"A plant of the natural order Umbelliefrae, a native of the elevated table-lands in the neighborhood of Santa Fe de Bogota and Caracas, and of regions of similar climate in other parts of Tropical America. It is much cultivated in its native country for its roots, which are used as an esculent. The root divides into a number of parts, which resemble cows' horns or large carrots. When boiled, they are firm and tender, with a flavor not so strong as that of a parsnip." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Arracacha

"A plant of the natural order Umbelliefrae, a native of the elevated table-lands in the neighborhood…

"Arrow-root (M. arundinacea). a, tubers; b, leaf and flowers; c, stamen and style." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Arrow-root

"Arrow-root (M. arundinacea). a, tubers; b, leaf and flowers; c, stamen and style." — Chambers'…

The name, Arrowroot, comes from a starch derived chiefly from the roots and grains of several plants and used as an article of food.

Arrowroot

The name, Arrowroot, comes from a starch derived chiefly from the roots and grains of several plants…

"Arum maculatum. a, leaves and root; b, spathe, with base of spadix exposed; c, fruit." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Arum Maculatum

"Arum maculatum. a, leaves and root; b, spathe, with base of spadix exposed; c, fruit." — Chambers'…

"The bean with its roots in unboiled water will grow for a considerable time, as long as the mineral matter in the water will provide it with food materials. The roots of the plant in the boiled water will quickly die and the whole plant will then wither, because the roots no longer send the water up to the leaves." — Ritchie, 1918

Bean Plant in Jar

"The bean with its roots in unboiled water will grow for a considerable time, as long as the mineral…

"Young seedling of windsor bean. c, cotyledon; r, root; s, stem." -Bergen, 1896

Windsor Bean Seedling

"Young seedling of windsor bean. c, cotyledon; r, root; s, stem." -Bergen, 1896

Showing the various stages of development of a bean plant.

Life cycle of the bean

Showing the various stages of development of a bean plant.

"Common Beet. Beet, a genus of plants, nat. order Chenopodiaceae, distinguished by its fruit being enclosed in a tough woody or spongy five-lobed enlarged calyx." -Vaughan, 1906

Common Beet

"Common Beet. Beet, a genus of plants, nat. order Chenopodiaceae, distinguished by its fruit being enclosed…

"Cells of Beet-root, containing conglomerate crystals." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Beet-root

"Cells of Beet-root, containing conglomerate crystals." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

A leaf-cutting of begonia, well started.

Leaf-cutting of a begonia

A leaf-cutting of begonia, well started.

A variety of radish with a red skin and white splash at the root end. It is typically slightly milder than other summer varieties, but is among the quickest to turn pithy.

French Breakfast

A variety of radish with a red skin and white splash at the root end. It is typically slightly milder…

"Upper Sectorial Teeth of Carnivora. I, Felis; II, Canis; III, Ursus, 1, anterior, 2, middle, and 3, posterior in position, and without distinct root, characteristic of the Ursidae." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Carnivora

"Upper Sectorial Teeth of Carnivora. I, Felis; II, Canis; III, Ursus, 1, anterior, 2, middle, and 3,…

An illustration of a carrot.

Carrot

An illustration of a carrot.

A bushel of carrots.

Carrots

A bushel of carrots.

A small twig, used for grafting in agriculture.

Cion

A small twig, used for grafting in agriculture.

A corm , or solid bulb, as of the Crocus is a sort of rounded tuber. It will become a bulb.

Corm

A corm , or solid bulb, as of the Crocus is a sort of rounded tuber. It will become a bulb.

A bulb like solid, fleshy subterranean stem, producing leaves and buds on the upper surface.

Corm

A bulb like solid, fleshy subterranean stem, producing leaves and buds on the upper surface.

"Cranberry (Vaccinium palustris): a, part of stem and branches, with roots, leaves, and flowers; b, a berry; c, transverse section of a berry." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Cranberry

"Cranberry (Vaccinium palustris): a, part of stem and branches, with roots, leaves, and flowers; b,…

"Cyclamen: a, the whole plant; b, the fruit." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Cyclamen

"Cyclamen: a, the whole plant; b, the fruit." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Grafting is a method of asexual plant propagation widely used in agriculture and horticulture where the tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with those of another. Pictured here is the root-grafting of a dahlia.

Root-Grafting of Dahlia

Grafting is a method of asexual plant propagation widely used in agriculture and horticulture where…

"Evening Primrose: a, flower divested of calyx and corolla, to show the parts or fructification; b, tuberous root." — Chambers, 1881

Evening Primrose

"Evening Primrose: a, flower divested of calyx and corolla, to show the parts or fructification; b,…

"<em>A</em>, membrane of hair follicle, showing cells with nuclei and pigmentary granules; <em>B</em>, external lining of root sheath; <em>C</em>, internal lining of root sheath; <em>D</em>, cortical or fibrous portion of hairshaft; <em>E</em>, medullary portion (pith) of shaft; <em>F</em>, hair bulb, showing its development from cells." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Hair follicle

"A, membrane of hair follicle, showing cells with nuclei and pigmentary granules; B,…

A genus of hardy plants, Gentians belong to the order Gentianaceae. They have a bitter taste, and one species, G. lutea, is largely used as a bitter tonic in medicine. Gentians are not easy plants to establish in a garden, on account of their need of root moisture and their dislike of root disturbance. It is best to raise them from seed, although slow to germinate. The most commonly cultivated Gentian is the Alpine G. acaulis, with large, deep-blue flowers on a dwarfed plant.

Gentian

A genus of hardy plants, Gentians belong to the order Gentianaceae. They have a bitter taste, and one…

Geum urbanum is a member of the genus Geum, a genus of hardy plants (Rosaceae). Not usually used decoratively, their five-parted flowers being borne singly at the ends of much-branching stems. The leaves are generally odd-pinnate, often with small leaflets scattered among larger ones. The style is persistent in the fruit and is often plumose, as in the purple avens (G. ciliatum), which has violet flowers. The white avens (G. canadense) has a prickly receptacle, as has the G. flavum. Among the most common species are the yellow G. strictum and the G. vernum, both found in shady, damp places.

Geum Urbanum

Geum urbanum is a member of the genus Geum, a genus of hardy plants (Rosaceae). Not usually used decoratively,…

Ginger is the dried rhizome of the tropical plant Zingiber officinale. It is used in cookery, because of its aromatic volatile oil, and as a confection, either in syrup or 'crystallized' with sugar. In medicine, it is usually employed as a carminative, usually in the form of the tincture. It is grown principally in the East Indies (its original home), the West Indies, and tropical Africa.

Ginger

Ginger is the dried rhizome of the tropical plant Zingiber officinale. It is used in cookery, because…

Chinese Ginger or fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda): "Flowers of Kaempferia pandurata; 2. the inner row of the corolla seen in profile. 3. the anther, enclosing the apex of the style between its lobes; 4. the style and stigma, with two abortive stamens at the base; 5. a transverse section of the ovary." -Lindley, 1853

Chinese Ginger

Chinese Ginger or fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda): "Flowers of Kaempferia pandurata; 2. the inner…

"Branch and Root of Ginseng (Aralia ginseng)." -Whitney, 1911

Ginseng Branch and Root

"Branch and Root of Ginseng (Aralia ginseng)." -Whitney, 1911

A top-graft, completed.

Top-graft

A top-graft, completed.

A cion (smooth, one year old lenth of twig cut into a sex inch length) and root pictured, about to be grafted together.

Root grafting

A cion (smooth, one year old lenth of twig cut into a sex inch length) and root pictured, about to be…

Cion and root united during the grafting process.

Root grafting

Cion and root united during the grafting process.

The grafting process complete (reduced in size)

Roof grafting

The grafting process complete (reduced in size)

A perennial plant used as a condiment.

Horseradish

A perennial plant used as a condiment.

The goal of growing horseradish is to obtain roots as large as possible before they are old enough to become hard. Horseradish is an edible root. Horseradish is used for culinary purposes when scraped into fine shreds.

Horseradish

The goal of growing horseradish is to obtain roots as large as possible before they are old enough to…

A South American plant that is sought after for its roots.

Ipecac

A South American plant that is sought after for its roots.

"The root used in medicine under this name is obtained from Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, A. Rich, a small shrubby plant of the natural order Cinchonaceae. It is a native of Brazil, growing in clumps or patches in moist shady forests from 8 degrees to 22 degrees S. lat., and is believed to extend to the Bolivian province of Chiquitos, and the calley of Catica in New Granada." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Ipecacuanha Plant

"The root used in medicine under this name is obtained from Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, A. Rich, a small…

"Concave or Adherent Surface of the Nail. <em>A</em>, border of the root; <em>B</em>, whitish portion of semi-lunar shape; <em>C</em>, body of nail. The continuous line around border represents the free edge." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Surface of a nail

"Concave or Adherent Surface of the Nail. A, border of the root; B, whitish portion…

Nodules on the root system of a bean plant where nitrogen-fixing bacteria live.

Nodules, root

Nodules on the root system of a bean plant where nitrogen-fixing bacteria live.

Nodules on the root system of a hairy vetch.

Nodules, root

Nodules on the root system of a hairy vetch.

An apparatus, used to demonstrate how root-hairs are used to take in soil-water

Osmosis apparatus

An apparatus, used to demonstrate how root-hairs are used to take in soil-water

A large pea plant.

Alaska peas

A large pea plant.

"One half of the permanent set of teeth." &mdash; Ritchie, 1918

Half set of permanent teeth

"One half of the permanent set of teeth." — Ritchie, 1918

"This pruning or shortening of the roots causes the production of a new set of fibres from the severed ends. It also causes other roots to push out near the crown, and if a plant thus pruned be taken up in a few weeks after planting, its roots will appear somewhat as shown." &mdash;Fuller, 1910

Plant with roots pruned

"This pruning or shortening of the roots causes the production of a new set of fibres from the severed…

A potato.

Potato

A potato.

View of a radish, illustrating the root-hairs, which absorb most of the water the plant needs.

Radish

View of a radish, illustrating the root-hairs, which absorb most of the water the plant needs.

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant.

Root

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant.

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant.

Root

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant.

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a beet root.

Root

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a beet root.

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a turnip root.

Root

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a turnip root.

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a runner root which sends down roots into the ground. The strawberry spreads this way.

Root

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a runner root which sends down roots into…

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a bulbous root from an onion.

Root

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a bulbous root from an onion.

This shows a typical root cap and root hairs, (Keeler, 1915).

Root Cap

This shows a typical root cap and root hairs, (Keeler, 1915).

"These roots are such as subdivide in the earth in a manner similar to the divisions of the stem, and are found exhibited in the forest trees and shrubs."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Branching Root

"These roots are such as subdivide in the earth in a manner similar to the divisions of the stem, and…

"The bulb is a leaf-bud inclosed in scales or concentric layers, and is found either at the base of summit of the stem, or in the axils of the leaves; and differs in no respect from the buds hereafter to be described, but in separating itself from the parent, and forming an independent individual."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Bulb Root

"The bulb is a leaf-bud inclosed in scales or concentric layers, and is found either at the base of…

Roots of the carrot are designed to absorb moisture and matter from soil, and to hold nutrients for use.

Carrot Root

Roots of the carrot are designed to absorb moisture and matter from soil, and to hold nutrients for…

"The Cormus is that variety which increases beneath the earth by development of buds in the axils of the scales, but retains its globular figure, and propagates itself in no particular direction."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Cormus Root

"The Cormus is that variety which increases beneath the earth by development of buds in the axils of…

The Dahlia root is a perennial.

Dahlia Root

The Dahlia root is a perennial.

"When the fibers of roots become enlarged by the deposition of starch, they form this variety of root."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Fasciculated Root

"When the fibers of roots become enlarged by the deposition of starch, they form this variety of root."—Darby,…

"This variety consists of numerous fibers proceeding from the neck of the plant, and may be seen in most grasses and grains."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Fibrous Root

"This variety consists of numerous fibers proceeding from the neck of the plant, and may be seen in…

"Where the root tapers toward each extremity, as seen in the Radish."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Fusiform Root

"Where the root tapers toward each extremity, as seen in the Radish."—Darby, 1855

Root hairs of lettuce, with adherent soil grains.

Lettuce Root

Root hairs of lettuce, with adherent soil grains.