"Used to raise water with a continuous chain with evenly spaced circular plates. The plates exactly fit a hollow tube, G and H. When the wheels I, J are turned, they move the chain which carries water up the pipe into the collection reservoir." —Quackenbos 1859

Chain Pump

"Used to raise water with a continuous chain with evenly spaced circular plates. The plates exactly…

Children in a boat playing with swans.

Children and Swans

Children in a boat playing with swans.

A small overflow dam placed in concrete.

Cippoletti Weir Set in Concrete

A small overflow dam placed in concrete.

"Metallic cone and condenser to cool water from burning hydrogen." -Brownlee 1907

Condenser

"Metallic cone and condenser to cool water from burning hydrogen." -Brownlee 1907

Coots , are medium-sized water birds which are members of the rail family Rallidae. They constitute the genus Fulica. Coots have predominantly black plumage, and, unlike many of the rails, they are usually easy to see, often swimming in open water. They are close relatives of the moorhen. The greatest species variety is in South America, and it is likely that the genus originated there. They are common in Europe and North America.

Coot

Coots , are medium-sized water birds which are members of the rail family Rallidae. They constitute…

An example of cross water channel asymmetrically aligned.

Cross Water Channel

An example of cross water channel asymmetrically aligned.

"The refraction of water is beautifully proved by the following simple experiment. Place an empty cup, with a shilling on the bottom, in such a position that the side of the cup will just hide the piece of money from the eye. Then let another person fill the cup with water, keeping the eye in the same position as before. As the water is poured in, the shilling will be come visible, appearing to rise with the water. The effect of the water is to bend the ray of light coming from the shilling, so as to make it meet the eye below the point where it otherwise would. Thus the eye could not see the shilling in the direction of c, since the line, of vision is towards a, and c is hidden by the side of the cup. But the refraction of the water bends the way downwards, producing the same effect as though the object had been raised upwards, and hence it becomes visible." —Comstock, 1850

Cup and Shilling

"The refraction of water is beautifully proved by the following simple experiment. Place an empty cup,…

"The <em>crater</em> was a vessel in which the wine, according to the custom of the ancients, who very seldom drank it pure, was mixed with water, and from which the cups were filled. The liquid was conveyed from the crater into the drinking-cups by means of a <em>cyathus</em>, or small ladle." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Cyathus

"The crater was a vessel in which the wine, according to the custom of the ancients, who very…

This sign is used to indicate that a dam is located nearby.

Dam, Black and White

This sign is used to indicate that a dam is located nearby.

This sign is used to indicate that a dam is located nearby.

Dam, Color

This sign is used to indicate that a dam is located nearby.

This sign is used to indicate that a dam is located nearby.

Dam, Outline

This sign is used to indicate that a dam is located nearby.

This sign is used to indicate that a dam is located nearby.

Dam, Silhouette

This sign is used to indicate that a dam is located nearby.

An illustration of a simple dam; a dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates, levees, and dikes are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions.

Simple Dam

An illustration of a simple dam; a dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams…

"The water fleas just visible to the naked eye are present in nearly all waters and become very abundant in stagnant water." &mdash;Davison, 1906

Daphnia

"The water fleas just visible to the naked eye are present in nearly all waters and become very abundant…

"Harness hides are washed by some means in pure water, the most convenient and generally adopted method being to place them in the dash wheel, in which they revolve and tumble about whilst fresh water is continually being poured on them within the revolving wheel." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Dash Wheel

"Harness hides are washed by some means in pure water, the most convenient and generally adopted method…

The black dipper, also known as the European water-ousel, feeds on small shellfish and insects.

Black Dipper

The black dipper, also known as the European water-ousel, feeds on small shellfish and insects.

"Partly fill with strong brine a Florence glask the cork of which carries a delivery-tube and a thermometer. Pass the delivery-tube through a 'water jacket,' J, kept cool substantially as shown. Heat the liequid in the flask unitl it just boils, and taste the distilled water that collects in R." -Avery 1895

Distilation

"Partly fill with strong brine a Florence glask the cork of which carries a delivery-tube and a thermometer.…

In order to rid water of impurities, it is required to boil water, then condense the steam to make it fit for chemical use.

Distilling Apparatus

In order to rid water of impurities, it is required to boil water, then condense the steam to make it…

"From the reservoir, whether constructed on a large scale to hold storm water or of small size to receive the discharge from a pump, there must be provided suitable means of conducting the water to the land. The simplest, cheapest, and most widely used is the open earth ditch built in such a way as to have a gentle, uniform, grade sufficiently great for the water to flow with rapidity and yet not to wash the banks."&mdash;Government Printing Office, 1897

Section of Field and Lateral Ditch

"From the reservoir, whether constructed on a large scale to hold storm water or of small size to receive…

"It is desirable, however, on account of economy of expense and of water, that all ditches should be as nearly straight as possible, and to save distance it is sometimes necessary to build up the ditch upon a mound or, if the depression to be crossed it too great, to construct a flume."&mdash;Government Printing Office, 1897

Section of Raised Ditch

"It is desirable, however, on account of economy of expense and of water, that all ditches should be…

"The large iron vessel does not allow air to escape once it is lowered into a body of water for underwater work. The hose attached to the top allows for new air to enter the bell." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Diving Bell

"The large iron vessel does not allow air to escape once it is lowered into a body of water for underwater…

Rubber suit worn over a diver's body, doesn't include helmet.

Diving-dress

Rubber suit worn over a diver's body, doesn't include helmet.

A front view of a diving helmet. A, Helmet; B, Breastplate; F, Emergency cock; G, Glasses in frame; H, Metal screws and bands; I, Metal tabs; J, Hooks for keeping weight ropes into position; and L, Eyes to which air pipe and life line are secured.

Diving Helmet (Front)

A front view of a diving helmet. A, Helmet; B, Breastplate; F, Emergency cock; G, Glasses in frame;…

Dredging, the excavating or scooping out of soil, mud, sand or rock under water by a machine called a dredge. Dredging is used in deepening and widening the beds of rivers, canals, harbors. The forms of modern dredges are very numerous, different conditions requiring different forms.

Dredge

Dredging, the excavating or scooping out of soil, mud, sand or rock under water by a machine called…

An illustration of a duck floating on water.

Duck

An illustration of a duck floating on water.

Ducks swimming in the water.

Ducks

Ducks swimming in the water.

An egg dropped in fresh and salt water to show the properties of density.

Egg Plunged in Fresh and Salt Water

An egg dropped in fresh and salt water to show the properties of density.

"If the two wires from a battery be placed in pure water, it will be foud tat practically no current passes...If a small quantity of sulphuric acid is added to the water, the solution is a good conductor. During the passage of current, bubbles form at the ends of the wires: at the positive electrode (anode)...oxygen appear[s]; at the negative electrode (cathode) there is a rapid evolution of hydrogen." -Brownlee 1907

Electrolysis

"If the two wires from a battery be placed in pure water, it will be foud tat practically no current…

"An apparatus used for electrolysis of water." -Avery 1895

Electrolysis

"An apparatus used for electrolysis of water." -Avery 1895

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water out of C. G is closed and cold water enters through I causing a vacuum drawing water up through F." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Savery's Engine

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water…

Woven of grass, the nests of the genus Euplectes have an opening which faces down towards the water. This is believed to keep monkeys and other predators from attack the young.

Nests of the genus Euplectes

Woven of grass, the nests of the genus Euplectes have an opening which faces down towards the water.…

"In this mode of evaporating a variety of plans and arrangements for connivence are employed. The pans are made in the form of a shallow box, with a common sheet-iron, galvanized iron, or copper bottom, frequently with flaring sides or shores, on which the scum collects and remains until removed at the convenience of the operator. These pans are frequently made with partitions, which divide them into two or more compartments, into which the juice, as it becomes defecated and partly concentrated in one, is successively transferred to the next." -Commissioner, 1865

Intermittent evaporation process

"In this mode of evaporating a variety of plans and arrangements for connivence are employed. The pans…

The grandest falls in the world are those of the Niagara, 160 feet high. Though greatly inferior to many others in height, yet their volume of water is so great that they surpass all others in grandeur.

The Falls of Niagara

The grandest falls in the world are those of the Niagara, 160 feet high. Though greatly inferior to…

"A filter to strain out the germs at the house tap. Such a filter must be cleaned and boiled weekly." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Tap water filter

"A filter to strain out the germs at the house tap. Such a filter must be cleaned and boiled weekly."…

Fiords are valleys that were deeply eroded by slowly moving masses of ice called glaciers, subsequently partially submerged.

Fiords on Norway Coast

Fiords are valleys that were deeply eroded by slowly moving masses of ice called glaciers, subsequently…

The ordinary fire-engine is formed by the union of two forcing-pumps which play into a common reservoir, containing in its upper portion air compressed by the working of the engine.

Fire engine pump

The ordinary fire-engine is formed by the union of two forcing-pumps which play into a common reservoir,…

"The Flying fish, with wings expanded and elevated in the act of flight. This anomalous and interesting creature is adapted both for swimming and flying. The swimming-tail is consequently retained, and the pectoral fins, which act as wings, are enormously increased in size."&mdash;Pettigrew, 1874

Flying Fish

"The Flying fish, with wings expanded and elevated in the act of flight. This anomalous and interesting…

A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land, a deluge.

Flood

A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land, a deluge.

"The section of the flume is usually rectangular, but it may be of a V shape, and occasionally, as in California, it is semicircular, this latter form requiring least lumber, but necessitating the use of iron bands or brackets."&mdash;Government Printing Office, 1897

Combined Wood and Iron Flume

"The section of the flume is usually rectangular, but it may be of a V shape, and occasionally, as in…

The foot of a frog, which is useful in and out of water.

Frog Foot

The foot of a frog, which is useful in and out of water.

The foot of an otter, which is serviceable in and out of the water.

Otter Foot

The foot of an otter, which is serviceable in and out of the water.

"The force-pump differs from others in having its piston solid, or without a valve, and also in having a side pipe with a valve opening outwards, through which the water is forced to any height required, or against any pressure that may oppose it." -Marshall

Steam-engine Force Pump

"The force-pump differs from others in having its piston solid, or without a valve, and also in having…

"In the forcing-pump atmospheric pressure plays but a small part. There is no valve in the piston c, but the water raised through the suction-pipe a, and the valve g, is forced by each depression of the piston up through the pipe e e, which is furnished with a valve to prevent the return of the fluid." &mdash; Wells, 1857

Forcing-Pump

"In the forcing-pump atmospheric pressure plays but a small part. There is no valve in the piston c,…

The forcing pump consists of a pump-barrel dipping into water, and having at the bottom a valve opening upward.

Forcing-pump

The forcing pump consists of a pump-barrel dipping into water, and having at the bottom a valve opening…

A natural fountain of water springing out of a body of water.

Fountain

A natural fountain of water springing out of a body of water.

"Draw out a piece of glass tubing to a jet, and push it through a perforation in a cork that snugly fits a bottle. Slip a short piece of snugly fitting rubber tubing over the outer end of the glass tubing, and insert the cork so that the jet shall project into the bottle. Remove by suction as much air as possible, pinch the rubber tubing tightly, place it under water, and remove the pressure. Something will force the water into the bottle, forming the 'fountain in vacuo' as shown." -Avery 1895

Foutain in Vacuo

"Draw out a piece of glass tubing to a jet, and push it through a perforation in a cork that snugly…

A group of water-fowl at a bank, with a fountain and pond visible in the background.

Group of Water Fowl

A group of water-fowl at a bank, with a fountain and pond visible in the background.

"An apparatus setup for fractional distillation of water." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Apparatus Used for Fractional Distillation

"An apparatus setup for fractional distillation of water." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

As Gulliver rows in the miniature boat made for him by the Queen of Brobdingnag, a giant frog leaps in and almost overturns the boat.

Frog on board

As Gulliver rows in the miniature boat made for him by the Queen of Brobdingnag, a giant frog leaps…

A diagram showing the motions a young frog makes while swimming. In this stage of life, the frog makes ellipses in order to move through the water.

Ellipses of Swimming Frog

A diagram showing the motions a young frog makes while swimming. In this stage of life, the frog makes…

A diagram showing the motions a young frog makes whilst swimming. In this stage of the frog's life, the frog uses looping motions to move through the water.

Loops of Swimming Frog

A diagram showing the motions a young frog makes whilst swimming. In this stage of the frog's life,…

A diagram demonstrating the motion a frog makes whilst swimming. In this stage of the frog's life, the frog makes waved lines while moving through the water.

Swim Lines of Frog

A diagram demonstrating the motion a frog makes whilst swimming. In this stage of the frog's life, the…

"As the mummy of the dead was placed in a barge to be taken across the Lake of the Dead-for it was the manner of the Egyptians to bear the bodies about to be entombed across the water to the place of the sepulture-the members of the household, especially the women, were wont to follow in another barge, and with uplifted hands and unbound hair to cry out for the lost."&mdash;Ridpath, 1885

Funeral Procession Crossing the Lake of the Dead

"As the mummy of the dead was placed in a barge to be taken across the Lake of the Dead-for it was the…

"Showing Furrow Method of Irrigating Potatoes. The arrows indicate the direction taken by the capillary water."&mdash;The Federal Digest, 1921

Furrow Method

"Showing Furrow Method of Irrigating Potatoes. The arrows indicate the direction taken by the capillary…

A Galley is a low, flat-built vessel furnished with one deck.It was primarily employed by the Romans, Genoese, Pisans, and Venetians.

The Venetian galley was generally three-masted, and was usually around 160 feet long, 32 feet broad, and supplied with sixty-four oars, to each of which were chained six or seven slaves. Such galleys were equipped with powerful rams used for boarding and sinking enemy ships. Criminals in France and elsewhere were frequently condemned to serve at the oars in these craft. In modern speech, the term "galley" refers the common kitchen of a ship.

Galley (ship)

A Galley is a low, flat-built vessel furnished with one deck.It was primarily employed by the Romans,…

Also known as a Solan Goose (Sula bassana), the Gannet is a large marine bird which nests in scattered localities in most parts of the world. Its specific name refers to the fact that it has long been a denizen of Bass Rock -- a famous craggy islet on the coast of England. This bird also nests on Bird Rock in the gulf of St. Lawrence, and other species exist in the tropics. It belongs to the same sub-order as the cormorant, and may be recognized by the fact that, as in the latter, all four toes are united by a web. 

Its bill is long, strong, and compressed to a point. In adult life, the plumage is white, save for the black primaries and a buff patch on the head or neck; the young are dusky, and do not acquire the white plumage until their sixth year. Their nests contain only one egg.

Gannet

Also known as a Solan Goose (Sula bassana), the Gannet is a large marine bird which nests in scattered…

A gargoyle on the 13th century cathedral, La Sainte-Chapel in Paris, France, an example of Gothic architecture.

Gothic Gargoyle

A gargoyle on the 13th century cathedral, La Sainte-Chapel in Paris, France, an example of Gothic architecture.

"If it be required to separate the helium which is often found in the gases given off by a thermal spring, they are subjected to the action of charcoal cooled with liquid air. The result is the absoption of the less volatile constituents, i.e., all except hydrogen and helium. The gaseous residue, with the additon of oxygen is then sparked, and the water thus formed is removed together with the excess oxygen to leave only helium." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Apparatus Used to Seperate Volatile Gases

"If it be required to separate the helium which is often found in the gases given off by a thermal spring,…

An instrument used to measure the quantity of a rain which falls at a given place. They are which falls at a given place. They are variously constructed. A convenient form (shown in figure) consists of a cylindrical tube of copper, with a funnel at the top where the rain enters. Connected with the cylinder at the lowest part is a glass tube with an attached scale.

Rain Gauge

An instrument used to measure the quantity of a rain which falls at a given place. They are which falls…

Geirrod the giant's daughter pours a pitcher of water into a stream. Thor and Loki are wading through it until it starts becoming deeper. Thor throws a stone near her to scare her away.

Geirrod's Daughter Pouring Water

Geirrod the giant's daughter pours a pitcher of water into a stream. Thor and Loki are wading through…