Illustration of a sphere with a polyhedral angle whose vertex is at the center of the sphere and whose…

Illustration of a sphere with a polyhedral angle.

Polyhedral Angle in a Sphere

Illustration of a sphere with a polyhedral angle.

A sphere with quadrants and poles. "A point on the surface of a sphere, which is at the distance of a quadrant from each of two other points, not the extremities of a diameter, is a pole of the great circle passing through theses points."

Sphere With Quadrants and Poles

A sphere with quadrants and poles. "A point on the surface of a sphere, which is at the distance of…

A sphere with quadrants drawn on it.

Sphere With Quadrants

A sphere with quadrants drawn on it.

An illustration of a sphere showing a radius of 1 foot. Illustration could be used for calculating volume.

Sphere With a Radius of 1 foot

An illustration of a sphere showing a radius of 1 foot. Illustration could be used for calculating volume.

A wooden hollow sphere created by using a lathe and wooden templet at a desired diameter.

Wooden Sphere

A wooden hollow sphere created by using a lathe and wooden templet at a desired diameter.

An illustration of a zone of a sphere. A zone occurs when a sphere is cut by parallel planes that are equal distances apart. This illustration is the segment of one base.

Zones or Segments of Spheres

An illustration of a zone of a sphere. A zone occurs when a sphere is cut by parallel planes that are…

An illustration of a zone of a sphere. A zone occurs when a sphere is cut by parallel planes that are equal distances apart. This illustration is the segment of two bases.

Zones or Segments of Spheres

An illustration of a zone of a sphere. A zone occurs when a sphere is cut by parallel planes that are…

Illustration of equal spheres with equal triangles.

Equal Spheres With Triangles

Illustration of equal spheres with equal triangles.

Illustration of equal spheres with equilateral and equiangular triangles.

Equal Spheres With Triangles

Illustration of equal spheres with equilateral and equiangular triangles.

Illustration of two intersecting spheres. "The intersection of two spherical surfaces is the circumference of a circle whose plane is perpendicular to the line joining the centres of the surfaces and whose centre is in that line."

Intersecting Spheres

Illustration of two intersecting spheres. "The intersection of two spherical surfaces is the circumference…

An illustration of a flanged spherical segment with a diameter of 10 inches. Illustration could be used to find the area.

Flanged Spherical Segment

An illustration of a flanged spherical segment with a diameter of 10 inches. Illustration could be used…

A spiral of Archimedes.

Archimedes spiral

A spiral of Archimedes.

An illustration used to "square a circumference".

Square And Circle

An illustration used to "square a circumference".

An illustration used to "square a cirleplane".

Square And Circle

An illustration used to "square a cirleplane".

An illustration showing how to construct a square circumscribed about a circle. "Draw the diameters AB and CD at right angles to one another; with the radius of the circle, and A, B, C, and D as centers, draw the four dotted half circles which cross one another in the corners of the square, and thus complete the problem."

Construction Of A Square Circumscribed About A Circle

An illustration showing how to construct a square circumscribed about a circle. "Draw the diameters…

An illustration showing how to construct a square inscribed in a circle. "Draw the diameter AB, and through the center erect the perpendicular CD, and complete the square as shown in the illustration."

Construction Of A Square Inscribed In A Circle

An illustration showing how to construct a square inscribed in a circle. "Draw the diameter AB, and…

An illustration of a circle inscribed in a square. It can be used to show that the area of a circle is .7854 of the area of a square whose sides are equal to its diameter.

Circle Inscribed In A Square

An illustration of a circle inscribed in a square. It can be used to show that the area of a circle…

The straight line is the simplest type of locus and the simplest first degree equation.

Straight Line

The straight line is the simplest type of locus and the simplest first degree equation.

An illustration showing how to construct a talon, or two circle arcs that will tangent themselves, and meet two parallel lines at right angles in the given points A and B. "Join A and B; divide AB into four equal parts erect perpendiculars; then m and n are the centers of the circle arcs of the required talon."

Construction Of A Talon

An illustration showing how to construct a talon, or two circle arcs that will tangent themselves, and…

Illustration of point of tangency (line and circle).

Point of Tangency

Illustration of point of tangency (line and circle).

Illustration of radius drawn to point of contact of a tangent.

Point of Tangency

Illustration of radius drawn to point of contact of a tangent.

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent between 2 given circles. "Join the centers C and c of the given circles; draw the dotted circle arcs, and join the crossing m, n, which line cuts the center line at a. With aC as diameter, draw the half circle afC; and with ac as a diameter, draw the half circle cea; then the crossings e and f are the tangenting points of the circles."

Construction Of Tangent Between 2 Circles

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent between 2 given circles. "Join the centers C and…

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent to 2 given circles of different diameters. "Join the centers C and c of the given circles, and extend the line to D; draw the radii AC and ac parallel with one another. Join Aa, and extend the line to D. On CD as a diameter, draw the half circle CeD; on cD as a diameter, draw the half circle cfD; then the crossings e and f are the tangenting points of the circles."

Construction Of Tangent To 2 Circles

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent to 2 given circles of different diameters. "Join…

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent circle to 2 given circles. "Join centers C and c of the given circles, and extend the line to D; draw the radii AC and ac parallel with one another. Join Aa, and extend the line to D. On CD as a diameter, draw the half circle CeD; on cD as a diameter, draw the half circle cfD; then the crossings e and f are tangenting points of the circles."

Construction Of Circle Tangent To 2 Circles

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent circle to 2 given circles. "Join centers C and c…

Illustration used to draw a tangent to a circle.

Construction of Tangent to a Circle

Illustration used to draw a tangent to a circle.

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent to a circle through a given point in a circumference. "Through a given point A and center C, draw the line BC. With A as a center, draw the circle arcs B and C; with B and C as centers, draw the cross arcs D and E; then join D and E, which is the required tangent."

Construction Of Tangent To Circle

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent to a circle through a given point in a circumference.…

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent to a circle through a given point outside of a circumference. "Join A and C, and upon AC as a diameter draw the half circle ABC, which cuts the given circle at B. Join A and B, which is the required tangent."

Construction Of Tangent To Circle

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent to a circle through a given point outside of a circumference.…

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent circle to a circle with a given radius. "Through the given point C, draw the diameter AC extended beyond D: from C set off the given radius R to D; then D is the center of the required circle, which tangents the given circle at C."

Construction Of Circle Tangent To Circle

An illustration showing how to construct a tangent circle to a circle with a given radius. "Through…

The exercise problem of creating a three piece elbow development or rolled out image of the cylinder using projections or with dividers.

Development Exercise of Cylinder using Three Piece Elbow

The exercise problem of creating a three piece elbow development or rolled out image of the cylinder…

A tire is ring shaped, the earliest tires were bands of iron placed on wooden wheels which were used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a forge fire, placed over the wheel and quenched.

Adjustable Tire

A tire is ring shaped, the earliest tires were bands of iron placed on wooden wheels which were used…

An illustration showing a circle with radius r inscribed in a triangle with sides a, b, and c.

Circle Inscribed In A Triangle

An illustration showing a circle with radius r inscribed in a triangle with sides a, b, and c.

An illustration showing a circle with sectors D and E inscribed in a triangle with angles, A, B, and C.

Circle Inscribed In A Triangle

An illustration showing a circle with sectors D and E inscribed in a triangle with angles, A, B, and…

Illustration used to circumscribe a circle about a given triangle.

Construction Used to Circumscribe a Circle About a Triangle

Illustration used to circumscribe a circle about a given triangle.

Illustration used to escribe a circle to a given triangle. "A circle which is tangent to one side of a triangle and to the the other two sides prolonged is said to be escribed to the triangle."

Construction Used to Escribe a Circle to a Triangle

Illustration used to escribe a circle to a given triangle. "A circle which is tangent to one side of…

Illustration used to inscribe a circle in a given triangle.

Construction Used to Inscribe a Circle in a Triangle

Illustration used to inscribe a circle in a given triangle.

Right triangle inscribed in semicircle. Illustration shows that the perpendicular from any point in the circumference to the diameter of a circle is the mean proportional between the segments of the diameter.

Right Triangle Inscribed in Semicircle Shows Mean Proportional

Right triangle inscribed in semicircle. Illustration shows that the perpendicular from any point in…