"Mexican Arrastre. A rude apparatus used in Mexico, and to some extent in the United States, for grinding and at the same time amalgamating ores containing free gold or silver."-Whitney, 1902

Arrastre

"Mexican Arrastre. A rude apparatus used in Mexico, and to some extent in the United States, for grinding…

A blast furnace measuring 42 feet high and 15 feet across that contains 4356 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 42 feet high and 15 feet across that contains 4356 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 47.5 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 6174 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 47.5 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 6174 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 55 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 7175 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 55 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 7175 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 58 feet high and 17 feet across that contains 8000 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 58 feet high and 17 feet across that contains 8000 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 60 feet high and 20 feet across that contains 12778 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 60 feet high and 20 feet across that contains 12778 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 75 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 11983 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 75 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 11983 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 80 feet high and 20.5 feet across that contains 15500 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 80 feet high and 20.5 feet across that contains 15500 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 15050 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 15050 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 22 feet across that contains 25940 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 22 feet across that contains 25940 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 24 feet across that contains 28950 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 24 feet across that contains 28950 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 85 feet high and 25 feet across that contains 26000 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 85 feet high and 25 feet across that contains 26000 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 90 feet high and 30 feet across that contains 41149 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 90 feet high and 30 feet across that contains 41149 cubic feet of space.

"Iron ores are smelted in a blast furnace which is operated in a manner similar to that employed in the production of copper matte. An iron blast furnace consists of a steel shell from 75 to 90 feet in height, lined with a thick layer of fire-brick." -Brownlee 1907

Blast Furnace for Cast Iron

"Iron ores are smelted in a blast furnace which is operated in a manner similar to that employed in…

"Prior to the introduction of the cup and cone, a form of tunnel-head in which no valve or cone exists was employed. A hollow annular chamber BB is built in the upper portion of the stack, communicating by arched cavities A, A, A with the shaft, and also with the exit gas main C; a considerable fraction of the gases then passes out through the arched vavities when the materials are heaped up to the level of the charging door D. With small furnaces the wall between the shaft and the chamber B is made of past or wrought iron; in some cases the gas has been collected through a central tube in the axis of the shaft supported by groins springing from the shaft and the ore." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Collecting Top

"Prior to the introduction of the cup and cone, a form of tunnel-head in which no valve or cone exists…

"Diabantite, ore material, and agate in vesicle of main basalt. The radial mass occupying the center is diabantite, the opaque material surrounding it is magnetite or ilmenite, and the outer rim is agate." -Walcott, 1901

Diabantite

"Diabantite, ore material, and agate in vesicle of main basalt. The radial mass occupying the center…

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (End View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (Side View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

A type of furnace for smelting metal ore.

Hot Blast-furnace

A type of furnace for smelting metal ore.

An illustration of mine workers refining iron ore.

Iron Workers

An illustration of mine workers refining iron ore.

A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or rock dust. Crushers may be used to reduce the size, or change the form of the waste materials so they can be more easily disposed of or recycled, or to reduce the size of a solid mix of raw materials so that the pieces of different composition can be differentiated.

Ore Crushing Machine

A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or rock dust. Crushers…

"A representation of one of the class of mechanical rabbles known as Witham's machine rabble applied to a double puddling furnace." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Mechanical Rabble

"A representation of one of the class of mechanical rabbles known as Witham's machine rabble applied…

An illustration of a miners loading a mine cart with iron ore in St. Louis, MO.

Mining

An illustration of a miners loading a mine cart with iron ore in St. Louis, MO.

An illustration of an iron ore mine dumb in St. Louis, MO in 1874.

Mining Dump

An illustration of an iron ore mine dumb in St. Louis, MO in 1874.

"Pernot and Ponsard Furnaces and Allied Appliances. The pernot furnace as applied to the steel making differs in no material respect from the Pernot puddling furnace; it is substantially a Siemens-Martin furnace with a rotating bed. The hearth is a saucer-shaped cavity supported by an iron frame, mounted on the top of a slightly inclined nearly verticle axis, and running on wheels upon a rail or guide supported on a stout bogie." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pernot Furnace

"Pernot and Ponsard Furnaces and Allied Appliances. The pernot furnace as applied to the steel making…

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with an air course to cool it, c the bed supported on iron plates with air courses under them, f the exit flue leading to the chimney stack, which is surmounted with a damper k worked by a chain i from within the shen in which the forge is placed; b is the ashpit, g the slag-hole, and e the working door suspended by a chain from a lever with the counterpoise attached h, resting on the front side of the furnace roof." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Puddling Furnace

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with…

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with an air course to cool it, c the bed supported on iron plates with air courses under them, f the exit flue leading to the chimney stack, which is surmounted with a damper k worked by a chain i from within the shen in which the forge is placed; b is the ashpit, g the slag-hole, and e the working door suspended by a chain from a lever with the counterpoise attached h, resting on the front side of the furnace roof." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Puddling Furnace

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with…

"The term "refining," although in strictness applicable to all methods by which impure iron is purified, is in practice restricted to one particular operation practised as a preliminary stage in the puddling process, viz., melting pig iron on a hearth, on which the fuel is piled, the combustion being urged by a blast of air, which also partially oxidizes the iron, both as it melts and subsequently; the molten mass when the operation is complete is either run out into moulds, chilled by throwing water on it." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Refinery

"The term "refining," although in strictness applicable to all methods by which impure iron is purified,…

"The term "refining," although in strictness applicable to all methods by which impure iron is purified, is in practice restricted to one particular operation practised as a preliminary stage in the puddling process, viz., melting pig iron on a hearth, on which the fuel is piled, the combustion being urged by a blast of air, which also partially oxidizes the iron, both as it melts and subsequently; the molten mass when the operation is complete is either run out into moulds, chilled by throwing water on it." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Refinery

"The term "refining," although in strictness applicable to all methods by which impure iron is purified,…

Furnace used in smelting ore; its' doors can be closed to control the air flow/oxygen.

Reverbatory Furnace

Furnace used in smelting ore; its' doors can be closed to control the air flow/oxygen.

"Pig iron, the crude form of iron, which is produced from iron ore by the process of blasting, is taken to the rolling mills, where it goes through the process of puddling and rolling, and is thus purified and put into proper shape for use." — Beach, 1900

Rolling Mills

"Pig iron, the crude form of iron, which is produced from iron ore by the process of blasting, is taken…