Diagrammatic transverse section of abdomen, to show the peritoneum on transverse tracing. A, at level of foramen of Winslow. B, lower down. In A note, one of the vasa brevia arteris passing to the stomach between the layers of the gastrosplenic omentum, and also the foramen of Winslow leading into the lesser sac which lies behind the stomach.

Transverse Section of Abdomen

Diagrammatic transverse section of abdomen, to show the peritoneum on transverse tracing. A, at level…

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, right kidney; 4, spleen; 5, left kidney.

Abdominal Organs

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, right kidney; 4, spleen; 5, left kidney.

Regions of the abdomen and their contents (edge of costal cartilages in dotted outline)."For convenience of description the abdomen may be artificially divided into nine regions by drawing two circular lines around the body parallel with the cartilages of the ninth ribs, and the highest point of the crests of the ilia; and two vertical lines from the cartilage of the eighth rib on each side to the center of Poupart's ligament. The vicar contained in these different regions are as follows: -- Right Hypochondriac - the right lobe of the liver and gall-bladder, hepatic flexure of the colon, and part of the right kidney. Right Lumbar - ascending colon, part of the right kidney, and some convolutions of the small intestines. Right Inguinal (Iliac) - the caecum, appendix caeci. Epigastric Region - the middle and pyloric end o the stomach, left lobe of the liver, the pancreas, the duodenum, part of the kidneys and the suprarenal capsules. Umbilical Region - the transverse colon, part of the great omentum and mesentery, transverse part of the duodenum, and some convolutions of the jejunum and ileum, and part of both kidneys. Hypogastric Region - convolutions of the small intestines, the bladder in children, and in adults if distended, and the uterus during pregnancy. Left Hypochondriac - the splenic end of the stomach, the spleen and extremity of the pancreas, the splenic flexure of the colon, and part of the left kidney. Left Lumbar - descending color, part of the omentum, part of the left kidney, and some convolutions of the small intestines. Left Inguinal (Iliac) - sigmoid flexure of the colon." — Kimber, 1907.

Regions of the Abdomen and their Contents

Regions of the abdomen and their contents (edge of costal cartilages in dotted outline). "For convenience…

"ailmentary canal of a honey bee. at, honey stomach; s, true stomach; nt, intestine; o, esophagus; sg, salivary glands; k, kidneys." —Davison, 1906

Ailmentary Canal

"ailmentary canal of a honey bee. at, honey stomach; s, true stomach; nt, intestine; o, esophagus; sg,…

"The spinal column below the twelfth dorsal vertebra at <em>A</em> has been removed, as well as the various layers of the great muscles of the back. The two kidneys with the renal arteries and veins are plainly shown, in their normal positions. The relative positions of adjacent vessels and organs with their names printed upon them are also shown. <em>B</em>, portion of the diaphragm on the left side; <em>C</em>, receptaculum chyli; <em>D</em>, a part of the small intestine on the left side." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Vertical section of the back

"The spinal column below the twelfth dorsal vertebra at A has been removed, as well as the…

Plan of the blood vessels connected with the tubules. "The blood passes downwards in straight vessels between the uriniferous tubules, to be returned by more or less straight veins to the venous arches, whence it is conveyed by large branches into the renal vein, which leaves the kidney at the hilus and pours its contents into the inferior vena cava... Urine is secreted from the blood in two ways. It is partly removed by a process of transudation or filtration, and partly by the secretary action of the cells lining the uriniferous tubules." &mdash;Kimber, 1907.

Plan of the Blood Vessels Connected with the Tubules

Plan of the blood vessels connected with the tubules. "The blood passes downwards in straight vessels…

The tubuli uriniferi are composed of a nearly homogeneous membrane, and are lined internally by epithelium. A, Portion of a secreting tubule from the cortical substance of the kidney. B, The epithelial or gland cells.

Cells from the Tubuli Uriniferi

The tubuli uriniferi are composed of a nearly homogeneous membrane, and are lined internally by epithelium.…

"Frog with the left side cut away and some of the organs pulled downward. a, aorta leading from the ventricle; b, bladder; c, spinal cord surrounded by the vertebral column of bone; d, small intestine; e, opening of the lungs into the pharynx; h, ventricle of the heart; k, kidney; l, lung; liv, liver; n, brain; ov, ovary; ovd, oviduct; p, pancreas; r, rectum; sp, spleen; st, stomach; t, tongue; si, small intestine; u, left auricle; ur, ureter; v, vena cava; vc, body of vertebra." &mdash;Davison, 1906

Dissected Frog

"Frog with the left side cut away and some of the organs pulled downward. a, aorta leading from the…

"<em>A</em>, pyramids of the kidney; <em>B</em>, apices, or papillae, of the pyramids; <em>C</em>, pelvis of the kidney; <em>D</em>, upper end of the ureter</em>." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Kidney

"A, pyramids of the kidney; B, apices, or papillae, of the pyramids; C, pelvis…

Two glands having the function of secreting urine from the system, situated at the back of the abdominal cavity, one on each side of the vertebral column.

Kidney

Two glands having the function of secreting urine from the system, situated at the back of the abdominal…

"Diagram of the blood vessels in the kidney." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Kidney

"Diagram of the blood vessels in the kidney." —Davison, 1910

Plan of a longitudinal section through the pelvis and substance of the right kidney. Labels: a, the cortical substance; b, broad part of the pyramids of Malpighi; c, the division of the pelvis named calyces, laid open; c', one of those unopened; d, summit of the pyramids of papillae projecting into calyces; p, pelvis or enlarged division of the ureter within the kidney; u, the ureter; s, the sinus; h, the hilus.

Kidney

Plan of a longitudinal section through the pelvis and substance of the right kidney. Labels: a, the…

Circulation in the kidney. Labels: ai, small branch of renal artery giving off the branch va, which enters glomerulus, issues as ve, and then breaks up into capillaries, which after surrounding the tubule find their way by v into vi, branch of the renal vein; m, capillaries around tubules in parts of the cortical substance where there are no glomeruli.

Kidney Circulation

Circulation in the kidney. Labels: ai, small branch of renal artery giving off the branch va, which…

Diagram of a kidney glomerulus and the commencement of an uriniferous tubule. Labels: a, afferent blood vessel pushing in the wall, w, of a Malpighian capsule and ending in the capillary tuft from which the vein e issues; c, involuted epithelium; for the sake of distinctness it is represented as a wrapping for the whole tuft; in nature it forms a close investment around each vessel of glomerulus; A, space in capsule; d, neck of capsule; ff, first convoluted portion of an uriniferous tubule; o, granular epithelial cells; b, basement membrane.

Kidney Glomerulus

Diagram of a kidney glomerulus and the commencement of an uriniferous tubule. Labels: a, afferent blood…

Diagrammatic representation of the structure forming a kidney lobe. In the middle part of the figure the course of one of the kidney tubules is indicated, and in the lateral parts the disposition of the larger arteries. Labels: a, cortex; B, intermediate zone; C, papillary portion. The diagram at the right hand side of the lower part of the figure illustrates the connection of the structure composing a Malpighian corpuscle.

Structure of Kidney Lobe

Diagrammatic representation of the structure forming a kidney lobe. In the middle part of the figure…

Longitudinal section of injected kidney of dog, showing general arrangement of blood vessels of cortex and adjacent medulla.

Longitudinal Section of Kidney of a Dog

Longitudinal section of injected kidney of dog, showing general arrangement of blood vessels of cortex…

Horizontal section of the right kidney. Labels: a, fibrous capsule detached; b, cortical layer; c, medullary layer; d, cut ends of large blood vessels; e, pelvis of the kidney; f, ureter.

Kidney of a Horse

Horizontal section of the right kidney. Labels: a, fibrous capsule detached; b, cortical layer; c, medullary…

Lobulated kidney of an ox.

Kidney of an Ox

Lobulated kidney of an ox.

Section through the kidney showing the medullary and cortical portions, and the beginning of the ureter. Labels: ct, cortex; M, medulla; py, papilla of pyramidal section projecting into one of the calices of pelvis; RA, renal artery; RV, renal vein; U, ureter.

Section through the Kidney

Section through the kidney showing the medullary and cortical portions, and the beginning of the ureter.…

Section through the right kidney from its outer to inner border. Labels: 1, cortex; 2, medulla; 2', pyramid of Malpighi; 2'', pyramid of Ferrein; 5, small branches of the renal artery entering between the pyramids; A, a branch of the renal artery; C, the pelvis of the kidney; U, ureter; C, a calyx.

Kidney Section

Section through the right kidney from its outer to inner border. Labels: 1, cortex; 2, medulla; 2',…

Vascular supply of the kidney. Labels: a, part of arterial arch; b, interlobular artery; c, glomerulus; d, efferent vessel passing to the medulla as false arteria recta; e, capillaries of cortex; f, capillaries of medulla; j, vena stellula; i, interlobular vein.

Blood Supply of the Kidney

Vascular supply of the kidney. Labels: a, part of arterial arch; b, interlobular artery; c, glomerulus;…

A diagram of the structure of the kidney. Labels: 1, Tubules or minute tubes. 2, Enlargement of a tubule at its extremity. 3, Branches of the real artery ending in vessels which enter the enlargements as seen at 4, 5. 6, Knot of blood-vessels freed from its investment. 7, Veins emerging from the knots. 8, Plexus formed by the latter veins among the tubules, from which plexus originate the branches of the renal vein.

Diagram of the Structure of the Kidney

A diagram of the structure of the kidney. Labels: 1, Tubules or minute tubes. 2, Enlargement of a tubule…

Fetal kidney, showing lobulation.

Fetal Kidney

Fetal kidney, showing lobulation.

Frontal section through the right kidney and adjacent structures showing the renal fasciae and fatty layers, viewed from in front.

Frontal Section Through Kidney

Frontal section through the right kidney and adjacent structures showing the renal fasciae and fatty…

A longitudinal section of a kidney. Labels: 1, 2, 3, Parts of the Kidney. 4, Pelvis. 5, Ureter. 6, Renal artery. 7, Renal vein. 8, Branches of the latter vessels in the kidney.

Longitudinal Section of a Kidney

A longitudinal section of a kidney. Labels: 1, 2, 3, Parts of the Kidney. 4, Pelvis. 5, Ureter. 6, Renal…

The minute structure of the kidney, which commences in the cortical substance of the organ as the Malpighian bodies, small round masses of deep-red color, averaging about 1/120 inches in diameter, and each consisting of a central glomerulus of vessels and a membranous envelope or Bowman's capsule (c), the latter being the commencement of the uriniferous tubule (d). The renal artery (a) and renal vein (v) are also shown.

Minute Structure of the Kidney

The minute structure of the kidney, which commences in the cortical substance of the organ as the Malpighian…

Sagittal section through sinus of child's kidney, showing lower part of pelvis and commencement of ureter.

Sagittal Section Through Sinus of Kidney

Sagittal section through sinus of child's kidney, showing lower part of pelvis and commencement of ureter.

Section through the right kidney from its outer to its inner border. Labels: 1, cortex; 2, medulla; 2' , pyramid of Malpighi; 2", pyramid of Ferrein; 5, small branches of the renal artery entering between the pyramids; A, a branch of the renal artery; D, the pelvis of the kidney; U, ureter; C, a calyx.

Section of the Right Kidney

Section through the right kidney from its outer to its inner border. Labels: 1, cortex; 2, medulla;…

Part of a section through the cortex of the kidney in the direction of the straight tubules.

Section Through Kidney

Part of a section through the cortex of the kidney in the direction of the straight tubules.

Longitudinal section through the kidney. The vessels and fat have been removed to give a view of the wall of the kidney sinus. The points where the vessels enter the kidney sinus are seen as little holes in the sinus wall at a and elsewhere.

Section Through Kidney

Longitudinal section through the kidney. The vessels and fat have been removed to give a view of the…

A section through the cortex of an ape's kidney. A Malpighian corpuscle, together with the beginning of the tubule, is shown.

Section Through an Ape's Kidney

A section through the cortex of an ape's kidney. A Malpighian corpuscle, together with the beginning…

An incision in the right side above the kidney, showing a typical surgical approach to this organ, exposing the peritoneum and showing relations of abdominal muscles and fasciae.

Surgical Incision to the Kidney

An incision in the right side above the kidney, showing a typical surgical approach to this organ, exposing…

The basic structure of the kidney, which consists of the cortical portion, the medullary substance, and the sinus. The kidneys are two organs, situated in the back part of the abdominal cavity, one on each side of the vertebral column, behind the peritoneum.

The Kidney

The basic structure of the kidney, which consists of the cortical portion, the medullary substance,…

Vascular supply of kidney. Labels: a, partof arterial arch; b, arterial branch passing upwards through the cortex; c, glomerulus; d, efferent vessel; e, meshwork of capillaries; f, straight arterial vessels of medulla; g, venous arch; h, straight veins of medulla.

Vascular Supply of Kidney

Vascular supply of kidney. Labels: a, partof arterial arch; b, arterial branch passing upwards through…

The kidneys viewed from behind. The dotted lines mark out the areas contact with the various muscle forming the posterior abdominal wall. Labels: a, depression corresponding to the transverse process of the first lumbar vertebrae; b, depression corresponding to the transverse process of the second lumbar vertebrae; c, depression corresponding to the twelfth rib.

Kidneys from Behind

The kidneys viewed from behind. The dotted lines mark out the areas contact with the various muscle…

The kidneys and great vessels viewed from the front. The drawing was made before the removal of the organs, from a specimen in which the viscera has been hardened in situ. The dotted lines mark out the areas which were contacted with various other abdominal viscera.

Kidneys from the Front

The kidneys and great vessels viewed from the front. The drawing was made before the removal of the…

The anterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing areas of contact of neighboring viscera.

Anterior Surface of the Kidneys

The anterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing areas of contact of neighboring viscera.

The posterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing areas of relation to the parietes.

Posterior Surface of the Kidneys

The posterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing areas of relation to the parietes.

Vertical section of the kidney.

Vertical Section of the Kidney

Vertical section of the kidney.

A kidney-shaped leaf.

Reniform Leaf

A kidney-shaped leaf.

Posterior view of the liver and diaphragm in situ. Labels: a, left lobe; b, right lobe; c, quadrate lobe; d, spigelian lobe; d', spigelian ligament; just above in the right kidney; e, left lateral ligament; f, right lateral ligament; g, broad ligament; h, hepatic duct; i, piece of the duodenum opened to show, k, opening of the ductus pancreaticus minor, and l, Eminence of Vater; m, vena porta; n, posterior vena cava; o, notch for esophagus.

Liver and Diaphragm of a Horse

Posterior view of the liver and diaphragm in situ. Labels: a, left lobe; b, right lobe; c, quadrate…

Liver of a hog-posterior view. Labels: a, right external lobe; c, left external lobe; d, left internal lobe; e, spigelian lobe; f, posterior cava; g, quadrate lobe; h, gall bladder; i, cystic duct; k. ductus choledocus.

Liver of a Hog

Liver of a hog-posterior view. Labels: a, right external lobe; c, left external lobe; d, left internal…

Relation of the Malpighian body to the uriniferous ducts and blood vessels. Labels: a, one of the interlobular arteries; a', afferent artery passing into the glomerulus; c, capsule of the Malpighian body, forming the termination of and continuous with t, the uriniferous tube; e', efferent vessels which subdivide in the plexus; p, surrounding the tube, and finally terminate in the branch of the renal vein, e.

Malpighian Body

Relation of the Malpighian body to the uriniferous ducts and blood vessels. Labels: a, one of the interlobular…

Malpighian capsule and tuft of capillaries, injected through the renal artery with colored gelatin. Labels: a, glomerular vessels; b, capsule; c, anterior capsule; d, glomerular artery; e, efferent veins; f, epithelium of tubes.

Malpighian Capsule

Malpighian capsule and tuft of capillaries, injected through the renal artery with colored gelatin.…

Transverse section of a developing Malpighian capsule and tuft from a fetus at about the fourth month. Labels: a, flattened cells growing to form the capsule; b, more rounded cells; continuos with the above, reflected around c, and finally enveloping it; c, mass of embryonic cells which later become developed into blood vessels.

Development of Malpighian Capsule

Transverse section of a developing Malpighian capsule and tuft from a fetus at about the fourth month.…

Epithelial elements of a Malpighian capsule and tuft, with the commencement of a urinary tubule showing the afferent and efferent vessel. Labels: a, layer of flat epithelium forming the capsule; b, similar, but rather larger epithelial cells, places in the walls of the tube; c, cells, covering the vessels of the capillary tuft; d, commencement of the tubule, somewhat narrower than the rest of it.

Epithelial Elements of a Malpighian Capsule

Epithelial elements of a Malpighian capsule and tuft, with the commencement of a urinary tubule showing…

Section of human pancreas, showing pancreatic islands.

Section of Pancreas

Section of human pancreas, showing pancreatic islands.

An abnormal renal artery causing kinking at the ureteropelvic junction, and hydronephrosis.

Abnormal Renal Artery

An abnormal renal artery causing kinking at the ureteropelvic junction, and hydronephrosis.

"The renal organs, viewed from behind. R, right kidney; A, aorta; Ar, right renal artery; Vc, inferior vena cava; Vr, right renal vein; U, right ureter; Vu, bladder; Ua, commencement of urethra." &mdash;Martin, 1917

Renal Organs

"The renal organs, viewed from behind. R, right kidney; A, aorta; Ar, right renal artery; Vc, inferior…

The renal organs viewed from behind. labels: R, right kidney; A, aorta; Ar, right erenal artery; Vc, inferior vena cava; Vr, right renal vein; U, right ureter; Vu, bladder; Ua, urethra.

The Renal Organs Viewed from Behind

The renal organs viewed from behind. labels: R, right kidney; A, aorta; Ar, right erenal artery; Vc,…

Dissection of the spleen, liver, and kidneys from behind.

Spleen, Liver, and Kidneys

Dissection of the spleen, liver, and kidneys from behind.

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery; the stomach and liver have been turned up so as to expose the pancreas. Labels: V, stomach; D, D',D'', duodenum; L, spleen; P, pancreas; R, right kidney; T, jejunum; Vf, gall bladder; h, hepatic duct; c, cystic duct; ch, common bile duct; 1, aorta; 2, an artery (left coronary) of the stomach; 3, hepatic artery; 4, splenic artery; 5, superior mesenteric artery; 6, superior mesenteric vein; 7, splenic vein; Vp, portal vein.

The Stomach, Pancreas, Liver, and Duodenum

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery;…

Diagram of the relations of the large intestine and kidneys, from behind.

Trunk Showing Organs of Digestion

Diagram of the relations of the large intestine and kidneys, from behind.

Section through the upper pole of the left kidney at the level of the tip of the xiphoid process.

Cross Section of the Trunk through Upper Kidney

Section through the upper pole of the left kidney at the level of the tip of the xiphoid process.

Transverse section through the middle of the first lumbar vertebra, showing the relations of the pancreas.

Transverse Section of the Trunk

Transverse section through the middle of the first lumbar vertebra, showing the relations of the pancreas.

Diagram showing the method of entrance of the ureter into the bladder.

Entrance of Ureter into the Bladder

Diagram showing the method of entrance of the ureter into the bladder.