"The air pump is an instrument for removing a gas from a closed vessel, the essential parts are shown." -Avery 1895

Air Pump

"The air pump is an instrument for removing a gas from a closed vessel, the essential parts are shown."…

"Crank M raises and lowers the two pistons C and D. The valves allow only for air to be removed from chamber J with a cutoff valve at K. The mercury filled barometer L measures the pressure in J." —Quackenbos 1859

Double Barrel Air Pump

"Crank M raises and lowers the two pistons C and D. The valves allow only for air to be removed from…

"A glass tube about 33 inches in length, open at one end, is completely filled with mercury, and being firmly closed by the thumb, is inverted and placed vertically in a cup containing mercury. When the thumb is removed, the mercury sinks in the tube till it stands, generally, about 30 inches above the level of the mercury in the cup, leaving in the upper part a space free of air, which receiveds the name of the Torricellian vacuum." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Barometer

"A glass tube about 33 inches in length, open at one end, is completely filled with mercury, and being…

"A cistern barometer, being that generally seen in weather-glasses or ordinary barometers. The tube is bent at the bottom, and the cistern is merely an expansion of the lower end. Very generally, the cistern is hidden from view, and protected from injury by a wooden cover in front." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Barometer

"A cistern barometer, being that generally seen in weather-glasses or ordinary barometers. The tube…

"Suppose a to be a long tube, with the piston b so nicely fitted to its inside, as to work air tight. If the lower end of the tube be dipped into water, and the piston drawn up by pulling at the handle c, the water will follow the piston so closely, as to be in contact with its surface, and apparently to be drawn up by the piston, as though the whole was one solid body. If the tube be thirty-five feet long, the water will continue to follow the piston, until it comes to the height of about thirty-three feet, where it will stop, and if the piston be drawn up still farther, the water will not follow it, but will remain stationary, the space from this height between the piston and the water, being left a void space or vacuum." —Comstock, 1850

Barometer

"Suppose a to be a long tube, with the piston b so nicely fitted to its inside, as to work air tight.…

"Measures atmospheric pressure. Pressure from the atmosphere compresses the mercury in the tray forcing the mercury accordingly into the graduated tube." —Quackenbos 1859

Barometer

"Measures atmospheric pressure. Pressure from the atmosphere compresses the mercury in the tray forcing…

"The degree to which the air has been exhausted from a closed vessel in which there is a partial vacuum is measured by the height to which a mercurial column in a vertical tube, whose top is connected to the vessel, will rise under the pressure of the atmosphere." —Hallock 1905

Barometer Measuring Pressure of a Partially Evacuated Vessel

"The degree to which the air has been exhausted from a closed vessel in which there is a partial vacuum…

A glass cylinder is open at the bottom, having a piece of bladder or thin indian-rubber tightly stretched over the top.

Burst Bladder

A glass cylinder is open at the bottom, having a piece of bladder or thin indian-rubber tightly stretched…

An electric vacuum cleaner.

Electric Vacuum Cleaner

An electric vacuum cleaner.

An electrical appliance that cleans surfaces by suction.

Vacuum Cleaner

An electrical appliance that cleans surfaces by suction.

A machine or substance used in cleaning.

Vacuum Cleaner

A machine or substance used in cleaning.

"Whenever liquid reaches the bottom of the short leg on the siphon inside the cup, the liquid is discharged out of the bottom of the siphon. Discharge continues until the liquid level drops below the short leg of the siphon." —Quackenbos 1859

Tantalus's Cup

"Whenever liquid reaches the bottom of the short leg on the siphon inside the cup, the liquid is discharged…

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water out of C. G is closed and cold water enters through I causing a vacuum drawing water up through F." —Quackenbos 1859

Savery's Engine

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water…

"In a vacuum, all bodies fall at the same rate." -Comstock 1850

Falling Bodies in a Vacuum

"In a vacuum, all bodies fall at the same rate." -Comstock 1850

"When a feather and a cent are dropped from the same height, the cent reaches jthe ground first. this is not because the cent is heavier, bu because the feather meets with more resistance from the air in proportion to its mass. If this resistance can be removed or equalized, the two bodies will fall equal distances in equal times, or with the same velocity. The resistance may be avoided by dropping them in a glass tube from which the air has been removed. The resistances may be nearly equalized by making the two falling bodies of the same size and shape bu of different weights, as in the preceding experiment." -Avery 1895

Velocities of Falling Bodies

"When a feather and a cent are dropped from the same height, the cent reaches jthe ground first. this…

"Remove the air from a high glass tube by means of an instrument called the air-pump... Then... drop a feather and a cent simultaneously, and they will reach the bottom at precisely the same instant. Let in the air and drop them, and the feather will be several seconds longer than the cent in reaching the bottom." —Quackenbos 1859

Two Objects Falling in a Vacuum

"Remove the air from a high glass tube by means of an instrument called the air-pump... Then... drop…

"A flask suited to having air contained inside pumped out." -Avery 1895

Florance Flask

"A flask suited to having air contained inside pumped out." -Avery 1895

This apparatus consists of a bell-shaped vessel of glass, the base of which is pierced by a tube fitted with a stop-cock which enables us to exhaust the vessel of air.

Fountain in Vacuo

This apparatus consists of a bell-shaped vessel of glass, the base of which is pierced by a tube fitted…

"Draw out a piece of glass tubing to a jet, and push it through a perforation in a cork that snugly fits a bottle. Slip a short piece of snugly fitting rubber tubing over the outer end of the glass tubing, and insert the cork so that the jet shall project into the bottle. Remove by suction as much air as possible, pinch the rubber tubing tightly, place it under water, and remove the pressure. Something will force the water into the bottle, forming the 'fountain in vacuo' as shown." -Avery 1895

Foutain in Vacuo

"Draw out a piece of glass tubing to a jet, and push it through a perforation in a cork that snugly…

A vacuum steam heating system from the late 19th century.

Heating System

A vacuum steam heating system from the late 19th century.

Two hemispheres which can be exactly fitted on each other; their exact adjustment is further assisted by a projecting internal rim, with is smeared with lard.

Magdeburg Hemisphere

Two hemispheres which can be exactly fitted on each other; their exact adjustment is further assisted…

"Grease the edges to make more sure of a tight joint, fit the hemispheres to each other, and exhaust the air with a pump. Close the stopcock, remove the hemispheres from the pump, attach the second handle, and, holding the hemispheres in different positions, try to pull them apart. When you are sure that the pressure that holds them together is exerted inall directions, place them under the receiver of the air pump, and exhaust the air from around them. The pressure seems to be removed, for the hemispheres fall apart of their own weight." -Avery 1895

Magdeburg Hemispheres

"Grease the edges to make more sure of a tight joint, fit the hemispheres to each other, and exhaust…

"When placed together after the air has been taken out, it will take two very strong men to pull apart." -Comstock 1850

Magdeburgh Hemispheres

"When placed together after the air has been taken out, it will take two very strong men to pull apart."…

"Liquid is pumped up through pipe A, through valve H. The airtight piston G allows the liquid to pass up into the spout F where it is discharged from the pump." —Quackenbos 1859

Lifting Pump

"Liquid is pumped up through pipe A, through valve H. The airtight piston G allows the liquid to pass…

"A siphon is used to draw off liquids from a higher elevation to a lower one. The siphon uses the vacuum created by the flowing liquid to continuously draw fresh liquid into the siphon." —Quackenbos 1859

The Siphon

"A siphon is used to draw off liquids from a higher elevation to a lower one. The siphon uses the vacuum…

"Over the upper end of a cylindrical receiver, tie tightly a wet bladder or sheet of writing paper and allow it to dry. Then exhaust the air. The bladder will be forced inward, bursting with a loud noise. Replace the bladder with a thin sheet of india-rubber. Exhaust the air. The rubber sheet will be pressed inward, and nearly cover the inner surface of the receiver." -Avery 1895

Vacuum

"Over the upper end of a cylindrical receiver, tie tightly a wet bladder or sheet of writing paper and…

"The vacuum-pan is in universal use in all European sugar-refineries, and in all well-provided sugar-plantations. It is generally made of copper, of a spherical form, and from six to nine feet in diameter. The bottom is double, leaving a space of an inch or two for the admission of steam between the two bottoms, and there is generally a long coiled copper pipe of three or four inches diameter above the inner bottom, so as to still further increase the amount of heating surface." — Chambers, 1881

Vacuum-pan

"The vacuum-pan is in universal use in all European sugar-refineries, and in all well-provided sugar-plantations.…