"A plate of iron worn over the mail to protect the shoulders of a man-at-arms, before the introduction of plate-armor for the body. Image: Ailette with armorial bearings, middle of 13th century."-Whitney, 1902

ailette

"A plate of iron worn over the mail to protect the shoulders of a man-at-arms, before the introduction…

The Frame of Medieval Arm-chair was made of iron with no drapery included.

Frame of Medieval Arm-Chair

The Frame of Medieval Arm-chair was made of iron with no drapery included.

"Beacons in exposed situations are constructed sometimes of stone, and cement-concrete or cement-rubble, but generally of castiron columns let into heavy base plates which are fixed to the rock by strong lewis bats. The small class iron beacons are generally of malleable iron and the larger of cast-iron butt steel or bronze might with advantage be used in very exposed places." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Beacon

"Beacons in exposed situations are constructed sometimes of stone, and cement-concrete or cement-rubble,…

A blast furnace measuring 42 feet high and 15 feet across that contains 4356 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 42 feet high and 15 feet across that contains 4356 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 47.5 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 6174 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 47.5 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 6174 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 55 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 7175 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 55 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 7175 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 58 feet high and 17 feet across that contains 8000 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 58 feet high and 17 feet across that contains 8000 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 60 feet high and 20 feet across that contains 12778 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 60 feet high and 20 feet across that contains 12778 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 75 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 11983 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 75 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 11983 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 80 feet high and 20.5 feet across that contains 15500 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 80 feet high and 20.5 feet across that contains 15500 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 15050 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 15050 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 22 feet across that contains 25940 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 22 feet across that contains 25940 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 24 feet across that contains 28950 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 24 feet across that contains 28950 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 85 feet high and 25 feet across that contains 26000 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 85 feet high and 25 feet across that contains 26000 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 90 feet high and 30 feet across that contains 41149 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 90 feet high and 30 feet across that contains 41149 cubic feet of space.

"Iron ores are smelted in a blast furnace which is operated in a manner similar to that employed in the production of copper matte. An iron blast furnace consists of a steel shell from 75 to 90 feet in height, lined with a thick layer of fire-brick." -Brownlee 1907

Blast Furnace for Cast Iron

"Iron ores are smelted in a blast furnace which is operated in a manner similar to that employed in…

Most ironing is done on an ironing board, a small, portable, foldable table with a heat resistant top. Some commercial-grade ironing boards incorporate a heating element and a pedal-operated vacuum to pull air through the board and dry the garment.

Ironing Board

Most ironing is done on an ironing board, a small, portable, foldable table with a heat resistant top.…

"...gas lighted above an iron gauze (a, Fig. 11) does not catch fire below the gauze because the heat of the flame is conducted away by the iron." -Brownlee 1907

Bunsen Burner

"...gas lighted above an iron gauze (a, Fig. 11) does not catch fire below the gauze because the heat…

"Argent, a caltrop proper. CALTROP. An iron instrument made to annoy an enemy's cavalry. They were formed of iron, being four spikes conjoined in such a manner that one was always upwards. It is found in many ancient coats of arms." -Hall, 1862

Caltrop

"Argent, a caltrop proper. CALTROP. An iron instrument made to annoy an enemy's cavalry. They were formed…

"Wrought Iron Candle-Pricket; late 15th-century. Florentine work." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Candle-Pricket

"Wrought Iron Candle-Pricket; late 15th-century. Florentine work." —The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"But, suppose the same bar or iron, whose inertia was overcome by raising the centre, to have balls of different weights attached to its ends; then the centre of inertia would no longer remain in the middle of the bar, but would be changed to the point A..." -Comstock 1850

Center of Inertia

"But, suppose the same bar or iron, whose inertia was overcome by raising the centre, to have balls…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel (End Section)

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

Clay-iron stone concretion, Connecticut valley.

Clay-iron Stone Concretion

Clay-iron stone concretion, Connecticut valley.

The U-shaped draft iron on the end of a cart-tongue or plow-beam.

Clevis

The U-shaped draft iron on the end of a cart-tongue or plow-beam.

This clothes wringer is a mechanical laundry aid consisting of two rollers connected by cogs, powered by hand crank. Originally wringers were used to wring water from wet laundry, today they are used to press or flatten sheets, tablecloths, and other laundry.

The Laundry Aided Clothes Wringer

This clothes wringer is a mechanical laundry aid consisting of two rollers connected by cogs, powered…

"Prior to the introduction of the cup and cone, a form of tunnel-head in which no valve or cone exists was employed. A hollow annular chamber BB is built in the upper portion of the stack, communicating by arched cavities A, A, A with the shaft, and also with the exit gas main C; a considerable fraction of the gases then passes out through the arched vavities when the materials are heaped up to the level of the charging door D. With small furnaces the wall between the shaft and the chamber B is made of past or wrought iron; in some cases the gas has been collected through a central tube in the axis of the shaft supported by groins springing from the shaft and the ore." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Collecting Top

"Prior to the introduction of the cup and cone, a form of tunnel-head in which no valve or cone exists…

This is a combination step ladder, clothes rack, and ironing board. A step ladder is hinged in the middle to form an inverted V, with stays to keep the two halves at a fixed angle. A clothes rack refers to a frame upon which clothes are hung after washing to easily let each garment dry. Most ironing is done on an ironing board, a small, portable, foldable table with a heat resistant top. Some commercial-grade ironing boards incorporate a heating element and a pedal-operated vacuum to pull air through the board and dry the garment.

Combination Step Ladder, Clothes Rack, and Ironing Board

This is a combination step ladder, clothes rack, and ironing board. A step ladder is hinged in the middle…

A compound riveted girder is designed to bear a large load in a building or bridge, and is made of either iron or steel.

Compound Riveted Girder (side by side)

A compound riveted girder is designed to bear a large load in a building or bridge, and is made of either…

A compound riveted girder is designed to bear a large load in a building or bridge, and is made of either iron or steel.

Compound Riveted Girder (Vertical)

A compound riveted girder is designed to bear a large load in a building or bridge, and is made of either…

"Part of one of the Hampton Court Gates." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Court Gates

"Part of one of the Hampton Court Gates." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

"An old arrangement known as cropping shears, still in use at many iron-works, where early appliances seem to enjoy a remarkable vitality." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Cropping Shears

"An old arrangement known as cropping shears, still in use at many iron-works, where early appliances…

An Iron Age horse cultivator, good for working crops which require a horse cultivator. The levers can make the frame wider or narrower, enabling it to be used to create rows of the desired width.

Iron Age horse cultivator

An Iron Age horse cultivator, good for working crops which require a horse cultivator. The levers can…

"An electromagnet is a bar of iron magnetized by an electric current, substantial as just shown." — Avery, 1895

Electromagnet

"An electromagnet is a bar of iron magnetized by an electric current, substantial as just shown." —…

"The expansion of solids by heat is clearly shown by the following experiment: m represents a ring of metal, through which, at the ordinary temperature, a small iron or copper ball, a, will pass freely, this ball being a little less than the diameter of the ring. If this ball be now heated by the flame of an alcohol lame, it will be come so far expanded by heat as no longer to pass through the ring." —Wells, 1857

Expansion of Solids

"The expansion of solids by heat is clearly shown by the following experiment: m represents a ring of…

"A peculiar furnace, known as Ferrie's self-coking furnace after the name of its inventor, in which raw coal is employed, has been used at the Monkland Iron Works and elsewhere during the last few years. On the top of an ordinary furnace of about 53 feet in height and 7000 cubic feet capacity were erected four chambers or retorts about 20 feet in depth, each having a capacity of 500 cubic feet; external flues, in which a portion of the waste gases were burnt, served to heat these chambers in such a way as to coke the raw coal." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Ferrie's Furnace

"A peculiar furnace, known as Ferrie's self-coking furnace after the name of its inventor, in which…

"Around a vertical conductor carrying a heavy current, place a peice of paper and sprinkle iron filling on the paper. Notice that the iron particles arrange themselves in distinct circular whirls around the wire, as shown." -Avery 1895

Magnetic Field Due to Current

"Around a vertical conductor carrying a heavy current, place a peice of paper and sprinkle iron filling…

"The section of the flume is usually rectangular, but it may be of a V shape, and occasionally, as in California, it is semicircular, this latter form requiring least lumber, but necessitating the use of iron bands or brackets."—Government Printing Office, 1897

Combined Wood and Iron Flume

"The section of the flume is usually rectangular, but it may be of a V shape, and occasionally, as in…

This water fountain is made out of iron in the form of two open flower shapes, on top of each other.

Water Fountain

This water fountain is made out of iron in the form of two open flower shapes, on top of each other.

An illustration of a iron gate.

Gate

An illustration of a iron gate.

"Genouillère, middle of 13th century. The knee-piece, of hammered iron, introduced toward the close of the thirteenth century, and worn at first over the chausses of mail, being held in place by a strap passing round the leg, and consisting at first of a dish-shaped or slightly pointed roundel." -Whitney, 1911

Genouillère

"Genouillère, middle of 13th century. The knee-piece, of hammered iron, introduced toward the…

Girl ironing on a table in silhouette.

Girl ironing

Girl ironing on a table in silhouette.

"Go-Devil. A device for exploding a dynamite cartridge in an oil-well ... A pointed piece of iron dropped down the well, and, striking a cap on the top of the torpedo, causes a terrific explosion at the bottom of the well." -Whitney, 1911

Go-Devil

"Go-Devil. A device for exploding a dynamite cartridge in an oil-well ... A pointed piece of iron dropped…

"Golf clubs. 1, Driver; 2, brassie; 3, putter; 4, cleek; 5, iron; 6, niblick." -Foster, 1921

Golf Clubs

"Golf clubs. 1, Driver; 2, brassie; 3, putter; 4, cleek; 5, iron; 6, niblick." -Foster, 1921

"The hand-gun was used by both infantry and cavalry; it consisted of a simple iron or brass tube with touch-hole at the top, fixed on a straight stock of wood; when used on foot, the soldier held it firmly by passing the stock under the arm; when used on horseback he stock was shortened to butt against the breast, the barrel resting on a fork secured to the saddle bow." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hand-Gun

"The hand-gun was used by both infantry and cavalry; it consisted of a simple iron or brass tube with…

"Another style of hand-weeder, made at home out of hoop-iron." — Baily, 1898

Home-made hand-weeder

"Another style of hand-weeder, made at home out of hoop-iron." — Baily, 1898

"Place a bar of iron and a similar one of copper end to end so as to be heated equally by the flame of a lamp. Fasten small balls by wax to the under surfaces of the bars at eqiual distances apart. More balls will be melted from the copper than from the iron." -Avery 1895

Difference of Heat Transference Between Copper and Iron

"Place a bar of iron and a similar one of copper end to end so as to be heated equally by the flame…

"A heel tool for wrought iron." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Heel

"A heel tool for wrought iron." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"The plough is composed of two strong iron frames balanced upon four wheels, and crossing each other at their inner ends, thereby decreasing the length of the plough, and, as a matter of course, the breadth of the headland. The rames are raised and lowered in such a manner that the set of ploughs out of work is independent of, and has no tendency to weigh or raise out of the ground." — Chambers, 1881

Howard's Plough

"The plough is composed of two strong iron frames balanced upon four wheels, and crossing each other…

An iron mine.

Iron

An iron mine.

Tangrams, invented by the Chinese, are used to develop geometric thinking and spatial sense. Seven figures consisting of triangles, squares, and parallelograms are used to construct the given shape. This tangram depicts an iron.

Iron

Tangrams, invented by the Chinese, are used to develop geometric thinking and spatial sense. Seven figures…

Tangrams, invented by the Chinese, are used to develop geometric thinking and spatial sense. Seven figures consisting of triangles, squares, and parallelograms are used to construct the given shape. This tangram depicts an iron.

Iron

Tangrams, invented by the Chinese, are used to develop geometric thinking and spatial sense. Seven figures…

Tangrams, invented by the Chinese, are used to develop geometric thinking and spatial sense. Seven figures consisting of triangles, squares, and parallelograms are used to construct the given shape. This tangram depicts an iron.

Iron

Tangrams, invented by the Chinese, are used to develop geometric thinking and spatial sense. Seven figures…

Tangrams, invented by the Chinese, are used to develop geometric thinking and spatial sense. Seven figures consisting of triangles, squares, and parallelograms are used to construct the given shape. This tangram depicts an iron.

Iron

Tangrams, invented by the Chinese, are used to develop geometric thinking and spatial sense. Seven figures…

A decorative bed frame made out of iron.

Iron Bed

A decorative bed frame made out of iron.

A decorative bed frame made out of iron, with brass knobs at the top.

Iron Bed

A decorative bed frame made out of iron, with brass knobs at the top.

An ornamental bed frame made out of iron.

Iron Bed

An ornamental bed frame made out of iron.

An ornamental bed frame made out of iron.

Iron Bed

An ornamental bed frame made out of iron.

A very artistic and handsome bed frame made out of iron.

Iron Bed

A very artistic and handsome bed frame made out of iron.

A children's crib made entirely out of iron.

Iron Crib

A children's crib made entirely out of iron.