"The belly; that part of the body of a mammal which lies between the thorax and the pelvis; In <em>entomology</em>, the hind body, the posterior one of the three parts of a perfect insect, united with the thorax by a slender connecting portion, and containing the greater part of the digesting apparatus."-Wright, 1902

Abdomen

"The belly; that part of the body of a mammal which lies between the thorax and the pelvis; In entomology,…

The abdomen viscera after the removal of the jejunum and ileum. The transverse colon is much more regular than usual. Both the liver and caecum extend lower down than normal. The subdivisions of the abdominal cavity are indicated by dark lines.

Abdomen Laid Open After Removal of Jejunum and Ileum

The abdomen viscera after the removal of the jejunum and ileum. The transverse colon is much more regular…

Horizontal section through upper part of abdomen. Labels: a, liver; b, stomach; c, transverse colon; d, spleen; e, kidneys; f, pancreas; g, inferior vena cava; h, aorta with thoracic duct behind it.

Horizontal Section Through Abdomen

Horizontal section through upper part of abdomen. Labels: a, liver; b, stomach; c, transverse colon;…

Diagrammatic transverse section of abdomen, to show the peritoneum on transverse tracing. A, at level of foramen of Winslow. B, lower down. In A note, one of the vasa brevia arteris passing to the stomach between the layers of the gastrosplenic omentum, and also the foramen of Winslow leading into the lesser sac which lies behind the stomach.

Transverse Section of Abdomen

Diagrammatic transverse section of abdomen, to show the peritoneum on transverse tracing. A, at level…

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, stomach; 4, large intestine; 5, small intestine.

Abdominal Organs

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, stomach; 4, large intestine; 5, small…

Regions of the abdomen and their contents (edge of costal cartilages in dotted outline)."For convenience of description the abdomen may be artificially divided into nine regions by drawing two circular lines around the body parallel with the cartilages of the ninth ribs, and the highest point of the crests of the ilia; and two vertical lines from the cartilage of the eighth rib on each side to the center of Poupart's ligament. The vicar contained in these different regions are as follows: -- Right Hypochondriac - the right lobe of the liver and gall-bladder, hepatic flexure of the colon, and part of the right kidney. Right Lumbar - ascending colon, part of the right kidney, and some convolutions of the small intestines. Right Inguinal (Iliac) - the caecum, appendix caeci. Epigastric Region - the middle and pyloric end o the stomach, left lobe of the liver, the pancreas, the duodenum, part of the kidneys and the suprarenal capsules. Umbilical Region - the transverse colon, part of the great omentum and mesentery, transverse part of the duodenum, and some convolutions of the jejunum and ileum, and part of both kidneys. Hypogastric Region - convolutions of the small intestines, the bladder in children, and in adults if distended, and the uterus during pregnancy. Left Hypochondriac - the splenic end of the stomach, the spleen and extremity of the pancreas, the splenic flexure of the colon, and part of the left kidney. Left Lumbar - descending color, part of the omentum, part of the left kidney, and some convolutions of the small intestines. Left Inguinal (Iliac) - sigmoid flexure of the colon." &mdash; Kimber, 1907.

Regions of the Abdomen and their Contents

Regions of the abdomen and their contents (edge of costal cartilages in dotted outline). "For convenience…

"ailmentary canal of a honey bee. at, honey stomach; s, true stomach; nt, intestine; o, esophagus; sg, salivary glands; k, kidneys." &mdash;Davison, 1906

Ailmentary Canal

"ailmentary canal of a honey bee. at, honey stomach; s, true stomach; nt, intestine; o, esophagus; sg,…

"The digestive sac, tract, or tube of any animal; the visceral or intestinal cavity."-Whitney, 1902

Alimentary Canal

"The digestive sac, tract, or tube of any animal; the visceral or intestinal cavity."-Whitney, 1902

Diagram of the abdominal part of the alimentary canal (digestive system). Labels: C, the cardiac, and P, the pyloric end of the stomach; D, the duodenum; J, I, the convolutions of the small intestine; CC, the caecum with the vermiform appendix; AC, ascending, TC, transverse, and DC, descending colon; R, the rectum.

Alimentary Canal

Diagram of the abdominal part of the alimentary canal (digestive system). Labels: C, the cardiac, and…

Diagram of the abdominal part of the alimentary canal. Labels: C, the cardiac, and P, the pyloric end of the stomach, A; D, the duodenum; J, I, the convolutions of the small intestine; CC, the caecum with the vermiform appendix; AC, ascending, TC, transverse, and DC, descending colon; SF, sigmoid flexure; R, the rectum.

Alimentary Canal

Diagram of the abdominal part of the alimentary canal. Labels: C, the cardiac, and P, the pyloric end…

Labels: O, esophagus; S, stomach; SI, small intestine; LI, large intestine, Sp spleen; L, liver (raised up); G, gall bladder; Pa, pancreas.

General View of the Alimentary Canal

Labels: O, esophagus; S, stomach; SI, small intestine; LI, large intestine, Sp spleen; L, liver (raised…

"Sea anemone dissected; c, tentacles; d, mouth; e, stomach; white lines above k, the mesenteries." &mdash;Davison, 1906

Anemone

"Sea anemone dissected; c, tentacles; d, mouth; e, stomach; white lines above k, the mesenteries." —Davison,…

Arteries of the abdominal organs. Labels: 1, the liver; 2, the stomach; 3, upper gut; 4, pancreas; 6, great mesenteric artery; 7, gastric branch; 8, spleen; 9, pyloric branch; 10, pancreatic branch;    11, hepatic artery; 12, duodinal branch; 13, cystic artery; 14, branches to the stomach; 15, 16, spleenic arteries; 17, gastro-epiploic artery; 18, descending aorta; 19, great mesenteric artery.

Arteries of the Abdominal Organs

Arteries of the abdominal organs. Labels: 1, the liver; 2, the stomach; 3, upper gut; 4, pancreas; 6,…

Termination of the blood vessels in the mucous membrane of the stomach.

Blood Vessels in the Mucous Membrane of the Stomach

Termination of the blood vessels in the mucous membrane of the stomach.

Plan of the blood vessels of the stomach, as they would be seen in a vertical section. Labels: a, arteries, passing up from the vessels of submucous coat; b, capillaries branching between and around the tubes; c, superficial plexus of capillaries occupying the ridges of the mucous membrane; d, vein formed by the union of veins which, having collected the blood of the superficial capillary plexus, are seen passing down between the tubes.

Blood Vessels of the Stomach

Plan of the blood vessels of the stomach, as they would be seen in a vertical section. Labels: a, arteries,…

"Organs in the body cavity viewed from the front." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Organs of the body cavity

"Organs in the body cavity viewed from the front." —Davison, 1910

A diagram showing the separate abdominal and chest cavities.

Chest and Abdominal Cavity

A diagram showing the separate abdominal and chest cavities.

"In the stomach, intestines and elsewhere the epithelial cell is obling in profile and is called columnar epithelium." &mdash; Richardson, 1906

Columnar Epithelium

"In the stomach, intestines and elsewhere the epithelial cell is obling in profile and is called columnar…

The swelling under the throat is called the crop, or first stomach. It is largely developed in some of the granivorous or grain-eating birds.

Crop and Digestive Organs

The swelling under the throat is called the crop, or first stomach. It is largely developed in some…

"Diagram of a vertical section through a young Cunina rhododactyla, passing on the right side through a radiating pouch. b, tentaculocyst; c, circular canal; g, ovary; h, marginal cartilage and connecting process springing from a tentaculocyst (otoporpa); k, stomach; t, jelly of the disc; r, radiating canal or pouch; tt, tentacle (solid, cartilaginous); tw, tentacle root; v, velum." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cunina Rhododactyla

"Diagram of a vertical section through a young Cunina rhododactyla, passing on the right side through…

The digestive apparatus of the horse. Labels: a, mouth; 2, pharynx; 3, esophagus; 4, diaphragm; 5, spleen; 6, stomach (left sac); 7, duodenum; 8, liver (upper extremity); 9, great colon; 10, caecum; 11, small intestine; 12, floating colon; 13, rectum; 14, anus; 15, left kidney and ureter; 16, bladder; 17, urethra; a, hard palate; b, tongue; c, soft palate; d, trachea; e, pulmonary artery (divided); f, heart; g, posterior aorta.

Digestive Apparatus of the Horse

The digestive apparatus of the horse. Labels: a, mouth; 2, pharynx; 3, esophagus; 4, diaphragm; 5, spleen;…

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery; the stomach and liver have been turned up so as to expose the pancreas. Labels: V, stomach; D, D', D', duodenum; L, spleen P, pancreas; R, right kidney; T, jejunum; Vf, gallbladder; h, hepatic duct; c, cystic duct; ch, common bile-duct; 1, aorta, 2, an artery (left coronary) of the stomach; 3, hepatic artery; splenic artery; , superior mesenteric artery; 6, superior mesenteric vein; 7, splenic vein; Vp, portal vein.

Digestive Organs

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery;…

Stomach, liver, pancreas, and duodenum of a dog. Labels: a, liver; b, gall bladder; c, biliary canals; d, cystic duct; e, ductus choledocus; f, pancreas; g, pancreatic ducts.

Digestive Organs of a Dog

Stomach, liver, pancreas, and duodenum of a dog. Labels: a, liver; b, gall bladder; c, biliary canals;…

The relation of anterior abdominal digestive organs- left antero-lateral view. Labels: 1, liver; 2, stomach; 3, spleen; 4, colon; a, gastro-hepatic omentum; b, gastro-splenic omentum; c, great omentum; c', its free portion.

Digestive Organs of a Horse

The relation of anterior abdominal digestive organs- left antero-lateral view. Labels: 1, liver; 2,…

A diagram of the digestive system.

Digestive System

A diagram of the digestive system.

The stomach and intestines. Labels: 1, stomach; 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, large intestine; 3, small intestine; 4, entrance of small intestine into large one; 12, spleen.

Digestive System

The stomach and intestines. Labels: 1, stomach; 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, large intestine; 3, small intestine;…

Organs of the digestive system.

Organs of the Digestive System

Organs of the digestive system.

Diagram to show the course of the esophagus.

Course of the Esophagus

Diagram to show the course of the esophagus.

"The inner coat of the stomach has its surface honeycombed with millions of little pits. We have all seen this in tripe. In the floor of each of these tiny pits a number of tubes open. These are the openings of the <em>gastric glands</em>." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Gastric gland

"The inner coat of the stomach has its surface honeycombed with millions of little pits. We have all…

Deeper portion of gastric glands from fundus, showing two varieties of lining cells and secretion capillaries connecting parietal with lumen.

Gastric Gland from Fundus

Deeper portion of gastric glands from fundus, showing two varieties of lining cells and secretion capillaries…

A thin section through the gastric mucous membrane which lines the stomach, perpendicular to its surface, magnified about 25 diameters. a, a simple peptic gland; b, a compound peptic gland; c, a mucous gland.

Section through the Gastric Mucous Membrane

A thin section through the gastric mucous membrane which lines the stomach, perpendicular to its surface,…

An illustration of a girl laying on her stomach and reading a book.

Girl Laying on Stomach & Reading a Book

An illustration of a girl laying on her stomach and reading a book.

"a, head, antennae, &c; b, pharynx; c, crop; d, gizzard; e, chyle-forming stomach; f, biliary vessels; g, small intestine; h, secreting organs" &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Digestive Apparatus of an Insect

"a, head, antennae, &c; b, pharynx; c, crop; d, gizzard; e, chyle-forming stomach; f, biliary vessels;…

Two diagrams to illustrate the development of the intestinal canal. The figure to the right shows the rotation of the intestinal loop round the superior mesenteric artery. In both figures the parts are supposed to be viewed from the left side.

Development of the Intestinal Canal

Two diagrams to illustrate the development of the intestinal canal. The figure to the right shows the…

A portion of the stomach, showing its internal surface or mucous coat. Mucous membranes line various cavities of the body, which are exposed to the air.

Mucous Membrane

A portion of the stomach, showing its internal surface or mucous coat. Mucous membranes line various…

The mucous membrane of the stomach. The top image is natural size and shows the rugae and he mamillated surfaces. The bottom image is magnified 25 times and shows the gland mouths, with the gland tubes leading from some of them, and the ridges separating the mouths are seen.

Mucous Membrane of the Stomach

The mucous membrane of the stomach. The top image is natural size and shows the rugae and he mamillated…

The mucous membrane of the stomach. A, Natural size. B. Magnified. In A the rugae and the mammilated surface are shown. In B the gland mouths, with gland tubes leading off from some of them, and the ridges separating the mouths are seen.

Stomach Mucous Membrane

The mucous membrane of the stomach. A, Natural size. B. Magnified. In A the rugae and the mammilated…

"A muscle cell from the stomach." &mdash; Ritchie, 1918

Muscle cell

"A muscle cell from the stomach." — Ritchie, 1918

Superficial and deep muscles of the trunk. The sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, anterior portion of deltoid, the external oblique, aponeurosis of the internal oblique, tensor fasciae latae, sartorius, rectus femoris, iliopsoas, pectineus, adductor longus and the gracilis muscles of the left side have been cut away to expose the underlying muscles. Anterior View.

Anterior View of the Muscles of the Trunk

Superficial and deep muscles of the trunk. The sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, anterior portion…

"Compound stomach of ox. a, esophagus; b, rumen, or paunch; c, reticulum, or second stomach; d, omasum, or third stomach; e, abomasum, or fourth stomach; f, the duodenuin." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Ox Stomach

"Compound stomach of ox. a, esophagus; b, rumen, or paunch; c, reticulum, or second stomach; d, omasum,…

Diagram of the peritoneum, a serous membrane covering all the contents of the abdominal cavity. Labels: D, diaphragm; L, liver; S, stomach; C, transverse colon; D, transverse duodenum; P, pancreas; I, small intestines; R, rectum; B, bladder.

The Peritoneum

Diagram of the peritoneum, a serous membrane covering all the contents of the abdominal cavity. Labels:…

The lower part of the pharynx and the upper part of the esophagus have been slit up from behind, and the mucous membrane removed to show the muscular fibers. The two longitudinal bands are seen coming round to the front to be attached by a common tendon to the upper border of the cricoid cartilage.

Pharynx and Esophagus

The lower part of the pharynx and the upper part of the esophagus have been slit up from behind, and…

Diagram to show formation of pylorus. Labels: P, peritoneum; L, longitudinal layer of muscular fibers; C, circular layer; M, mucous membrane; V, villi. It will be seen that the pyloric narrowing is due practically entirely to a gradual thickening of the circular muscular fibers, which stops abruptly at the pyloric orifice.

Formation of Pylorus

Diagram to show formation of pylorus. Labels: P, peritoneum; L, longitudinal layer of muscular fibers;…

"Siphonal stomach and spiral valve of Basking-shark (Selache). a, esophagus; b, cardiac portion of stomach; c, pyloric portion; d, pouch intermediate between stomach and duodenum, with circular valves at both ends; e, duodenum; f, valve of intestine; g, ductus hepaticus; h, spleen." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Shark Stomach

"Siphonal stomach and spiral valve of Basking-shark (Selache). a, esophagus; b, cardiac portion of stomach;…

The four stomachs of the sheep, a grass-eating animal. The beginning of the intestines are also shown, which reach in their full length to 28 times the size of the sheep's body.

Sheep, Stomachs of

The four stomachs of the sheep, a grass-eating animal. The beginning of the intestines are also shown,…

"Anatomy of the Snail: a, the mouth; bb, foot; c, anus; dd, lung; e, stomach, covered above by the salivary glands; ff, intestine; g, liver; h, heart; i, aorta; j, gastric artery; l, hepatic artery; k, artery of the foot; mm, abdominal cavity, supplying the place of a cenous sinus; nn, irregular canal in communication with the abdominal cavaty, and carrying the blood to the lung; oo, vessel carrying the blood from the lung to the heart." &mdash; Chambers, 1881

Snail Anatomy

"Anatomy of the Snail: a, the mouth; bb, foot; c, anus; dd, lung; e, stomach, covered above by the salivary…

"<em>A</em>, cardiac end; <em>B</em>, pyloric end." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Stomach

"A, cardiac end; B, pyloric end." — Blaisedell, 1904

"The stomach is a half-gallon sac, with an outer wall of muscle lined within by mucous membrane, made largely of gastric glands of which there are more than a million. These glands, each consisting of a tube with several branches, give out daily three quarts of gastric juice to dissolve the lean meat and other like foods." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Stomach

"The stomach is a half-gallon sac, with an outer wall of muscle lined within by mucous membrane, made…

The stomach and intestines. 1: Stomach. 2: Duodenum. 3: Small intestine. 4: Termination of the ileum. 5: Coecum. 6: Vermiform appendix. 7: Ascending colon. 8: Transverse colon. 9: Descending colon. 10: Sigmoid flexure of the colon. 11: Rectum. 12: Spleen.

Stomach

The stomach and intestines. 1: Stomach. 2: Duodenum. 3: Small intestine. 4: Termination of the ileum.…

Section of the Stomach. 1: Cardiac orifice; 2: Folds of mucous membrane; 3: Muscular wall; 4: Pylorus; 5: Gall-bladder; 6: Duodenum; 7: Folds of mucous membrane; 8: Entrance of bile and pancreatic juice.

Stomach

Section of the Stomach. 1: Cardiac orifice; 2: Folds of mucous membrane; 3: Muscular wall; 4: Pylorus;…

The stomach. Labels: d, lower end of the gullet; a, position of the cardiac aperture; b, the fundus; c, the pylorus; e, the first part of the small intestine; along a,b,c, the great curvature; between the pylorus and d, the lesser curvature.

The Stomach

The stomach. Labels: d, lower end of the gullet; a, position of the cardiac aperture; b, the fundus;…

The human stomach. Labels: a, the esophagus or gullet; b, the cardiac portion; c, the left extremity; d, the small extremity; e, the pylorus tied; g,g, the omentum or caul, which is attached to the outside of the stomach, and falls over the intestines like a curtain.

Stomach

The human stomach. Labels: a, the esophagus or gullet; b, the cardiac portion; c, the left extremity;…

The digestive system. This figure represents the whole tract of the intestinal canal, not exactly in its natural position, but spread out so as to show the relative proportions; f, the esophagus; g, cardia; h, pylorus; i, i, the duodenum, about twelve fingers; breadth in length; k, hepatic duct; l, gall bladder; m, cystic duct; n, ductus communis, formed by the union of both; o, the opening of this duct into the duodenum; p, pancreatic duct; q, its opening into the duodenum; r, jejunum; s, ilium; these constitute the small intestines, and are about 26 feet in length, or five times the length of the body; t, termination of ilium in the coecum; , u, superior fold of valve of colon; v, inferior do. ; w, coecum; x, vermiform process; y, y, colon; z, rectum. The coecum, colon, and rectum, form the large intestines, and are about 6 feet in length; the coecum being about 4 inches long, and the same in diameter. The arrows show the direction which the food takes in digestion.

Stomach

The digestive system. This figure represents the whole tract of the intestinal canal, not exactly in…

The stomach showing the muscles which churn the food. Labels: E, where food enters; V, entrance into the intestine, D.

Stomach

The stomach showing the muscles which churn the food. Labels: E, where food enters; V, entrance into…

The stomach and intestines. Labels: 1, stomach; 2, duodenum; 3, small intestine; 4, termination of the ileum; 5, caecum; 6, vermiform appendix; 7, ascending colon; 8, transverse colon; 9, descending colon; 10, sigmoid flexure of the colon; 11, rectum; 12, spleen.

The Stomach and Intestines

The stomach and intestines. Labels: 1, stomach; 2, duodenum; 3, small intestine; 4, termination of the…

The Stomach and Liver. 1: Esophagus; 2: Cardiac entrance; 3: Large end of stomach; 4: Central portion; 5: Small end of stomach; 6: Pylorus; 7: Portion of Pancreas; 8: Duodenum; 9: Gall duct; 10: Hepatic artery; 11: Left lobe of liver; 12: Gall bladder; 13: Right lobe of liver.

Stomach and Liver

The Stomach and Liver. 1: Esophagus; 2: Cardiac entrance; 3: Large end of stomach; 4: Central portion;…

The stomach chamber and stomach bed shown after stomach has been removed.

Stomach Chamber

The stomach chamber and stomach bed shown after stomach has been removed.

The three layers of the muscular coat of the stomach. A, Outer or longitudinal layer. B, Middle or circular layer. C, Internal or oblique layer. Labels: a, longitudinal fibers of esophagus; b, superficial circular fibers of esophagus passing into circular fibers of stomach in B; c, deep circular fibers of esophagus passing into oblique fibers of stomach in C; d, oblique fibers forming rings at the fundus; e, submucosa.

Stomach Muscles

The three layers of the muscular coat of the stomach. A, Outer or longitudinal layer. B, Middle or circular…

Ruminants (those animals that chew the cud), as the sheep, have a stomach with four cavities. Labels: 1, esophagus; 2, rumen; 3, reticulum; 4, omasum; 5, abomasum or rennet; 6, intestine.

The Stomach of a Sheep

Ruminants (those animals that chew the cud), as the sheep, have a stomach with four cavities. Labels:…

Ruminants (those animals that chew the cud), as the ox, have a stomach with four cavities. Labels: 1, The esophagus. 2, The rumen (paunch). 3, The reticulum (honeycomb). 4, The omasum (many-plies). 5, The abomasum(rennet). 6, The intestine.

Stomach of an Ox

Ruminants (those animals that chew the cud), as the ox, have a stomach with four cavities. Labels: 1,…