An entablature refers to the superstructure of moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals. Entablatures are major elements of classical architecture, and are commonly divided into the architrave, frieze, and the cornice. The architrave (also called epistyle or door frame) is a moulded or ornamental band framing a rectangular opening. It is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns.

Architrave of Entablature over Doorway at the Great Temple at Philæ

An entablature refers to the superstructure of moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns,…

In some temples the pillars have, in lieu of capital, the face of a goddess, probably of Isis, with a drooping sacerdotal hood, and supporting a temple on the head. This face is repeated on four sides of the circular shaft.

Capital in the Temple at Denderah

In some temples the pillars have, in lieu of capital, the face of a goddess, probably of Isis, with…

The capitals of the columns display an immense variety. The most beautiful have a crater-like form, and appear like the projecting bell of a flower, with leaves standing out from the surface (here). In other instances the pillars are imitations of a palm tree, and have a smooth slender shaft, a neck-moulding of several rings, and then, without any intermediate architectural division, a capital formed of the graceful leaves of the palm.

Capital in the Temple at Edfu

The capitals of the columns display an immense variety. The most beautiful have a crater-like form,…

The capitals of the columns display an immense variety. The most beautiful have a crater-like form, and appear like the projecting bell of a flower, with leaves standing out from the surface. In other instances the pillars are imitations of a palm tree, and have a smooth slender shaft, a neck-moulding of several rings, and then, without any intermediate architectural division, a capital formed of the graceful leaves of the palm (here).

Capital in the Temple at Edfu

The capitals of the columns display an immense variety. The most beautiful have a crater-like form,…

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling the sheath from which the stalk of a plant springs (here). The same ornament often occurs at the base of the shaft, and seems to a certain extent borrowed from the shape of the lower portion of the papyrus plant. Other capitals imitate an unopened bud or seed-pod.

Capital Ornament in the Temple at Edfu

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling…

Instead of columns, square piers are not infrequently introduced in the tombs. In structural buildings they only occur in connection with colossal statues; in which case the pier supports the roof, and the statue, while connected with the pier at the back, has its head free, without supporting anything.

Front View of the Colossal Statue on a Pier at the Luxor Temple

Instead of columns, square piers are not infrequently introduced in the tombs. In structural buildings…

Instead of columns, square piers are not infrequently introduced in the tombs. In structural buildings they only occur in connection with colossal statues; in which case the pier supports the roof, and the statue, while connected with the pier at the back, has its head free, without supporting anything.

Profile of the Colossal Statue on a Pier at the Luxor Temple

Instead of columns, square piers are not infrequently introduced in the tombs. In structural buildings…

An entablature refers to the superstructure of moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals. Entablatures are major elements of classical architecture, and are commonly divided into the architrave, frieze, and the cornice. The term cornice comes from Italian cornice, meaning "ledge." Cornice molding is generally any horizontal decorative molding which crowns any building or furniture element: the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the edge of a pedestal. A simple cornice may be formed just with a crown molding.

Cornice of Entablature over Doorway at the Great Temple at Philæ

An entablature refers to the superstructure of moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns,…

They are generally of smaller dimensions in the interior, so that the walls or columns of the same chamber contain several rows of such representations. Between and over them are often found ornamented bands like friezes, and at the bottom of the walls, as in the case of the columns, are introduced more decorations, representing lotus-plants.

Mural Frieze-like Decoration from the Temple of Esneh

They are generally of smaller dimensions in the interior, so that the walls or columns of the same chamber…

The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops, is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops,…

The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops, is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Great Pyramid is the only pyramid known to contain both ascending and descending passages. There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. These are arranged centrally, on the vertical axis of the pyramid.

Great Pyramid of Giza, Cross Section

The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops,…

The Grand Gallery features a corbel haloed design and several cut "sockets" spaced at regular intervals along the length of each side of its raised base with a "trench" running along its center length at floor level. What purpose these sockets served is unknown. An antechamber leads from the Grand Gallery to the King's Chamber.

Great Pyramid of Giza, Section of the Grand Gallery

The Grand Gallery features a corbel haloed design and several cut "sockets" spaced at regular…

The King's Chamber is lined with red granite brought from Aswan 935 km (580 miles) to the south, of which the blocks used for the roof are estimated to weigh 50 to 80 tons. Egyptologists believe they were transported on barges down the Nile river.

Great Pyramid of Giza, King's Chamber

The King's Chamber is lined with red granite brought from Aswan 935 km (580 miles) to the south, of…

A: King's Chamber;B: Queen's Chamber;C: Chamber Cut in Rock.

Section of Great Pyramid

A: King's Chamber; B: Queen's Chamber; C: Chamber Cut in Rock.

Karnak is a vast grouping of ruined temples, chapels, pylons and other buildings located mear Luxor, Egypt. Built over 1300 years ago, it consists of large columns arranged in rows.

Karnak

Karnak is a vast grouping of ruined temples, chapels, pylons and other buildings located mear Luxor,…

At the end of the lengthy series of entrance ways leading into the interior is the structure's main chamber, the King's Chamber. This chamber was originally 10 × 20 × 11.2 cubits, or about 5.25 m × 10.5 m × 6 m, comprising a double 10 × 10 cubit square, and a height equal to half the double square's diagonal.

Section of the King's Chamber

At the end of the lengthy series of entrance ways leading into the interior is the structure's main…

The columns form three or four rows, the rows which face the court being closed in by walls of about half the height of the columns, and with the upper part crowned in the manner shown here. Molding, or moulding, is a strip of material with various cross sections used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration. In classical architecture and sculpture, the molding is often carved in marble or other stones.

Profile of the Moulding of the Walls between the Columns at the Great Temple at Philæ

The columns form three or four rows, the rows which face the court being closed in by walls of about…

Another element in Egyptian monuments which is worthy of study is the hieroglyphics, which mean, literally, sacred sculptures, and that not only because he condition and direction of architecture are thence to be learnt, but because also of the historical disclosures which they bring about.

Mural Decoration with Heiroglyphics from the Great Temple at Philæ

Another element in Egyptian monuments which is worthy of study is the hieroglyphics, which mean, literally,…

They are generally of smaller dimensions in the interior, so that the walls or columns of the same chamber contain several rows of such representations. Between and over them are often found ornamented bands like friezes, and at the bottom of the walls, as in the case of the columns, are introduced more decorations, representing lotus-plants.

Ornament at the foot of the wall from the Great Temple at Philæ

They are generally of smaller dimensions in the interior, so that the walls or columns of the same chamber…

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling the sheath from which the stalk of a plant springs. The same ornament often occurs at the base of the shaft, and seems to a certain extent borrowed from the shape of the lower portion of the papyrus plant. Other capitals imitate an unopened bud or seed-pod (here).

Pillar at the Palace at Luxor

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling…

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling the sheath from which the stalk of a plant springs. The same ornament often occurs at the base of the shaft, and seems to a certain extent borrowed from the shape of the lower portion of the papyrus plant (here). Other capitals imitate an unopened bud or seed-pod.

Pillar at the Temple at Edfu

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling…

This is a map of the Plan of Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt. Egyptian–style architecture. "The great temple of Karnak...was the work of many successive monarchs" — Enctclopædia Britannica, 1910. The temple is built of granite.

Plan of Karnak, 2134–1999 BC

This is a map of the Plan of Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt. Egyptian–style architecture. "The…

This is a plan of the Temple of Chons (Khonsu) in Luxor, Egypt. Egyptian-style architecture. Scale in feet.

Plan of the Temple of Chons, 2134–1999 BC

This is a plan of the Temple of Chons (Khonsu) in Luxor, Egypt. Egyptian-style architecture. Scale in…

This is a plan of the Temple of Edfu in Egypt. This is an example of Egyptian–style architecture. The key shows the architectural features of the Pylon (A), entrance door (B), Great Court (C), Hall of Columns (D), Second Hall (E), Hall of the Altar (F), Hall of the Centre (G), Sanctuary (H), and storerooms (K).

Plan of the Temple of Edfu, 2134–1999 BC

This is a plan of the Temple of Edfu in Egypt. This is an example of Egyptian–style architecture.…

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes) and was founded in 1400 <small>BC</small>. The temple properly begins with the 24 meter (79 ft) high First Pylon, built by Ramesses II. The pylon was decorated with scenes of Ramesses's military triumphs (particularly the Battle of Kadesh). Pylon is the Greek term for a monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple. It consists of two tapering towers, each surmounted by a cornice, joined by a less elevated section which enclosed the entrance between them.

Pylon at the Palace at Luxor

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in…

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes) and was founded in 1400 <small>BC</small>. The temple properly begins with the 24 meter (79 ft) high First Pylon, built by Ramesses II. The pylon was decorated with scenes of Ramesses's military triumphs (particularly the Battle of Kadesh). Pylon is the Greek term for a monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple. It consists of two tapering towers, each surmounted by a cornice, joined by a less elevated section which enclosed the entrance between them.

Pylon at the Palace at Luxor, Profile with Colossal Statue and Obelisk

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in…

The Sphinx of Ramses II is a 3,300 year old Egyptian monument. Ramses II was the third Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty. He is also known as "The Great Ramses" because he was celebrated as the most powerful Pharaoh.

The Sphinx of Ramses II

The Sphinx of Ramses II is a 3,300 year old Egyptian monument. Ramses II was the third Pharaoh of the…

Nine hundred sphinx's with rams' heads, representing Amon, were built in Thebes, where his cult was strongest.

Sphinx at Thebes

Nine hundred sphinx's with rams' heads, representing Amon, were built in Thebes, where his cult was…

In most rock-temples a court, which is sometimes hewn out of the rock, or a covered vestibule forms the entrance, which opens into an entrance-hall, with smaller chamber beyond, in which pillars or columns are introduced according to the exigencies of the case.

Cross Section of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel

In most rock-temples a court, which is sometimes hewn out of the rock, or a covered vestibule forms…

In 1959 an international donations campaign to save the monuments of Nubia began: the southernmost relics of this ancient human civilization were under threat from the rising waters of the Nile that were about to result from the construction of the Aswan High Dam. This image gives a perspective view of the entrance hall, in which are seen eight standing colossal statues 33 feet high, supported by square piers.1

Entrance to the Great Temple at Abu Simbel

In 1959 an international donations campaign to save the monuments of Nubia began: the southernmost relics…

Four colossal 20 meter statues of the pharaoh with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt decorate the facade of the temple, which is 35 meters wide and is topped by a frieze with 22 baboons, worshippers of the sun and flank the entrance. The colossal statues were sculptured directly from the rock in which the temple was located before it was moved. All statues represent Ramesses II, seated on a throne and wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The statue to the left of the entrance was damaged in an earthquake, leaving only the lower part of the statue still intact. The head and torso can still be seen at the statue's feet.

Entrance of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel

Four colossal 20 meter statues of the pharaoh with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt decorate…

In most rock-temples a court, which is sometimes hewn out of the rock, or a covered vestibule forms the entrance, which opens into an entrance-hall, with smaller chamber beyond, in which pillars or columns are introduced according to the exigencies of the case.

Floor Plan of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel

In most rock-temples a court, which is sometimes hewn out of the rock, or a covered vestibule forms…

This image shows how the middle passage is made more imposing by the arrangement of elevating the columns in the middle, and how at the same time a means is contrived of lighting the whole hall by the raised side-lights.

Hall Section of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel

This image shows how the middle passage is made more imposing by the arrangement of elevating the columns…

The Temple of Debod is an ancient Egyptian temple which was rebuilt in Madrid, Spain. The temple was built originally 15 km south of Aswan in southern Egypt very close to the first cataract of the Nile and to the great religious center dedicated to the goddess Isis, in Phil&aelig;.

Great Temple at the Island of Philæ

The Temple of Debod is an ancient Egyptian temple which was rebuilt in Madrid, Spain. The temple was…

The Temple of Edfu is an ancient Egyptian temple located on the west bank of the Nile in the city of Edfu which was known in Greco-Roman times as Apollonopolis Magna, after the chief god Horus-Apollo. It is the second largest temple in Egypt after Karnak and one of the best preserved. The temple, dedicated to the falcon god Horus, was built in the Ptolemaic period between 237 and 57 <small>BCE</small>. A, pylon; B, obelisks; C, entrance; D, temple courts; E, porticus; F, pronaos (court with colonnades); G, naos; H, sanctarium.

Temple of Edfu, Floor Plan

The Temple of Edfu is an ancient Egyptian temple located on the west bank of the Nile in the city of…

This temple is at the southern end of the Great Temple in Philae. The temple was dedicated to the worship of the god Isis.

Egyptian-Front of Temple of Isis at Philae

This temple is at the southern end of the Great Temple in Philae. The temple was dedicated to the worship…

Located with the large Precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak, in Luxor, Egypt, the Temple of Khonsu is an example of an almost complete New Kingdom temple, and was originally constructed by Ramesses III, on the site of an earlier temple. The gateway of this temple is at the end of the avenue of syphinxes that ran to the Luxor Temple.

Cross Section of the Temple of Khonsu

Located with the large Precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak, in Luxor, Egypt, the Temple of Khonsu is an example…

Located with the large Precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak, in Luxor, Egypt, the Temple of Khonsu is an example of an almost complete New Kingdom temple, and was originally constructed by Ramesses III, on the site of an earlier temple. The gateway of this temple is at the end of the avenue of syphinxes that ran to the Luxor Temple.

Floor Plan of the Temple of Khonsu

Located with the large Precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak, in Luxor, Egypt, the Temple of Khonsu is an example…

The serious, solemn, and awe-inspiring efect which the general arrangement of the temple produces is maintained by the smaller details, while the slanting form of the outer walls gives the temple an appearance of solidity and isolation. On this account, and especially owing to its simple unbroken lines, the exterior although monotonous and heavy, is still imposing. The chief peculiarity in the construction of these buildings is that they produce the effect of being composed of an agglomeration of separate parts, which resemble on another, but become smaller and smaller towards the rear of the structure.

Back View of the Temple of Philæ

The serious, solemn, and awe-inspiring efect which the general arrangement of the temple produces is…

The interior has a richer appearance, chiefly owing to the use of columns of a round cylindrical shape. These are, moreover, of the most varied form, and without exception represent objects drawn from the vegetable world.

Interior of the Temple of Philæ

The interior has a richer appearance, chiefly owing to the use of columns of a round cylindrical shape.…

There is another form of Egyptian temples called Typhons. They consist of a simple house in the shape of an oblong square, which has the entrance on the shorter side, and two or three consecutive chambers in the interior; whilst a colonnade surrounds all the four sides of the exterior.

Small Temple on Elephantine Island, Floor Plan

There is another form of Egyptian temples called Typhons. They consist of a simple house in the shape…