"The Wandering Albatros of the Southern Oceans is white with narrow dusky undulations above and almost black wings." - A. H. Evens, 1900

Wandering Albatros

"The Wandering Albatros of the Southern Oceans is white with narrow dusky undulations above and almost…

Birds usually have three cavities or stomachs. Labels: 1, The esophagus. 2, Ingluvies (crop). 2, Proventriculus (secreting stomach). 4. Triturating stomach (gizzard). 5, Intestine. 6, Two caeca.

The Alimentary Canal of a Fowl

Birds usually have three cavities or stomachs. Labels: 1, The esophagus. 2, Ingluvies (crop). 2, Proventriculus…

In reptiles the alimentary canal differs much from that of mammals or birds. As a general rule, it is shorter in proportion to the trunk than in warm-blooded vertebrates. Labels: 1, esophagus; 2, stomach; 3, small intestine; 4,large intestine.

The Alimentary Canal of the Flying Lizard

In reptiles the alimentary canal differs much from that of mammals or birds. As a general rule, it is…

"This species (Alca impennis or Great Auk), extirpated chiefly by the persecution of fisherman, but subsequently by collectors, resembles a flightless Razorbill, though double the size; it had no white stripes on the head or bill, but shewed a large white patch before each eye. A. impennis, the extinct Great Auk or Garefowl, inhabited the North Atlantic, chiefly in the neighborhood of Ice A. H. Evans, 1900

Great Auk

"This species (Alca impennis or Great Auk), extirpated chiefly by the persecution of fisherman, but…

"Chasmorhynchus niveus, the Bell-bird, ...have lores and orbits bare. The plumage is ordinarily plain rufous, green, or grey; the females being nearly always dull, though many of the males are very brilliant." A. H. Evans, 1900

Bell-Bird

"Chasmorhynchus niveus, the Bell-bird, ...have lores and orbits bare. The plumage is ordinarily plain…

The bill of the Gadwall Duck, showing the comb-like 'teeth' that they are known for.

Bill of Gadwall

The bill of the Gadwall Duck, showing the comb-like 'teeth' that they are known for.

Anarhynchus frontalis, the Wry-bill of New Zealand, is grey, with a black gorget and whitish lower parts; the habits are as in Aegialitis, but the laterally-twisted bill enables the bird to pick up insects from around stones with the greatest ease." A. H. Evans, 1900

Wry-bill

Anarhynchus frontalis, the Wry-bill of New Zealand, is grey, with a black gorget and whitish lower parts;…

An illustration of a bird nest with an egg.

Bird Nest with an Egg

An illustration of a bird nest with an egg.

"Right shoulder-girdle or scapular arch of fowl, showing hp, the hypoclidium; f, furculum; Co, coracoid; Sc, scapula; gl, glenoid." -Whitney, 1911

Bird Scapula

"Right shoulder-girdle or scapular arch of fowl, showing hp, the hypoclidium; f, furculum; Co, coracoid;…

"The Frigate pr Mana-of-War-Bird... is met throughout the tropical regions, breeds in Laysan and has strayed to Nova Scotia. It is blackish-brown with green and purple reflexions; the bill is bluish, the feet are black, the orbits, lores, and pouch-inflated in flight-scarlet." A. H. Evans, 1900

Frigate Bird

"The Frigate pr Mana-of-War-Bird... is met throughout the tropical regions, breeds in Laysan and has…

"Standing some four feet high on very long legs, this bird (Secretary Bird) gives the impression of a Heron or Crane, and is a striking object on its native plains. The short strong beak is greatly arched, and is not toothed, the neck is elongated, the body comparatively small, and the metatarsus boldly scutellated all around, the short straight toes with their blunt claws being joined anteriorly by small membranes The ample wings have eleven pointed primaries and seventeen secondaries. the graduated tail of twelve rectrices has the two obtuse median feathers drooping and much prolonged. Down is evenly distributed over the adults, and an after-shaft is present. The general colour is bluish-grey, with black wing-quills, lower back and vent; the loose pendent crest on the occiput and nape contains ten plumes in pairs, the longer being black and the shorter grey with black ends; the tail grey, subterminally barred with black and tipped with white, which sometimes shews on the short close flank-feathers. The long cere, naked sides of the face, and feet are yellow, the irides hazel. The sexes are similar." A. H. Evans

Secretary Bird

"Standing some four feet high on very long legs, this bird (Secretary Bird) gives the impression of…

The Tropic Bird " are chiefly found in the tropical regions of the south; ... this species breeds as far north as the tropic of Cancer, while they frequent the West Indies, and occasionally stray to the Eastern United States, or even Newfoundland. All these tropic or Boatswain-birds, as they are denominated, have satin-like white plumage- often with a tinge of pink-varied by blackish bars or patches above, and black marks near the eye..." A. H. Evans, 1900

Tropic Bird Sitting on a Ledge

The Tropic Bird " are chiefly found in the tropical regions of the south; ... this species breeds as…

A bittern, a type of fowl, is about the size of a heron.

Bittern

A bittern, a type of fowl, is about the size of a heron.

An illustration of a boy holding a tirkey.

Boy with Turkey

An illustration of a boy holding a tirkey.

"The plumage in the Calyptomena viridis of the Indo-Malay countries is bright green, with large black post-auricular and a yellow pre-ocular spot, three black bars on the wing-coverts, and blackish wing- and tail-quills. The duller female has no black spots or bars. The dense feathers project forward over the beak. A. H. Evans, 1900

A Broadbill Sitting on a Tree Branch

"The plumage in the Calyptomena viridis of the Indo-Malay countries is bright green, with large black…

"The Otis Tarda, the Great Bustard, which, as a native only became extinct in Norfolk about 1838, used to extend from East Lothian to Dorset, bit is now merely an occasional visitor to Britain. The upper parts are mottled with rufous, buff, and blackish-brown, the head is blue-grey, with long white bristles at the base of the mandible, the lower surface is white, relieved in the male by a tawny gorget for a short time during the breeding season. The primaries are black, most of the secondaries and wing-coverts white. Some other Bustards seem to have similar vernal change of plumage. The female is smaller and has no bristles." A. H. Evans, 1900

Great Bustard

"The Otis Tarda, the Great Bustard, which, as a native only became extinct in Norfolk about 1838, used…

An illustration of a canary in a birdcage.

Canary in Cage

An illustration of a canary in a birdcage.

One-wattled Cassowary "...Casuarius uniappendiculatus, of Salawatti and the adjoining parts of New Guinea, has the head, throat, and nape blue, the lower portion of the neck and the median pear-shaped caruncle yellow, the casque dusky olive, and the longitudinal naked space towards the sides of the neck flesh-coloured with a yellow margin." - A. H. Evans, 1900

One-wattled Cassowary

One-wattled Cassowary "...Casuarius uniappendiculatus, of Salawatti and the adjoining parts of New Guinea,…

Measuring twenty-six inches in height, the kulm cock is believed to have been brought from Java or Sumatra.

Kulm Rooster

Measuring twenty-six inches in height, the kulm cock is believed to have been brought from Java or Sumatra.

"Colius capensis, or Cape Coly, has two stripes of black on the back enclosing one of white, the bare skin surrounding the eye is scarlet and bluish-grey everywhere else. The legs are red in life fading to buff after death." A. H. Evans, 1900

Cape Coly

"Colius capensis, or Cape Coly, has two stripes of black on the back enclosing one of white, the bare…

"On the Sarcorhamphus gryphus the Condor, the head and neck are bare, with dull red skin, wrinkled in folds on the latter; while an oblique ruff of white down surmounts the black plumage, which shews white edges to the wing-coverts and secondaries. The male has a fleshy crest extending from the mid-cere to the crown, a large wattle on the throat, and a small caruncle below; the irides being in the sex brown, in the female garnet red. The bill is white with brown base." A. H. Evans, 1900

Condor

"On the Sarcorhamphus gryphus the Condor, the head and neck are bare, with dull red skin, wrinkled in…

"Balearica pavonina, the "Crowned" Crane of the Northern Ethiopian Region, is greenish-black above and dark grey below, most of the feathers being lanceolate (shaped like a lance); the neck is delicate grey all around, the secondaries are chestnut-the inner being somewhat decomposed; white and yellow shew on the wing coverts; a spreading tuft of twisted yellow and white bristles with black tips surmounts the occiput, while the sides of the face are bare-white above and pink below, and the throat is covered with black down. There is a very small throat-wattle in this form." A. H. Evans, 1900

Crowned Crane

"Balearica pavonina, the "Crowned" Crane of the Northern Ethiopian Region, is greenish-black above and…

"The plumage is brownish, with white margins to the feathers and a purple tinge on the rufous-mottled head, neck, and breast; the back is greener, the tail more lilac, the abdomen white, the bare orbits blue and red. With its long stout legs this species covers the ground very quickly, running with outstretched neck, elevated crest, slightly expanded wings, and jerking tail, or springing into trees and taking brief flights." A. H. Evans, 1900

Two Radiated Ground Cuckoo, One with an Insect in its Mouth, the Other in a Tree Branch in a wooded Area

"The plumage is brownish, with white margins to the feathers and a purple tinge on the rufous-mottled…

Naturally very gentle, they readily yield to captivity, when they become familiar, and evince pleasure in the caresses of their masters (Figuier, 1869).

Curassow

Naturally very gentle, they readily yield to captivity, when they become familiar, and evince pleasure…

Crax alector, Crested Curassow, is black with a purplish gloss, the belly being white, the naked lores and orbits black, the cere and base of the bill yellow, the tip bluish, and the feet horn-coloured. Throughout the whole genus, which is Central ad South American, the female has a curly crest barred with white." A. H. Evans, 1900

Crested Curassow

Crax alector, Crested Curassow, is black with a purplish gloss, the belly being white, the naked lores…

"Numenius arquata, the Curlew or Whaup, breeds freely on the moorlands of Britain; and extends throughout Northern Europe and Asia to Lake Baikal. The plumage is pale brown with darker streaks, the rump, tail, and axillaries being white, and the two latter barred with brown; the belly is white, the breast nearly in winter." A. H. Evans, 1900

Curlew

"Numenius arquata, the Curlew or Whaup, breeds freely on the moorlands of Britain; and extends throughout…

"Schizorhinal skull of curlew (top view), showing the long cleft, a, between upper and lower forks of each nasal bone." -Whitney, 1911

Curlew Skull

"Schizorhinal skull of curlew (top view), showing the long cleft, a, between upper and lower forks of…

"The Indian Darter (Plotus melangaster) or snake-bird of tropical and subtropical America, ranging northwards to West Mexico and South Carolina, is glossy greenish-black with beautiful silvery-grey marking on the scapulars and wing coverts, a broad brown tip to the tail, which becomes white terminally, and long whitish hair-like feathers on the sides of the occiput and neck merging into a black mane on the nape." A. H. Evans, 1900

Indian Darter

"The Indian Darter (Plotus melangaster) or snake-bird of tropical and subtropical America, ranging northwards…

The Great Northern Diver, Colymbus glacialis, "...is black above, with belts of white spots making a "chess-board" pattern; the lower surface is white, and the throat is crossed by two bands of white with longitudinal black bars, while the head and neck are black with a purplish gloss, changing to green below." "...the bill is normally black, and the feet are bluish or greenish grey." "The Great Northern Diver, has a much more restricted range, breeding in Iceland, Greenland, and the Fur Countries as far west as the Great Slave Lake..." - A. H. Evans, 1900

Great Northern Diver

The Great Northern Diver, Colymbus glacialis, "...is black above, with belts of white spots making a…

A well-known water fowl.

Duck

A well-known water fowl.

Biziura lobata, (Musk Duck) of Tasmania and Australia -except the north-is brown with buff mottlings, the bill and its leathery appendage being greenish-black and the feet dusky. The smaller female has less chin lobe." A. H. Evans

Two Musk Ducks Swimming between the Tall Grass in a Lake

Biziura lobata, (Musk Duck) of Tasmania and Australia -except the north-is brown with buff mottlings,…

"A gold chain is formed of wires closely plaited and very flexible, the ends terminating in the heads of water fowl, and having small rings to secure the collar behind." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Egyptian Chain

"A gold chain is formed of wires closely plaited and very flexible, the ends terminating in the heads…

"Egyptian noble hunting waterfowl on the Nile with the "throwstick' (a boomerang). The birds rise from a group of papyrus reeds, -- Egyptian relief; after Maspero." -West 1904

Egyptian noble hunting waterfowl

"Egyptian noble hunting waterfowl on the Nile with the "throwstick' (a boomerang). The birds rise from…

An Emeu "Dromaeus novae-hollandiae, of the interior Eastern Australia, which extended in times past to Tasmania and the islands in Bass's Straits, is blackish grey, with black tips to the plumage." - A. H. Evans, 1900

Emeu

An Emeu "Dromaeus novae-hollandiae, of the interior Eastern Australia, which extended in times past…

"Terpsiphone paradisi, Paradise Flycatchers, have fine crests, shorter in the female; while fleshy wattles, round or above the eye, of scarlet, blue, or yellow, are found. The bill is sometimes reddish or blue, and the inside of the mouth green or yellowish, as in certain Birds of Paradise. The female is rich bay above, with similar head, but grey cheeks and throat. In other species the males are said to be maroon, cinnamon, chestnut, blue-grey, or glossy-black above." A. H. Evans, 1900

Paradise Flycatcher

"Terpsiphone paradisi, Paradise Flycatchers, have fine crests, shorter in the female; while fleshy wattles,…

"Digestive system of the common Fowl. o, Gullet; c, Crop; p, Proventriculus; g, Gizzard; sm, Small intestine; k, Intestinal caeca; l, Large intestine; cl, Cloaca." — Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Fowl Digestive System

"Digestive system of the common Fowl. o, Gullet; c, Crop; p, Proventriculus; g, Gizzard; sm, Small intestine;…

The pelvis and caudal vertebrae of an adult fowl.

Fowl Pelvis

The pelvis and caudal vertebrae of an adult fowl.

The sacrum of a young fowl; natural size seen from below.

Fowl Sacrum

The sacrum of a young fowl; natural size seen from below.

The upper view of the skull of an old fowl.

Fowl Skull

The upper view of the skull of an old fowl.

The skull of an adult fowl.

Fowl Skull

The skull of an adult fowl.

The skull of an adult fowl. Here the temporal fossa is bridged over by the junction of the post-frontal and squamosal processes.

Fowl Skull

The skull of an adult fowl. Here the temporal fossa is bridged over by the junction of the post-frontal…

"Fig. 62 Skull of common fowl, enlarged. from nature by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. The names of bones and some other parts are printed, requiring no explanation; but observe the following points: The distinction of none of the bones composing the brain-case (the upper back expanded part) can be found in a mature skull. The brain is contained between the occipital, sphenoidals, squamosals, parietals and part of frontal; the ethmoidals belong to the same group of cranial bones proper. All other bones, excepting the three otic ear-bones, are bones of the face and jaws. The lower jaw, of five bones, is drawn detached; it articulates by the black surface marked articular with the prominence just above- the quadratic bone. Observe that from this quadrate a series of bones quadrato-jugal, jugal, maxillary-makes a slender rod running to the premaxillary; this is the zygoma, or jugal bar. Observe from the quadrate also another series, composed of pterygoid and palatine bones, to the premaxillary; this is the pterygo-palatine bar; it slides along a median fixed axis of the skull, the rostrum, which bears the loose vomer at its end. The under mandible, quadrate, pterygoid, and vomer are the only movable bones of this skull. But when the quadrate rocks back and forth, as it does by its upper joint, its lower end pulls and pushes upon the upper mandible, by means of the jugal and pterygo-palatine bars, setting the whole scaffolding of the upper jaw in motion. This motion hinges upon the elasticity of the bones of the forehead, at the thin place just where the reference-lines from the words "lacrymal" and "mesethmoid" cross each other. The dark oval space behind the quadrate is the external orifice of the ear; the parts in it to which the three reference-lines go are diagrammatic, not actual representations; thus, the quadrate articulates with a large pro-otic as well as with the squamosal. The great excavation at the middle of the figure, containing the cirlet of the unshaded bones, is the left orbital cavity, orbit, or socket of the eye. The mesethmoid includes most of the background of this cavity, shaded diagonally. The upper one of the two processes of bone extending into it from behind is post-frontal or sphenotic process; the under one (just over the quadrate) is the squamosal process. A bone not shown, the presphenoid, lies just in front of the oval black space over the end of basisphenoid. This black oval is the optic foramen, through which the nerve of sight passes from the brain-cavity to the eye. The black dot a little behind the optic foramen is the orifice of exit of a part of the trifacial nerve. The black mark under the letters "on" of the word "frontal" is the olfactory foramen, where the nerve of smell emerges from the brain-box to go to the nose. The nasal cavity is the black space behind nasal and covered by that bone, and in the oval blank before it. The parts of the beak covered by horn are only premaxillary, nasal, and dentary. The condyle articulates with the first cervical vertebra; just above it, not shown, is the foramen magnum, or great hole through which the spinal medulla, or main nervous cord, passes from the spinal column. The basioccipital is hidden, excepting its condyle; so is much of the basisphenoid. The prolongation forward of the basisphenoid, marked "rostrum," and bearing the vomer at its end, is the parasphenoid, as far as its thickened under border is concerned. Between the fore end of the pterygoid and the basisphenoidal rostrum, is the site of the basipterygoid process, by which the bones concerned articulate by smooth facets; further forward, the palatines ride freely upon the parasphenoidal rostrum. In any passerine bird , the vomer would be thick in front, and forked behind, riding like the palatine upon the rostrum. The palatine seems to run into the maxillary in this view; but it continues on to premaxillary. The maxillo-palatine is an important bone which cannot be seen in the figure because it extends horizontally into the paper from the maxillary about where the reference life "maxillary" goes to that bone. The general line from the condyle to the end of the vomer is the cranial axis, basis cranii, or base of the cranium. This skull is widest across the post-frontal; next most so across the bulge of the jugal bar." Elliot Coues, 1884

Skull of a Common Fowl

"Fig. 62 Skull of common fowl, enlarged. from nature by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. The names of bones…

A pair of cochin china fowls.

Cochin China Fowl

A pair of cochin china fowls.

Instinctive fighters, this breed was often used for cock-fighting.

Game Fowl

Instinctive fighters, this breed was often used for cock-fighting.

Guinea fowls have small heads for their size; beak and neck short; the tail equally short and drooping.

Guinea Fowl

Guinea fowls have small heads for their size; beak and neck short; the tail equally short and drooping.

The Guinea-fowl (or pintado) was originally native to Africa, but was introduced to American poultry-yards.

Guinea Fowl

The Guinea-fowl (or pintado) was originally native to Africa, but was introduced to American poultry-yards.

Kinds of fowl. Far left: light Brahma, behind Brahma: bantam, middle: long-tailed oriental fowl, right: jungle fowl, etc.

Kinds of Fowl

Kinds of fowl. Far left: light Brahma, behind Brahma: bantam, middle: long-tailed oriental fowl, right:…

A group of water-fowl at a bank, with a fountain and pond visible in the background.

Group of Water Fowl

A group of water-fowl at a bank, with a fountain and pond visible in the background.

The Gadwall (Chaulelasmus streperus) is a widely distributed duck, appearing throughout Europe and N. America, as well as in Asia and the north of Africa. It is a freshwater species, remarkable for the great development of the comb-like 'teeth' at the margin of the bill. It is 19-20 inches long, generally grayish, finely mottled, with chestnut wing coverts. The underside of the wing pure white, while the speculum of the drake is blue.

Gadwall Duck

The Gadwall (Chaulelasmus streperus) is a widely distributed duck, appearing throughout Europe and N.…

"The Gannet (S. bassana) has slate-grey wing-quills, purplish-grey bill, reddish feet and naked parts." A. H. Evans, 1900 Additionally, these birds have white plumage and blue eyes.

Gannet

"The Gannet (S. bassana) has slate-grey wing-quills, purplish-grey bill, reddish feet and naked parts."…

Bernicla ruficollis, the Red-breasted Goose of West Siberia, which migrates southwards, strays to Britain and is portrayed in the paintings of Egypt, is black, with white loral patch, rump, sides and belly, the ear-coverts, fore-neck, and chest are chestnut outlined by white and the two wing-bands are grey." A. H. Evans, 1900

Red-breasted Goose

Bernicla ruficollis, the Red-breasted Goose of West Siberia, which migrates southwards, strays to Britain…

"Both sexes of the Little Grebe are mainly dusky brown or blacking grey above, and silvery white below, often with some white on the wing. Podicipes fluviatilis, the Little Grebe or Dabchick, ranging over Europe, Africa, and Asia to the Malay Countries and North Australia, has rich chestnut cheeks, throat, and sides of the neck, horn-coloured bill, and greenish feet. In winter the chestnut fades to buff with the white chin." - A. H. Evans, 1900

Little Grebe

"Both sexes of the Little Grebe are mainly dusky brown or blacking grey above, and silvery white below,…

"Syrrhaptes paradoxus, Sand-Ground, are true desert birds, affording excellent instances of protective coloration in their buff or brownish tints, slightly varied with grey, black, orange, and white." A. H. Evans, 1900

Pallas's Sand Grouse

"Syrrhaptes paradoxus, Sand-Ground, are true desert birds, affording excellent instances of protective…

Native only to the British Isles and the Orkneys, the red grouse is often bred in confinement to be used as poultry.

Red Grouse

Native only to the British Isles and the Orkneys, the red grouse is often bred in confinement to be…

"Lagopus scoticus, the Red Grouse or Muirfowl, the only bird entirely confined to our islands, differs from its congeners in never becoming white in the winter. It varies considerably in coloration, but is usually considered a local form of the Willow Grouse (L. albus) of the north of Europe, Asia, and America. The male in both summer and winter is more or less, chestnut-brown above, with black markings and a reddish head; the lower parts are similar, but are usually spotted with white. In Autumn the brown of the upper parts becomes buff, and the lower surface is barred with buff and black." A. H. Evans, 1900

Red Grouse

"Lagopus scoticus, the Red Grouse or Muirfowl, the only bird entirely confined to our islands, differs…

"Larus ichthyaetus, the Great Black-headed Gull, ranging from the Black Sea and the Levant to Tibet, and wintering in Southern Asia, has the bill almost orange." A. H. Evans, 1900. The adults have a black hood, grey wings and back, and white wing tips.

Great Black-Headed Gull

"Larus ichthyaetus, the Great Black-headed Gull, ranging from the Black Sea and the Levant to Tibet,…

The female of any kind of fowl.

Hen

The female of any kind of fowl.

An illustration of a hen, a female chicken.

Hen

An illustration of a hen, a female chicken.

Prairie hens feed on grasshoppers, wheat, corn, seeds, and the buds of trees. They are also known as the pinnated grouse and the heath-hen.

Prairie Hens

Prairie hens feed on grasshoppers, wheat, corn, seeds, and the buds of trees. They are also known as…

"The most typical forms of Ardea (Common Heron) are large slaty-coloured birds, varied by black, rufous, and white, the head being commonly darker and lower parts striped; while two slender occipital plumes are, in most cases, developed in the nuptial period, and the scapular and jugular feathers are elongated, though not decomposed." A. H. Evans, 1900

Common Heron

"The most typical forms of Ardea (Common Heron) are large slaty-coloured birds, varied by black, rufous,…