"Square pillars, which were commonly joined to the sidewalls of a building, being placed on each side of the door, so as to assist in forming the portico. These terms are seldom found except in the plural; because the purpose served by antae required that they should be erected corresponding to each other, and supporting the extremities of the same roof. The following is a specimen of the temple in antis." — Smith, 1873

Antae

"Square pillars, which were commonly joined to the sidewalls of a building, being placed on each side…

"Square pillars, which were commonly joined to the sidewalls of a building, being placed on each side of the door, so as to assist in forming the portico. These terms are seldom found except in the plural; because the purpose served by antae required that they should be erected corresponding to each other, and supporting the extremities of the same roof. Their position and form will be best understood from the cut, in which A A are the antae. The temple in antis was one of the simplest kind. It had in front antae attached to the walls which inclosed the calla; and in themiddle, between the antae, two columns supporting the architrave." — Smith, 1873

Antae

"Square pillars, which were commonly joined to the sidewalls of a building, being placed on each side…

The rich enrichment bead moulding is a Renaissance design of semi-circles. These designs were typically found on the bases of columns and pilasters, or on door and window arches.

Rich Enrichment Bead Moulding

The rich enrichment bead moulding is a Renaissance design of semi-circles. These designs were typically…

The rich enrichment bead moulding is a Renaissance design of semi-circles. These designs were typically found on the bases of columns and pilasters, or on door and window arches.

Rich Enrichment Bead Moulding

The rich enrichment bead moulding is a Renaissance design of semi-circles. These designs were typically…

The rich enrichment bead moulding is a Renaissance design of semi-circles. These designs were typically found on the bases of columns and pilasters, or on door and window arches.

Rich Enrichment Bead Moulding

The rich enrichment bead moulding is a Renaissance design of semi-circles. These designs were typically…

The rich enrichment bead moulding is a Renaissance design of semi-circles. These designs were typically found on the bases of columns and pilasters, or on door and window arches.

Rich Enrichment Bead Moulding

The rich enrichment bead moulding is a Renaissance design of semi-circles. These designs were typically…

The rich enrichment bead moulding is a Renaissance design of semi-circles. These designs were typically found on the bases of columns and pilasters, or on door and window arches.

Rich Enrichment Bead Moulding

The rich enrichment bead moulding is a Renaissance design of semi-circles. These designs were typically…

"In their private dwellings the Egyptians sometimes used graceful columns and the true arch (both of which forms the Greeks may have learned from them); but for their more important buildings they preferred massive walls and rows of huge, close-set columns, supporting roofs of immense flat slabs of rock." - West, 1904

A Capital from Karnak

"In their private dwellings the Egyptians sometimes used graceful columns and the true arch (both of…

The modern caryatid is two female figures side by side used as supports in place of columns.

Modern Caryatid

The modern caryatid is two female figures side by side used as supports in place of columns.

The modern caryatid is two female figures side by side used as supports in place of columns.

Modern Caryatid

The modern caryatid is two female figures side by side used as supports in place of columns.

The modern caryatid is two female figures side by side used as supports in place of columns.

Modern Caryatid

The modern caryatid is two female figures side by side used as supports in place of columns.

The modern caryatid is two female figures side by side used as supports in place of columns.

Modern Caryatid

The modern caryatid is two female figures side by side used as supports in place of columns.

The modern caryatid is two female figures side by side used as supports in place of columns.

Modern Caryatid

The modern caryatid is two female figures side by side used as supports in place of columns.

Figures of women dressed in long robes, serving to support entablatures.

Caryatides

Figures of women dressed in long robes, serving to support entablatures.

Architecture of Cathredals in England. A clustered pier at the Worcester Cathedral, Early English style.

Clustered Pier

Architecture of Cathredals in England. A clustered pier at the Worcester Cathedral, Early English style.

Sections of Gothic Columns.

Columns, Gothic

Sections of Gothic Columns.

A characteristic a-separate compound coral. The columns are prismatic and their walls pierced by regular pores. Internally the tubes are divided by horizontal plates or tabulae. This is an important limestone builder in the Palaeozoic.

Compound Coral

A characteristic a-separate compound coral. The columns are prismatic and their walls pierced by regular…

The Mosque of Cordoba was a former mosque and today is a Roman Catholic Cathedral located in the Andalusian city of Cordoba, Spain. It was built into a mosque by the Umayyad Dynasty. The structure is most notable for its interior large arches, and over 1,000 columns that are made out of jasper, onyx, marble and granite.

Mosque of Cordoba

The Mosque of Cordoba was a former mosque and today is a Roman Catholic Cathedral located in the Andalusian…

Illustration of 108 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

108 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 108 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a…

Illustration of 117 congruent cubes stacked in columns of one, four, and six. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

117 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 117 congruent cubes stacked in columns of one, four, and six. A 3-dimensional representation…

Illustration of 128 congruent cubes stacked so they form a rectangular solid that measures 4 by 4 by 8. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

128 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 128 congruent cubes stacked so they form a rectangular solid that measures 4 by 4 by…

Illustration of 132 congruent cubes stacked in 22 columns of 6 in the shape of a U. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

132 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 132 congruent cubes stacked in 22 columns of 6 in the shape of a U. A 3-dimensional…

Illustration of 154 congruent cubes stacked in columns increasing from one to four. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

154 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 154 congruent cubes stacked in columns increasing from one to four. A 3-dimensional…

Illustration of 16 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

16 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 16 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional…

Illustration of 17 congruent cubes stacked in ones and twos in the shape of a V. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

17 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 17 congruent cubes stacked in ones and twos in the shape of a V. A 3-dimensional representation…

Illustration of two congruent cubes that are tangent along an edge. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface.

2 Congruent Cubes

Illustration of two congruent cubes that are tangent along an edge. A 3-dimensional representation on…

Illustration of 20 congruent cubes stacked in twos and threes. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

20 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 20 congruent cubes stacked in twos and threes. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional…

Illustration of 20 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

20 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 20 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional…

Illustration of 20 congruent cubes stacked at heights increasing from 1 to 4 cubes. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

20 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 20 congruent cubes stacked at heights increasing from 1 to 4 cubes. A 3-dimensional…

Illustration of 22 congruent cubes stacked in ones, twos, and threes. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

22 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 22 congruent cubes stacked in ones, twos, and threes. A 3-dimensional representation…

Illustration of 22 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

22 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 22 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional…

Illustration of 24 congruent cubes stacked at various heights to resemble steps. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

24 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 24 congruent cubes stacked at various heights to resemble steps. A 3-dimensional representation…

Illustration of 256 congruent cubes stacked so they form 4 larger cubes that measures 4 by 4 by 4 each. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

256 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 256 congruent cubes stacked so they form 4 larger cubes that measures 4 by 4 by 4 each.…

Illustration of 27 congruent cubes stacked to resemble a larger cube that measures three by three by three cubes. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

27 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 27 congruent cubes stacked to resemble a larger cube that measures three by three by…

Illustration of 27 congruent cubes stacked at various heights in the shape of a W. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

27 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 27 congruent cubes stacked at various heights in the shape of a W. A 3-dimensional representation…

Illustration of 28 congruent cubes placed in the shape of a square. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

28 Congruent Cubes Placed in the Shape of a Square

Illustration of 28 congruent cubes placed in the shape of a square. A 3-dimensional representation on…

Illustration of 30 congruent cubes stacked in decreasing heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

30 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 30 congruent cubes stacked in decreasing heights. A 3-dimensional representation on…

Illustration of 33 congruent cubes stacked at various heights in a zigzag pattern. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

33 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 33 congruent cubes stacked at various heights in a zigzag pattern. A 3-dimensional representation…

Illustration of 35 congruent cubes stacked in ones and twos in the shape of a W. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

35 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 35 congruent cubes stacked in ones and twos in the shape of a W. A 3-dimensional representation…

Illustration of 35 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

35 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 35 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional…

Illustration of 36 congruent cubes stacked at various heights with outer edges forming a square. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

36 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 36 congruent cubes stacked at various heights with outer edges forming a square. A 3-dimensional…

Illustration of 36 congruent cubes stacked to resemble a 1 by 1 by 1 cube on a 2 by 2 by 2 cube on a 3 by 3 by 3 cube. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

36 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 36 congruent cubes stacked to resemble a 1 by 1 by 1 cube on a 2 by 2 by 2 cube on a…

Illustration of 39 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

39 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 39 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional…

Illustration of 4 congruent cubes stacked in ones and twos. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

4 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 4 congruent cubes stacked in ones and twos. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional…

Illustration of 50 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

50 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 50 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional…

Illustration of 56 congruent cubes stacked in twos in the shape of a square. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

56 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 56 congruent cubes stacked in twos in the shape of a square. A 3-dimensional representation…

Illustration of 56 congruent cubes stacked in heights of 1, 4, and 5 cubes that form a zigzag pattern. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

56 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 56 congruent cubes stacked in heights of 1, 4, and 5 cubes that form a zigzag pattern.…

Illustration of 57 congruent cubes stacked in heights of 1 and 5 cubes that form a zigzag pattern. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

57 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 57 congruent cubes stacked in heights of 1 and 5 cubes that form a zigzag pattern. A…

Illustration of 59 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

59 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 59 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional…

Illustration of 64 congruent cubes stacked so they form a cube that measures 4 by 4 by 4. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

64 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 64 congruent cubes stacked so they form a cube that measures 4 by 4 by 4. A 3-dimensional…

Illustration of 65 congruent cubes stacked at heights increasing from 1 to 5 cubes. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

65 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 65 congruent cubes stacked at heights increasing from 1 to 5 cubes. A 3-dimensional…

"Fragment of the Entrance-Façade of the Palace of Diocletian at Spalatro. The tendency of the period of decadence is particularly illustrated by the introduction of small shafts resting on brackets, which serve no other purpose than to adorn and enliven the façade. Between these small shafts are alternate windows, with a semicircular head and niches of various shapes.

Entrance Façade of Diocletian's Palace

"Fragment of the Entrance-Façade of the Palace of Diocletian at Spalatro. The tendency of the…

Types of Egyptian Columns.

Egypt, Types of Columns of

Types of Egyptian Columns.

"Doric Entablature. E, entablature: a, epistyle or architrave; b, frieze; c, cornice." -Whitney, 1911

Doric Entablature

"Doric Entablature. E, entablature: a, epistyle or architrave; b, frieze; c, cornice." -Whitney, 1911

"In architecture, the swelling or outward curve of the profile of the shaft of a column. Entasis. e e, arcs of entasis." -Whitney, 1911

Entasis

"In architecture, the swelling or outward curve of the profile of the shaft of a column. Entasis. e…

"The 'house of Erechtheus'; a temple of Ionic order on the Acropolis of Athens, noted as one of the most original achievements of Hellenic architecture." -Whitney, 1911

Erechtheum

"The 'house of Erechtheus'; a temple of Ionic order on the Acropolis of Athens, noted as one of the…

The stairway of the great altar at Pergamon in Ancient Greece shows a frieze. A frieze is a sculpture of an entablature in bas-relief.

Frieze of Altar at Pergamon

The stairway of the great altar at Pergamon in Ancient Greece shows a frieze. A frieze is a sculpture…

The Gate of Fame from 'The Triumphal Arch,' an engraving by Albrecht Dürer.

The Gate of Fame

The Gate of Fame from 'The Triumphal Arch,' an engraving by Albrecht Dürer.

"Guttae in Doric Architecture. A, form of gutta beneath regula; G, G, guttae beneath mutules and regulae. GUTTA. A drop; specifically, in architecture, one of a series of pendent ornaments, generally in the form of the frustum of a cone, but sometimes cylindrical, attached to the under side of the mutules and regulae of the Doric entablature." -Whitney, 1911

Gutta in Doric Architecture

"Guttae in Doric Architecture. A, form of gutta beneath regula; G, G, guttae beneath mutules and regulae.…

Christian architecture is Syria diverged from Roman traditions. The abundance of hard stone, the total lack of clay or brick, the remoteness from Rome, led to a peculiar independence and originality in the forms and details of the ecclesiastical as well as of the domestic architecture of central Syria.

Church at Kalb Louzeh

Christian architecture is Syria diverged from Roman traditions. The abundance of hard stone, the total…