"A variety of quartz which is peculiar in consisting of bands or layers of various colors blended together."-Whitney, 1902

Agate

"A variety of quartz which is peculiar in consisting of bands or layers of various colors blended together."-Whitney,…

A polished agate rock with concentric circles.

Polished Agate

A polished agate rock with concentric circles.

"Igneous rocks or lavas of various composition."-Whitney, 1902

Amygdaloid

"Igneous rocks or lavas of various composition."-Whitney, 1902

Basalt, showing typical diabasic structure of lath-shaped crystals of plagioclase.

Basalt

Basalt, showing typical diabasic structure of lath-shaped crystals of plagioclase.

Eroded fold, breached asymmetrical anticline, the hard stratum forming two opposing uniclines.

Breached Asymmetrical Anticline

Eroded fold, breached asymmetrical anticline, the hard stratum forming two opposing uniclines.

A cut of a gemstone. A brilliant cut stone has fifty-eight facets.

Brilliant Cut

A cut of a gemstone. A brilliant cut stone has fifty-eight facets.

Bronzite diabase, showing lath-shaped plagioclase crystals.

Bronzite Diabase

Bronzite diabase, showing lath-shaped plagioclase crystals.

"Castle Rock, Edinburgh." — Chambers, 1881

Castle Rock

"Castle Rock, Edinburgh." — Chambers, 1881

Cataract Creek rises on the slopes of Mount Bullengarook and drains across the lava flow towards the south to join Pyrites Creek. Upper Cataract Creek, near Big Canon, Colorado.

Cataract Creek

Cataract Creek rises on the slopes of Mount Bullengarook and drains across the lava flow towards the…

Thin sections of chalk, as they appear under the microscope.

Chalk

Thin sections of chalk, as they appear under the microscope.

Chopping tools used as hand axes in the Chellean age.

Chellean Age Chopping tools

Chopping tools used as hand axes in the Chellean age.

Approximately the size of pigeon, the cock of the rock has a distinctive crest of feathers arranged in two planes. It is often found on the rocky shores of streams, which it draws its namesake from.

Cock-of-the-Rock

Approximately the size of pigeon, the cock of the rock has a distinctive crest of feathers arranged…

"Blattina includes the <em>Cockroaches</em>, the most noted species of which, the Black beetle or Common Cockroach, <em>Blatta Orientalis</em>, often swarms to such an extent in houses as to be complete nuisance." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common Cockroach

"Blattina includes the Cockroaches, the most noted species of which, the Black beetle or Common…

This illustration shows a rock made up of rounded concretions, having a concentric structure.

Concretionary Structure

This illustration shows a rock made up of rounded concretions, having a concentric structure.

This illustration shows a rock made up of all kinds of concretionary objects.

Concretionary Structure

This illustration shows a rock made up of all kinds of concretionary objects.

"The boa constrictor grows to great size, and greatly resembles the python in its habits." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Boa constrictor

"The boa constrictor grows to great size, and greatly resembles the python in its habits." — Goodrich,…

"Curved and contorted rocks, near Old Head of Kinsale." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Contorted Rocks

"Curved and contorted rocks, near Old Head of Kinsale." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Coralline Rock is a type of rock formed by the death of layers of Coralline algae. It is visually quite bright like the algae, and is often desired as aquarium decoration. Since it is formed from the dead algae, it contains some nutrients and calcium carbonate, which has allowed it to be used in some building structures.

Coralline

Coralline Rock is a type of rock formed by the death of layers of Coralline algae. It is visually quite…

"... a farmer with a crowbar, as shown, can move a rock which with his hands alone he could not stir." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Crowbar and Stone

"... a farmer with a crowbar, as shown, can move a rock which with his hands alone he could not stir."…

Diagrammatic cross-section of a cut off basin, and the deposits formed in it after complete evaporation.

Cut-off Basin

Diagrammatic cross-section of a cut off basin, and the deposits formed in it after complete evaporation.

"A block of stone perforated by the pholus dactylus." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Pholas dactylus

"A block of stone perforated by the pholus dactylus." — Goodrich, 1859

"Section showing displacement of strata by a fault. a and a were once a continuous mass of rock." -Whitney, 1911

Displacement of Strata

"Section showing displacement of strata by a fault. a and a were once a continuous mass of rock." -Whitney,…

This illustration shows a Double Brilliant (sometimes called Lisbon) cut gem.

Double Brilliant Cut

This illustration shows a Double Brilliant (sometimes called Lisbon) cut gem.

An illustration of a blue rock-dove.

Blue rock-dove

An illustration of a blue rock-dove.

Common to Europe and Asia, the rock dove makes its home among the high rocks of the coast.

Rock dove

Common to Europe and Asia, the rock dove makes its home among the high rocks of the coast.

Dredging, the excavating or scooping out of soil, mud, sand or rock under water by a machine called a dredge. Dredging is used in deepening and widening the beds of rivers, canals, harbors. The forms of modern dredges are very numerous, different conditions requiring different forms.

Dredge

Dredging, the excavating or scooping out of soil, mud, sand or rock under water by a machine called…

Earth pillars protected by a cap of rock and due to rain erosion, Colorado.

Earth Pillars

Earth pillars protected by a cap of rock and due to rain erosion, Colorado.

Eolianite or aeolianite is any rock formed by the lithification of sediment deposited by aeolian processes; that is, the wind. In common use, however, the term refers specifically to most common form of eolianite: coastal limestone consisting of carbonate sediment of shallow marine biogenic origin, formed into coastal dunes by the wind, and subsequently lithified. It is also known as kurkar in the Middle East, miliolite in India and Arabia, and gres dunaire in the eastern Mediterranean.

Eolianite

Eolianite or aeolianite is any rock formed by the lithification of sediment deposited by aeolian processes;…

"Part of the Rock-cut facade of the Tomb of Darius." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Rock-cut facade

"Part of the Rock-cut facade of the Tomb of Darius." —D'Anvers, 1895

A pair of Iceland falcons.

Iceland Falcon

A pair of Iceland falcons.

A Peregrine falcon perched atop a rock, with mountains in the background.

Peregrine Falcon

A Peregrine falcon perched atop a rock, with mountains in the background.

A fault line valley. A fault line, is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side.

Fault Line Valley

A fault line valley. A fault line, is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the…

Diagram illustrating drag of strata along a fault plane.

Drag

Diagram illustrating drag of strata along a fault plane.

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side. Here, the arrow indicates the downthrow side.

Gravity Fault

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect…

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side. Here, the arrow indicates the downthrow side.

Gravity Fault

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect…

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side. Here, the arrow indicates the downthrow side.

Gravity Fault

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect…

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side. Here, the arrow indicates the downthrow side.

Gravity Fault

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect…

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side. Here, the arrow indicates the downthrow side.

Gravity Fault

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect…

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side against the other. Here, the arrow indicates the upthrust side.

Thrust Fault

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side…

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side against the other. Here, the arrow indicates the upthrust side.

Thrust Fault

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side…

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side against the other. Here, the arrow indicates the upthrust side.

Thrust Fault

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side…

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side against the other. Here, the arrow indicates the upthrust side.

Thrust Fault

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side…

"Two pieces of metal placed in a hole in a stone which is to be split a wedge-shaped key or plug being driven between them for this purpose." -Whitney, 1911

Feather and Tare

"Two pieces of metal placed in a hole in a stone which is to be split a wedge-shaped key or plug being…

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (End View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (Side View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

"GEYSERITE. The variety of opaline silica deposited about the orifices of geysers. It occurs white or grayish, porous, in stalactitic, filamentous, or cauliflower-like forms." -Whitney, 1911

Geyserite

"GEYSERITE. The variety of opaline silica deposited about the orifices of geysers. It occurs white or…

"Suppose a to be a gravel hill, and b a strata of clay or rock, impervious to water. The fluid percolating through the gravel would reach the impervious strata, along which it would run until it found an outlet at c at the foot of the hill, where a spring would be formed." — Wells, 1857

Gravel Hill

"Suppose a to be a gravel hill, and b a strata of clay or rock, impervious to water. The fluid percolating…

"The 'sucker' consists of a circular piece of thick leather with a string attached to its middle. Being soaked thoroughly in water, it is firmly pressed upon a flat stone to drive out all air from between the leather and the stone. Unless the stone is too heavy, it may be lifted by the string." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Hand and sucker

"The 'sucker' consists of a circular piece of thick leather with a string attached to its middle. Being…

Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. Hornblende is not a recognized mineral in its own right, but the name is used as a general or field term, to refer to a dark amphibole.

Hornblende

Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. Hornblende is not a recognized mineral in its…

When a single large mass of rock is caught between two faults it is spoken of as a "horse."

Horse

When a single large mass of rock is caught between two faults it is spoken of as a "horse."

Diagram to illustrate the underground extension of inclined strata which crop out on the surface, and the former relationship of the two inclined beds.

Inclined Strata

Diagram to illustrate the underground extension of inclined strata which crop out on the surface, and…

Diagram illustrating the relationships of dip and strike of the inclined strata of an outcropping series of ledges. The strike is represented by the horizontal line; the dip by the line at right angles to the strike.

Inclined Strata Dip and Strike

Diagram illustrating the relationships of dip and strike of the inclined strata of an outcropping series…

This illustration shows a jointed structure. In this drawing, there are two systems of joints or divisional planes in the same region, crossing one another, and the undermining of a bluff of jointed beds and tumbling down of masses leads to the production of forms like those of fortifications or broken walls.

Jointed Rock

This illustration shows a jointed structure. In this drawing, there are two systems of joints or divisional…

Thin section of Jurassic oolite showing the characteristic zonal structure.

Jurassic Oolite

Thin section of Jurassic oolite showing the characteristic zonal structure.

"The engraving shows a large, powerful man, of giant size and strength, endeavoring to move a large stone, or rock, which obstructs a passage way. His brute force is, however, unavailing, as with all his great strength he cannot move the stone one inch. But see the superiority of head work, or wisdom. A small, weak man approaches: he has not got half the bodily strength of his companion, but he has a larger and more powerful mind, and by it he can do what the other cannot; he can lift a weight which the other cannot move. His wisdom teaches him the power of the lever, and by one arm he can move a house, showing that 'Knowledge is Power.'"&mdash;Barber, 1857

Knowledge is Power

"The engraving shows a large, powerful man, of giant size and strength, endeavoring to move a large…

An illustration of a photographer shooting a lion dressed in a robe leaning against a rock.

Photographer Shooting Lion in Robe

An illustration of a photographer shooting a lion dressed in a robe leaning against a rock.

Recumbent lion in front of a large rock is used as a tailpiece at the end of Mark's gospel in an old German Bible.

Recumbent Lion

Recumbent lion in front of a large rock is used as a tailpiece at the end of Mark's gospel in an old…

A lithophysa (plural lithophysae) is a small cavity found in felsic volcanic rocks believed to be caused by expanding gases in tuffs before solidification.

Lithophysa

A lithophysa (plural lithophysae) is a small cavity found in felsic volcanic rocks believed to be caused…

A sand lizard, sunning itself on a rock.

Sand lizard

A sand lizard, sunning itself on a rock.

An illustration with a man and a child watching birds fly overhead while standing on a rock.

Man and child

An illustration with a man and a child watching birds fly overhead while standing on a rock.